Public Health Assessment

Introduction to COPD 

Growing concerns in terms of health among people is a major factor that demand proper health education and awareness (Ojo et al., 2017). COPD is a lung based condition in which the alveolar sac of the lungs are congested by excess of mucus secretion. Moreover, the disease is very common in people over 40 years of age. Development of a proper health promotion plan for the patients suffering from COPD or are at the risk of developing COPD in the future can significantly benefit the population. A health development plan works on a broad and positive health concept such as COPD followed by proper participation and involvement of the patients as well as the advocates. It require information about actions and competence in actions followed by a set perspective and equity in healthcare. This health promotion plan will revolve around the target group of people identified 40 years or above with the health issue of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It will firstly discuss the aims of the health promotion plan and then follow the primary, secondary and tertiary health promotion prevention management perspectives.

Health Promotion and Target Group Outline

It has been stated that COPD is a chronic condition that is most prevalent in people over the age of 40 years (Bhakta et al., 2019). This is because COPD develops with age due to prolonged exposure to risk factors such as cigarettes and environmental pollutants (Bhakta et al., 2019). The Aboriginal people of Australia are highly influenced by financial, social and environmental stress which makes them vulnerable to the disease. According to Sehga et al., (2019), people over 40 years of age are most likely to see their COPD symptoms for the first time. Although COPD can develop in young adults as well but it is very rare. COPD is a progressive disease and people over the age of 40 years are most vulnerable to the disease. A health promotion plan that is specifically designed for the target group of people aged 40 or over can significantly be helpful in improving the status of COPD in these patients.

It has been stated the COPD has an impact on over 200 million people worldwide and it can turn into the third leading cause of death worldwide (Belchi et al., 2018). Although the statistics have proved different prevalence of COPD in different age groups but the people aged 40 years or above are the most affected people in Australian Indigenous communities. Moreover, it has been stated that approximately 2 million people in the world remain undiagnosed with their COPD and get diagnosed after 50 years of age (Quaderi & Hurst, 2018). Early diagnosis of the health condition with proper management of the risk factors can control significant mortality. It is thus important to develop a health promotion plan that is specifically focused on the target group of people aged 40 or above on the basis of diagnosis, risk factors and treatment based awareness.

Health Promotion Aims

It is important for a health promotion plan to have desired goals and aims in order to provide best effective healthcare to the patients (Fertman & Allensworth, 2016). The Aims and goals of the health promotion plans are developed on the basis of SMART framework. According to Ogbeiwi (2018), SMART Framework sets up goals that are specific, measurable, achievable, and reasonable and time bound. Setting up goals and implementing strategies as per the goals can certainly improve patient outcomes and it can in deed result in greater health condition management in the target group of the target society (Ogbeiwi, 2018). The health promotion plan primarily aims to prevent COPD in patients over 40 years of age by reducing the risk factors to minimum in the society by smoking cessation within a time period of 3 months. Second aim of the plan will be to educate, aware and advocate for the people living in the Aboriginal communities with proper support and guidance trough exercise based campaigns. Ultimately, the final goal for the health promotion plan will be to enhance early diagnosis and manage patient symptoms at the earliest with 6 months of the implementation of the plan.

Health Promotion Prevention Management perspective (Primary, Secondary or Tertiary)

It is important for the health promotion plan to have desired primary, secondary and tertiary prevention strategies in order to enhance the effectivity of the plan (Ezeh et al., 2017). This health promotion plan is based upon primary health promotion prevention management perspective. The primary prevention interventions are aimed to prevent occurrence of the disease by preventing the risk factors, hazardous behaviour of the people, or alterations in the unhealthy and unsafe practices of the people that can lead to the prognosis of the disease (Liu et al., 2017). The primary interventions for the target group in Australian Aboriginal groups will be to prevent occurrence of COPD by minimizing cigarette smoking within 3 months of plan implementation. The Aboriginal people in Australia have been under tremendous stress and these individuals are more prone to smoking and sedentary life style (Rossow-Kimball, Lavis & Blackhurst, 2017). There unhealthy eating practices makes them vulnerable to conditions such as COPD and hence proper support with smoking cessation and exercise promotion can prevent them from developing COPD. Another primary intervention for the plan will be to promote active lifestyle through a number of free exercise and life style based campaigns. It has been seen that early diagnosis can prevent a number of health conditions so programs that advocate and support the target group in the society for early diagnosis of the condition can certainly be beneficial (Liu et al., 2017). The third strategy of the plan will thus be to enhance timely diagnosis for COPD.

