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Determinants of Health

Introduction

People and Culture

Background

Impact on health

References

‌2.Demographics

Background

Impact on health

References

3.Culture and religion

Impact on health

References

‌4. Environment and accessibility

Physical environment

Impact on health

References

‌5.Recreation

Impact on health

References

6.Transportation

Impact on health

References

‌7.Socioeconomic status

Impact on health

References

8.Education

Impact on health

References

9.Interaction/ Isolation

Impact on health

References

10.Health and social services

Impact on health

References

‌11.Safety

Impact on health

References

‌12.Government policies

Impact on health

References

13.Recommendation of health plan 2021

Mental health

Coronary and kidney diseases

Substance abuse and Alcohol

Conclusion

References

Introduction to Essendon Community Profile Report

Health community plans play an important role in creating and advocating to bring changes in the respective community. The changes help in bringing betterment in their health and lifestyle. The steps that are taken will help in identifying health issues and will provide ways to eradicate them. The current intervention aims to analyze the Essendon community for developing a health program plan for them.

1. People and Culture

Background

Essendon City was established on 10th January 1890. It was earlier a borough. The city is named after a village in England. A native of the village came and settled in here and named it Essendon in the 1850s. In the west, Essendon is bounded by Hoffmans Road, Keilor road in the north, and Moonee Ponds in the east. There are tram and bus services available from Essendon to many other stations such as Glass street and Rose street. The city is surrounded by Maribyrnong River Trail that is a great place for cycling and can be used for recreational fun.

As far as the population of Essendon is concerned, it is a small suburb city with a population of 20,596 people according to census 2016 (Jessup, 2017). 70.2 %of the population are born in Australia, other common countries of birth are India 4.0%, Italy 2.5%, England 1.7% and a few more. The English speaking people at home come up to 70.8%. Other languages such as Greek 2.6%, Mandarin with 1.6%, Hindi with 1.35, and a few more are spoken at home. The most common religion is Catholic with 38.9%.

Essendon mainly has Australian, Indian, and Aboriginal populations. The aboriginals living here are originally from the Wurundjeri tribe. It is the infrastructure and their way of living that has kept the community still alive. The crocodile hunter Steve Irwin was also a native of these suburbs. The suburb has a football team as well which has won 16 matches in VFL.

Impact on health

Maximum numbers of the natives are Australian and the health impacts include coronary heart diseases, cancer, and mental illness. Judging the health factors of the Aboriginal in Essendon, the risk is quite a lot higher among the aboriginals who are native there. The issues that have been on the rise are drug and alcohol-related issues. There has been a rise in diabetes 2 patients among the aboriginals. The rising percentage is injuries and mental disorders in young aboriginals is about 17 %. According to Hendrickx et al., the main noncommunicable diseases that provide into the diseases are chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes 2, and heart diseases( Hendrickx et al., 2018).

References

Hendrickx, D., Bowen, A. C., Marsh, J. A., Carapetis, J. R., & Walker, R. (2018). Ascertaining infectious disease burden through primary care clinic attendance among young Aboriginal children living in four remote communities in Western Australia. PLOS ONE, 13(9), e0203684. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203684

‌2.Demographics

Background

Age group

% of population

Population in numbers

0- 10 years

11.4%

7637

11- 20

20.7%

7061

21-30

17.1%

16455

Above 30

43.3%+

23778+

(Source created by author)

Marital status

% of population

Number

Single

41.4

23102

Married

44.4

24818

Widowed

4.4

2449

(Source created by author)

The above information is the demographics of the Essendon region.

Impact on health

The Essendon community mainly comprises youth and middle-aged people. This indicates that a large number of the population is likely to face less health risk. However, there are margins of people who are elderly and aged and they face coronary issues and strokes. The problem of obesity and its impact on life expectancy is also evaluated and is somehow related to not only adults but also the elderly(Lung et al., 2018). Further, there was data showing widowed and single as well who are at a risk of facing mental health issues. Substance abuse is also a problem that has been arising for a few years.

References

Lung, T., Jan, S., Tan, E. J., Killedar, A., & Hayes, A. (2018). Impact of overweight, obesity, and severe obesity on the life expectancy of Australian adults. International Journal of Obesity, 43(4), 782–789. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41366-018-0210-2

3.Culture and Religion

Essendon has a mixed population of Australians, Indigenous, and Indian communities. AS stated by the indigenous population at present comprise 0.4% of the total population. The LGA data states that religion is majorly catholic descent. The most common of the religions in Essendon are Catholic with 32.5%. It has churches as well such as International Baptist churches. It does have a mosque as well known as The Glenroy Sunnah Mosque. The people who adhered to no religion came out to be as 30.5 %, Anglican comprise 5.7% and data of Eastern Orthodox found to be as 4.1%. In Essendon people who only spoke English at home are 66.7%. The other languages that were spoken were Italian with 4.5%, Greek 2.4%, Mandarin 2.1%, Vietnamese 2.0%, and Arabic 1.5%.

