Primary Health Care In A Global Context

Introduction to Sustainable Development Goal

There is little progress made against several diseases that leads to killing and illness. Life expectation has been improved, maternal and infant mortality rates have declined, and the prevalence of HIV and malaria has reduced to half. Good health is vital to sustainable development and the 2030 agenda that reflects the interconnections and complexity of the two (Sustainable Development Goals, 2020). The processes that have been taken into account are the rapid urbanization, social inequalities, continuation of the burden of HIV and other infections, economic inequalities, and other like non-communicable diseases (Williams & Hunt, 2017). Universal Health Coverage is an essential component of achieving sustainable development goal 3, by ending poverty and reducing inequalities in the country systems (Tangcharoensathien, Mills & Palu, 2015). Sustainable development goals explicitly do not involve the actions on global health priorities including antimicrobial resistance. In this essay, the Sustainable development goal Good Health and Wellbeing will be discussed focusing on the role of a nursing professional in achieving the goal, barriers, and evidence-based solutions.

Overview and Context of SDG Good Health and Wellbeing Epidemiological Data

The world has seen remarkable adjustments in the last few years. The Millennium Development Goals have revealed that developments could be produced in health and wellbeing consequences. Nevertheless, new challenges are seen in sustainable development goals. The shift has been seen in rural areas where half of the world is living in metropolitan regions (Akachi, Tarp & Kelley et al., 2016). Mental health is an emerging issue that needs to be improved throughout the life. The surveys and mental health conditions of a patient are observed with a high prevalence and incidence of infectious diseases and non-communicable diseases (Nilsson, Griggs & Visbeck, 2016). Universal Health Coverage is a powerful concept that works on maintaining social equality among all the policies of health. It is the greatest manifestation of impartiality. Universal Health Coverage holds societies together and helps in reducing tensions. This implies that people are more valuable, children are less absent from educational institutions, deprivation, and inequity declines, people are more balanced, and expansion is strong and repeated (Klopp & Petretta, 2017). According to the latest data, at least 400 million individuals do not have entry to fundamental healthcare services and around 40 percent are such people, who do not have societal security. More than 1.6 million people live in fragile settings where protracted crises happen, combined with a weak national capacity to deliver basic health services, present a significant challenge to good health (Klopp et al., 2017). By the end of 2017, 21.7 million people living with HIV infections receive antiretroviral therapy. It was also noted that more than 15 million people were still waiting for treatment. Air pollution is the major cause found for 7 million deaths every year in terms of fine particles (Klopp et al., 2017). Non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, and chronic respiratory disease are the cause of every 2 seconds death of people aged 30 to 70 years (Klopp et al., 2017).

Role of Nursing Professionals in Achieving the Goal

Nursing professionals are the healthcare experts who must join the task force to execute sustainable development goals to achieve the objective by 2030 (Klopp et al., 2017). Nursing professionals have the experience of welfare, cleanliness, and well-being and knowledge of sex and wellbeing related difficulties. Nursing professionals are aware of the facts and figures of communicable and non-communicable diseases, most susceptible and areas regarding the disease, infection, and untimely death (Webb, Holford & Hodge et al., 2017). Alcohol and tobacco consumption are related to the addictive drugs that cause harm to the health and well-being of an individual. Nursing professionals have to employ avoidance policies to foster encouraging bodily and psychological wellbeing and health, including sexual and procreative health as an early threat and risk decrease. These efforts have been made at the individual level but also at countrywide, associational, institutional, and global levels (Gupta & Vegelin, 2016). Nursing professionals have a greater role to play in advocating for individuals for health improvement. They are the leaders as well as policy administrators. Moreover, nursing professionals know the socio-financial aspects of health and well-being about the impacts of marketing and about policies to encourage health and well-being. Sustainable development goal 3 essentially needs the involvement of nursing professionals in delivering quality healthcare services that are patient-centered (Le Blanc, 2015). However, it needs well-performing motivated health workers. Nursing instruction systems are required to deliver a sufficient sum of nursing professionals to encounter health care requirements. Hence, the vital role of nursing professionals in providing to populace wellbeing has been gradually admitted and recognized by the authorities (Pradhan, Costa & Rybski et al., 2017). Nursing leaders have a role to play in the advancement of interprofessional cooperation and ensuring that is supported by appropriate policies, governance, delivery models, and environments. A robust example of interprofessional collaborative practices is long-term care services. The World Health Organization also emphasizes on adopting the knowledge of digital technology (Novillo-Ortiz, Fátima Marin & Saigí-Rubió, 2018). The new technologies require nursing professionals to be self-confident in their supplies for proper technical assistance. This needs active participation in the system and promotion of technology to transform the care paths of care and enhance patient care and value (Fukuda-Parr, 2016). Thus, it presents that nursing professionals play a part in a key role in attaining health exposure by expanding access to essential health services.