Stakeholders and Community Consultation

Stakeholders are the people that are related directly or indirectly to the particular intervention or health management prevention plans. The health promotion prevention plan have a number of external stakeholders that play an important role in promotion and management of the strategies. According to Bowen et al., (2017), stakeholders of a program include people engaged in the operations such as the management program staff, funding agencies and the coalition partners. The stakeholders also include community members, advocacy groups and exercise and smoking cessation specialists. Followed by program partners and funding agencies for program evaluation and management. It is important for a health promotion program to have clearly identified stakeholders in order to attain greater health outcomes for the target group of the society (Ferguson et al., 2018). Moreover community consultation is one of the important strategy for successful implementation and functioning of the program. This can involve community engagement and interaction and it can help the management to identify and evaluate successful implementation and success of the program.

Health Logo

Health logo for the health promotion plan will be “Smoking cessation and active lifestyle for COPD”. It is important for a health management plan to have a particular health logo or functioning agenda in order to clearly represent the motives, aims and objectives of the program (Winter & Winter, 2018). A health logo is a simple representation of the ideas, beliefs and interventions that are followed in the particular program for the betterment of the people (Winter & Winter, 2018). The tag line or health logo of smoking cessation and active lifestyle represent the importance of smoking cessation in addition to active lifestyle and exercising in the lives. The Aboriginal people of Australia have a culturally sedentary and unhealthy life style. Moreover lack of healthcare access in addition to lack of advocacy and education lead to reduced health outcomes in the Aboriginal people over the age of 40 years. COPD impact normal living of a person and in deed it impact the social, environmental and psychological peace of the people living in a community. Clear, logical and identifiable health logos attract these people toward the health promotion plan and it thus brings up active participation. Active participation and involvement in the strategies ultimately lead to increased health outcomes in the people (Glegg, Ryce & Brownlee, 2019).

Health Promotion Activity Description

According to Hockenberry and Wilson (2018), there are basically three type of health promotion and management strategies in a health promotion plan. These strategies involve enabling, mediating and advocacy (Hockenberry & Wilson, 2018). The Aboriginal people in Australia have reduced access to healthcare services which lead to delayed diagnoses. Strategies that are designed to enable and promote greater access to the healthcare setting will be followed. This will include the involvement of support groups in the society which will educate and aware the people of the community about the risk factors and possible consequences of delayed diagnosis. It is important for a person to know the importance of time in healthcare as single minute can bring up severe impact on the life of the people. According to Campbell et al., (2018), a health promotion plan functions on the principles of action and action competence.

Activities that best suits the requirements of the target group must be followed in order to attain action competence. The program will start with smoking cessation. It will involve narcotic specialists in addition to awareness programs such as posters, webinars and seminars for the importance of smoking cessation. The people will be informed about the program by society gatherings and promotional events. Sponsorships for smoking cessation program can certainly increase the participation from the community. Next activity for the program will be the exercise campaigns. It has been noticed that the Aboriginal people, especially the people aged 40 or above are rigid toward non-aboriginal trainers and hence the program activities will involve some aboriginal trainers in the exercise campaigns (Campbell et al., 2018). Cultural competence is considered as one of the most important strategy in enhancing people participation in a health management program hence it will be followed.

Health Promotion Evaluation Proposal

It is important for a health promotion and management proposal to have innovative and appropriate strategies for better evaluation of the effectiveness of the programs (Burgess et al., 2017). Evaluation of the program goals will be based upon proper analysis of the improvements in the society. Increase in early diagnosis within the stipulated time frame, greater engagement of the people in exercise campaigns in addition to greater smoking cessation within 3 months of time can indicate effectiveness of the program. According to Norris (2016) both internal and external stakeholders of a program has an effective role in the program evaluation. The stakeholder’s participation can help the management identify proper implementation of the strategies. Proper implementation brings up positive results. The evaluation will be done by seeking feedback from the stakeholders and the community members. According to Norris (2016), feedback is a type of open communication measure that help a person speak positives and negatives about a particular strategy, intervention and program. Feedback evaluation from the community people and the stakeholders will thus be performed.

