Determinants of Health

Introduction to Determinants of Health

Australia is one of the very few nations to seek to reduce the transmission of the infection by imposing limits at its borders. Thus far, the spread of the coronavirus pandemic in Australia, its effects on citizens, as well as the economy and policy approaches to these effects have been strong. The effects of these interventions on post-pandemic restoration, as the nation's reaction to the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) disease outbreak has been one of the most productive in the world at the time (Nicola et al., 2020). The early social distancing steps taken by Australia, relatively high test levels per capita, political stability, national prosperity, and regional isolation are among the explanatory factors (Fisher et al., 2020). This essay outlines Australia's socio-economic approaches to the outbreak and demonstrates what it all entails, particularly for women and marginalized groups, and thus for inequality, which has been intensified by the disease outbreak and which could become more evident, as discussions on routes to social and economic regeneration are already polarizing in certain aspects.

Australia’s Pandemic Management

Australian government is manging all the strategies in coronavirus pandemic. As of April 2020, the country has 6,522 coronavirus cases and 66 deaths have been reported. These statistics could be viewed positively in the bigger epidemics scheme for a nation of 25 million inhabitants, with a globalized world economy, a highly urbanized demographic, and a large tourism industry. While any death would be a loss, Australia has managed to minimize the effects of the disease (The Diplomat, 2020). The most significant factor which has helped Australia to limit the spread of the coronavirus. The nation is blessed with a good geographic position, that has allowed it to enclose off from the entire world and help avoid the new sources which could lead to the entry of viruses. This step made it much easier for Australia to focus less on the alternative sources of the infection and to concentrate its efforts on preventing the spread of disease linked to cases already reported in the country. Yet another factor in Australia's approach could also be significant, that of community trust: both confidence in Australian governments' competence, and trust amongst individuals in Australian society (The Diplomat, 2020). Given the recent political situation of the country — with its constant system of obstacles to leadership of the party — Australia has remarkable stability inside its civilized society. This comprises substantial levels of public cooperation between its incredibly diverse group of people even though media developments of racist behavior toward Asian-Australians had also sadly been reported due to certain people's extreme ignorance.

In particular, however, Australia has a collaborative public spirit, although the continent has not yet been resistant to the deterioration of people's confidence which has hit many European nations in recent times. In 'flattening the curve' Australia was highly successful. Now that the total number of cases of infection in Australia seems to be decreasing every day (The conversation, 2020). States and the federal government are largely responsible for public health, health care settings, and other social services including the enforcement of lockdowns and limits on spatial distance (Government of Australia, 2020). A pivotal moment was Australia's strategy on March 20 to shutdown its boundaries to all foreigners, to "align international restrictions on travel on the risks." At the crisis height, the vast majority of new cases are relevant to international travel, and international sources accounted for almost two-thirds of Australia's overall illnesses. Rapid implementation of spatial distancing initiatives in Australia raising the risk of transmission to the population. The enforcement of Australians is shown by the limited number of collective broadcasts, despite having rather rigorous lockout laws than certain other countries like New Zealand and France (Government of Australia, 2020).

Age and Sex Determinants of Infections

 The coronavirus affects women overwhelmingly. A growing number of females all over the country have been on the forefront lines as the battle against COVID-19 progresses. Several of them have been required to work long shifts while balancing home commitments such as the care of children. The age range most described in Australian statistical data for verified Covid-19 case scenarios are individuals in their twenties since they're the people most likely to travel or party with travelers returned. According to data from the Federal Health Department, 11.3 percent of cases of infection recorded in Australia were of people aged between 25 to 29, 9.5 percent among those aged 60 to 65, and 9.3 percent among those women between ages 20 to 25. Individuals aged 80 and over accounted for only 2.7% of infection cases, but 47% of Covid-19 deaths (The guardian, 2020).

Women make up a significant proportion of healthcare professionals, and are at the forefront of the COVID-19 battle. Large school closures have impacted women in particular as they also carry most of the liability for parenting. Women are now doing 3 times much as unpaid household jobs as men – and it adds to the stress of looking for members with the infection (Burke, 2020). In Australia, women make up 79.9 percent of all those required to work in the social and health guidance areas. That being said, it seems that females too are much less likely to suffer from the infection than males. Health experts aren't sure why, though studies suggest that gender-specific immunity plays a role. So, it is not just that assumption that, throughout coronavirus, more females than men put their safety on the line. Women are particularly prone to COVID-19 because of their income inequality, their under-representation in some economic sectors, their caring obligations, and the emasculation of the education and health sectors.

In short, both physical and financial wellbeing for females is on the target more than that of males (World economic forum, 2020). COVID-19 raises the risk of serious illness in the elderly as opposed to young people. For example, individuals in their 50s, unlike individuals in their 40s, are at higher risk for serious illness. Besides, people in their 60s or 70s are usually at higher risk of serious disease compared to people in their 50s. COVID-19 presents the greatest risk of serious illness for those aged 85 or older. There are several other causes which can raise an incidence of serious disease, such as existing health conditions. By knowing the factors that place aged people at an elevated risk, the individual can determine what another kind of measures to undertake in everyday life.