Barriers and Enablers to The Role of Nursing in Achieving the Goal, Including Personal and Professional Risks

This is incredibly real that nursing professionals are busy and do not get time to receive training as per requirement. Advancements in the role of nursing professionals do not support them to get involved in attending conferences so that time and cost are replaced with needs. However, education and support are the factors that lead to the achievement of the curriculum and the creation of public services. They experience concern at the time of employment with obtaining no capacity to cooperate with pay and continuing engagement. There is a dearth of strong career paths for nursing professionals in working to enable leadership and advanced clinical roles (Nugent, Bertram, Jan, et al., 2018). Depleting numbers of healthcare professionals along with burnout and fewer retention rates are the barriers to the role of nursing in healthcare. Moreover, differences in salary parity and recognition for education and training between nursing professionals in the acute area and main care. Education-related concerns are always a significant barrier to overcome in developing advanced roles. Thus, the scholarship program has been highlighted in supporting the education system for appropriate advanced nursing practice (Costanza, Daly & Fioramonti et al., 2016). When an appropriate education system will be there, then limited funding mechanisms will be required to backfill the positions available to support nursing professionals. Furthermore, there is a requirement for proper and casual mentoring as well as time for research activities and learning. Hence, these are the factors that affect environmental practices for the advancement of innovative training roles. The risks have been identified so that the system delivery could be improved by managing nursing roles. They affect both personal and professional delivery of roles in practice. The discrepancies also captured in other measures of social difference such as housing tenure, education, gender, ethnicity, geography, disability, and income (Hutton & Varughese, 2016).

Evidence-Based Solutions that The Nursing Profession Should Follow to Attain the Goal, Determinants of Health

The interventions like availability, affordability, accessibility, and acceptability are the measures for nursing practice. Training is needed for clinical nurses to achieve the best use of evidence-based practices in the healthcare system. The second one is effective communication to influence the social networks of adopting useful practices for the promotion of health. Education is the social determinant of health amongst many and hence, this is not sufficient to change practices but to continue by making some changes (Tangcharoensathien, Mills & Palu, 2015). Interactive education is a combination of reinforcing and practical strategies that has more positive effects on improving the systems. The introduction of new education and training strategies will follow the development of large national public sector policies in education, housing, water supply, health, social welfare, and sanitation. These national programs faced problems in achieving goals. This suggests that there is a need for understanding policy processes. Several ingredients such as problem recognition and definition, political will, formulation of solutions including transferability of service into appropriate strategies are needed to improve policymaking processes (Hutton et al., 2016).