Conclusion on Public Health Promotion Project

In conclusion, it can be said that a health promotion plan is very effective strategy to enhance community outcomes in terms of a disease or prevention of a disease. The health prevention and management program was developed to benefit the Aboriginal people living in Australian communities who are aged 40 or above while being at the risk of COPD. The goals and aims of the plan were developed on the basis of SMART framework. These goals were based upon enhancing community participation in exercise campaigns, smoking cessation and early diagnosis of the condition. Early diagnosis can minimise a number of health outcomes and hence it can resolve COPD conditions in future. Awareness and education about the potential risk factors during the campaigns can help the people understand about the condition. Moreover, smoking cessation and greater physical activity management can prevent further cases. This approach of primary health proposal initiative can be evaluated by both internal and external stakeholder engagement. This can also include the feedback system in which cultural safety and cultural competence is followed effectively.

Reference for Public Health Promotion Project

Belchi, F., Pirashvili, M., Conway, J., Bennett, M., Djukanovic, R., & Brodzki, J. (2018). Lung topology characteristics in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 5341.

Bhakta, P., O'Brien, B., Karim, H. M. R., & Esquinas, A. (2019). Trial of Noninvasive Ventilation with Pressure or Adaptive Support in Acute Exacerbation of COPD by Sehgal IS et al: Further Considerations. COPD, 16(3-4), 303-304.

Bowen, D. J., Hyams, T., Goodman, M., West, K. M., Harris‐Wai, J., & Yu, J. H. (2017). Systematic review of quantitative measures of stakeholder engagement. Clinical and Translational Science, 10(5), 314

Burgess, E., Hassmén, P., Welvaert, M., & Pumpa, K. L. (2017). Behavioural treatment strategies improve adherence to lifestyle intervention programmes in adults with obesity: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Clinical Obesity, 7(2), 105-114.

Campbell, S., McCalman, J., Redman-MacLaren, M., Canuto, K., Vine, K., Sewter, J., & McDonald, M. (2018). Implementing the Baby One Program: a qualitative evaluation of family-centred child health promotion in remote Australian Aboriginal communities. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 18(1), 73.

Ezeh, A., Oyebode, O., Satterthwaite, D., Chen, Y. F., Ndugwa, R., Sartori, J., & Caiaffa, W. (2017). The history, geography, and sociology of slums and the health problems of people who live in slums. The lancet, 389(10068), 547-558.

Ferguson, L., Chan, S., Santelmann, M. V., & Tilt, B. (2018). Transdisciplinary research in water sustainability: What’s in it for an engaged researcher-stakeholder community?. Water Alternatives, 11(1), 1

Fertman, C. I., & Allensworth, D. D. (2016). Health promotion programs: from theory to practice. USA: John Wiley & Sons.

Glegg, S. M., Ryce, A., & Brownlee, K. (2019). A visual management tool for program planning, project management and evaluation in paediatric health care. Evaluation and Program Planning, 72, 16-23.

Hockenberry, M. J., & Wilson, D. (2018). Wong's nursing care of infants and children-E-book. USA: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Liu, N. H., Daumit, G. L., Dua, T., Aquila, R., Charlson, F., Cuijpers, P. & Gaebel, W. (2017). Excess mortality in persons with severe mental disorders: a multilevel intervention framework and priorities for clinical practice, policy and research agendas. World Psychiatry, 16(1), 30-40.

Norris, J. M. (2016). Language program evaluation. The Modern Language Journal, 100(S1), 169-189

Ojo, T. T., Hawley, N. L., Desai, M. M., Akiteng, A. R., Guwatudde, D., & Schwartz, J. I. (2017). Exploring knowledge and attitudes toward non-communicable diseases among village health teams in Eastern Uganda: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 17(1), 947.

Quaderi, S. A., & Hurst, J. R. (2018). The unmet global burden of COPD. Global health, epidemiology and Genomics, 3 Ogbeiwi, O. (2018). General concepts of goals and goal-setting in healthcare: A narrative review. Journal of Management & Organization, 1-18.

Rossow-Kimball, B., Lavis, M., & Blackhurst, M. (2017). 'I can find my own Elder!'Cultural engagement as serious leisure for Aboriginal adults living in non-Aboriginal group homes. Leisure Studies, 36(2), 244-255

Sehgal, I. S., Agarwal, R., Dhooria, S., Prasad, K. T., Kalpakam, H., & Aggarwal, A. N. (2019). Adaptive Support Ventilation During Non-Invasive Ventilation in Acute Exacerbation of COPD: In Statu Nascendi. COPD, 16(3-4), 305-305.

Winter, S. F., & winter, S. F. (2018). Human dignity as leading principle in public health ethics: a multi-case analysis of 21st century German health policy decisions. International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 7(3), 210.

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