Reflection on The Impact of The Determinants of Health

COVID-19 is the latest illness that affects men and women differently. And though the virus infects more people on average, global statistics indicate up to twice as many people are dying. Data from nations with gender-specific statistics indicate that 63.53% of casualties in China have been men before June, 57.13% in England, 58.25% in Italy, and 55.88% in Australia (Tsirtsakis, 2020).
Until 18 June, statistics in Australia indicate that the infection was most frequently reported among women between the ages 20–29. The explanation for this is the more women working in health care professions. Females now make up 70 percent of all staff globally in the health care sector and other social services. This means they are more prone to get infected by COVID 19, so they have a greater responsibility. Women's exposure is often further exacerbated by the lack of accessibility to adequately qualified equipments like personal protective equipment ( PPE).

For example, the PPE, often supplied, was built on a male model (Neves et al., 2011). Too many equipments and so on aren't made for women's bodies and that alone puts further women in danger. On one of the most fundamental levels, it just seems troubling that we have not yet taken into account the gap between male and female and the greater exposure that could lead to down the line. A specific aspect of this includes frontline health workers in Australia, to better understand their experiences. With a gender-specific overview of interactions, investigators sought to achieve information into stress levels, depression, and anxiety. Another gendered aspect of the disease outbreak the plan aims to investigate and tackle is the higher number of female family abuse (Peterman et al., 2020). The government is required to make mandatory programs during the disease outbreak on frontline domestic abuse services, as well as potential and regulatory responses.

Conclusion on Determinants of Health

The spread of the Australian coronavirus pandemic, its effects on people, as well as the economic and policy responses to these effects have been significant. The effects of these measures on post-pandemic reconstruction, since the nation's response to the 2019 coronavirus global pandemic (COVID-19) was one of the most successful in the world at the moment. This requires a large degree of public collaboration within her extremely diverse range of individuals. Women are especially vulnerable to COVID-19 due to their income disparities, their misrepresentation in certain industries, their care roles, and the emasculation of the education and health sectors. It also seems very alarming on one of the most basic levels that we have not yet taken into account the difference between male and female and the greater visibility it might lead to down the road.

References for Determinants of Health

Burke, K. (2020). Coronavirus Australia: Why women will feel the impact more than men. Retrieved from https://7news.com.au/lifestyle/health-wellbeing/coronavirus-australia-why-women-will-feel-the-impact-more-than-men-c-748823

CDC. (2020). Older Adults. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/older-adults.html

Fisher, O. M., Brown, K. G., Coker, D. J., McBride, K. E., Steffens, D., Koh, C. E., & Sandroussi, C. (2020). Distributive justice during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Australia. ANZ Journal of Surgery.

Government of Australia. (2020). Coronavirus (COVID-19) restrictions. Retrieved from https://www.health.gov.au/news/health-alerts/novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov-health-alert/coronavirus-covid-19-restrictions

Government of Australia. (2020). Limits on public gatherings for coronavirus (COVID-19). Retrieved from https://www.health.gov.au/news/health-alerts/novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov-health-alert/how-to-protect-yourself-and-others-from-coronavirus-covid-19/limits-on-public-gatherings-for-coronavirus-covid-19

Neves, H. C. C., Medeiros, M., Munari, D. B., Ribeiro, L. C. M., & Tipple, A. F. V. (2011). Safety of nursing staff and determinants of adherence to personal protective equipment. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem19(2), 354-361.

Nicola, M., Alsafi, Z., Sohrabi, C., Kerwan, A., Al-Jabir, A., Iosifidis, C., ... & Agha, R. (2020). The socio-economic implications of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19): A review. International Journal of Surgery (London, England)78, 185.

Peterman, A., Potts, A., O’Donnell, M., Thompson, K., Shah, N., Oertelt-Prigione, S., & van Gelder, N. (2020). Pandemics and violence against women and children. Center for Global Development working paper528.

The conversation. (2020).4 ways Australia’s coronavirus response was a triumph, and 4 ways it fell short. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/4-ways-australias-coronavirus-response-was-a-triumph-and-4-ways-it-fell-short-139845

The Diplomat. (2020). How well has Australia managed COVID-19? Retrieved from https://thediplomat.com/2020/04/how-well-has-australia-managed-covid-19/

The guardian. (2020). Australians in their 20s have more confirmed cases of coronavirus than any other age group. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/31/australians-in-their-20s-have-more-confirmed-cases-of-coronavirus-than-any-other-age-group

 Tsirtsakis, A. (2020). ‘Remains a mystery’: Examining gender’s impact on COVID-19. Retrieved from https://www1.racgp.org.au/newsgp/clinical/it-still-remains-a-mystery-examining-gender-s-impa

World economic forum. (2020). The coronavirus fallout may be worse for women than men. Here's why. Retrieved from https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/03/the-coronavirus-fallout-may-be-worse-for-women-than-men-heres-why/

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