Conclusion on Sustainable Development Goal

Hence, this essay presented the views on barriers, epidemiological data, enablers, roe, of nursing professionals, and social determinants of health in attaining sustainable development goal 3 that is good health and well-being. Universal Health Coverage is an essential component of achieving sustainable development goal 3, by ending poverty and reducing inequalities in the country systems. Sustainable development goals explicitly do not involve the actions on global health priorities including antimicrobial resistance. The Millennium Development Goals have revealed that developments could be made in wellbeing and fitness outcomes. However, new challenges are seen in sustainable development goals. Nursing professionals have to use deterrence tactics to foster encouraging bodily and psychological health and well-being, including sexual and procreative health as an initial warning and risk decrease. Nursing education programs are required to provide a sufficient amount of nursing professionals to meet healthcare needs. Hence, the important role of nursing professionals in contributing to population health has been increasingly acknowledged and recognized by the governments. This needs active participation in the system and promotion of technology to transform the care paths of care and recover patient safety and excellence. There is a need for understanding policy processes by problem recognition and definition, political will, formulation of solutions including transferability of service.

References for Sustainable Development Goal

Akachi, Y., Tarp, F., Kelley, E., Addison, T., & Kruk, M. E. (2016). Measuring quality-of-care in the context of sustainable development goal 3: A call for papers. Bulletin of the World Health Organization94(3), 160. https://dx.doi.org/10.2471%2FBLT.16.170605

Costanza, R., Daly, L., Fioramonti, L., Giovannini, E., Kubiszewski, I., Mortensen, L. F., ... & Wilkinson, R. (2016). Modeling and measuring sustainable wellbeing in connection with the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Ecological Economics130, 350-355. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2016.07.009

Fukuda-Parr, S. (2016). From the Millennium Development Goals to the Sustainable Development Goals: shifts in purpose, concept, and politics of global goal setting for development. Gender & Development24(1), 43-52. https://doi.org/10.1080/13552074.2016.1145895

Gupta, J., & Vegelin, C. (2016). Sustainable development goals and inclusive development. International environmental agreements: Politics, Law and Economics16(3), 433-448. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10784-016-9323-z

Hutton, G., & Varughese, M. (2016). The costs of meeting the 2030 sustainable development goal targets on drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene. The World Bank. https://doi.org/10.1596/K8543

Klopp, J. M., & Petretta, D. L. (2017). The urban sustainable development goal: Indicators, complexity, and the politics of measuring cities. Cities63, 92-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2016.12.019

Le Blanc, D. (2015). Towards integration at last? The sustainable development goals as a network of targets. Sustainable Development23(3), 176-187. https://doi.org/10.1002/sd.1582

Nilsson, M., Griggs, D., & Visbeck, M. (2016). Policy: Map the interactions between Sustainable Development Goals. Nature534(7607), 320-322. https://www.nature.com/news/policy-map-the-interactions-between-sustainable-development-goals-1.20075

Novillo-Ortiz, D., de Fátima Marin, H., & Saigí-Rubió, F. (2018). The role of digital health to support the achievement of sustainable development goals (SDGs). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2018.03.011

Nugent, R., Bertram, M. Y., Jan, S., Niessen, L. W., Sassi, F., Jamison, D. T., ... & Beaglehole, R. (2018). Investing in non-communicable disease prevention and management to advance the Sustainable Development Goals. The Lancet391(10134), 2029-2035. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30667-6

Pradhan, P., Costa, L., Rybski, D., Lucht, W., & Kropp, J. P. (2017). A systematic study of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) interactions. Earth's Future5(11), 1169-1179. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017EF000632

Sustainable Development goals (2020). UNDP. Available at: https://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/sustainable-development-goals.html

Tangcharoensathien, V., Mills, A., & Palu, T. (2015). Accelerating health equity: The key role of universal health coverage in the Sustainable Development Goals. BMC medicine13(1), 101. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12916-015-0342-3

Webb, S., Holford, J., Hodge, S., Milana, M., & Waller, R. (2017). Lifelong learning for quality education: Exploring the neglected aspect of sustainable development goal 4. International Journal of Lifelong Education. 36(5), 509-511 https://doi.org/10.1080/02601370.2017.1398489

Williams, C., & Hunt, P. (2017). Neglecting human rights: accountability, data, and Sustainable Development Goal 3. The International Journal of Human Rights21(8), 1114-1143. https://doi.org/10.1080/13642987.2017.1348706

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