Impact on health

The diversity in religion and culture has a probably large effect on the people living in an area. The Essendon suburbs have low religious diversity. It can be seen that the majority follow catholic beliefs. The low diversity hinders the path of innovation. The diversity in culture helps in organizing and understanding the diverse needs of the population(Ezzy et al., 2020). Therefore, it can be said that less diversity does not step for innovative health developments.

References

Ezzy, D., Bouma, G., Barton, G., Halafoff, A., Banham, R., Jackson, R., & Beaman, L. (2020). Religious Diversity in Australia: Rethinking Social Cohesion. Religions, 11(2), 92. Retrieved from:https://doi.org/10.3390/rel11020092

‌4. Environment and Accessibility

Physical environment

Essendon has short and warm summers and long and cold winters. The winters generally are characterized by windy days. It is a part of Moonee valley where the issues of the flood have been experienced. The government has been taking initiative for controlling the floods and making the lives better for the people living there. The sudden increase in temperature due to greenhouse gases have generated the chances of a bush fire, floods, and other calamities(Sindel, 2014).

Impact on health

A severe increase in floods and heat waves impact wildlife. The increase in heat waves causes forest fires damaging the flora and fauna. An increase in air pollution puts pressure on health services as well. Issues of respiratory problems arise. The varieties of allergies can occur due to pollen and air pollution creating the illness. Taking Actions on saving the power and planting trees can help deal with pollution and the government must take care that policies should be applied to save power use.

References

Sindel, T. (2014). Moonee Valley Library and Learning. The Australian Library Journal, 63(2), 144–153. https://doi.org/10.1080/00049670.2014.898237

‌5.Recreation

Essendon is famous for the football team and the team has won about 16 AFL matches. Essendon has a cycling trail along with the suburbs near the Maribyrnong River which provides recreation for the cyclist. It has gyms and workout centers where the public can have time for their health. It does have a lot of community centers for the elderly and the adults where they can take part in different contests. There are racecourses for those interested in derby. The kids are injected with the football spirit. Essendon is already popular for football and people do have access to other sports as well.

Impact on health

The various sporting and recreational activities allow flourishing positivity among the people. Moreover, the government pays important attention to the development of community centers that are meant for the recreation of the adults and elderly. The city itself is an ambassador of Football. Full stress is given on the development of the spirits and the players. All communities are engaged in the recreation initiatives which helps in bringing happiness and positivity enabling good mental health. Recreation helps in attaining good mental health and getting good standards in a spiritual way(Gilbert et al., 2018).

References

Gilbert, H., Whitzman, C., Pieters, J., & Allan, A. (2018). Children’s everyday freedoms: Local government policies on children and sustainable mobility in two Australian states. Journal of Transport Geography, 71, 116–129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2018.07.007

6.Transportation

Essendon has both a public and private transport system. There are tram services available in Essendon. There are 59 tram services connecting the city to the other parts of the city. Bus services are also available that connect the Moore valley to the several routes to Essendon railway stations. The city has its airport as well. It is Australia's second and Melbourne's first international airport. On analyzing the Essendon’s car ownership shows that the majority of households ( 35.6%).The most common mode of traveling is by car and it is about 50.8% of the population. Cycling and walking are adopted a lot by the population(Duric & Duric, 2015).

Impact on health

The number of car owners in the suburbs uses their personal transportation. It becomes safer for them to travel. But personal transportation puts pressure on the environment. It increases the chances of pollution. A lot of people in the area prefer cycling which is a good healthy option. Still many of them prefer traveling in public transport. It causes congestion on traffic creating jams.

References

Duric, M., & Duric, D. (2015). Rethinking Public Transport Accessibility: A Scenario for Decentralized Melbourne. Retrieved from https://apo.org.au/sites/default/files/resource-files/2015-12/apo-nid63236.pdf

‌7.Socioeconomic Status

The rate of employment in Essendon is stated to have approx 94% the full-time employment data is 59.4% and the part-time employment figures come up to 30.2%. There is a percentage of 4.3%. Among them, there is 6 % of the population which is unemployed. A total of 36776 people are in the labor force. The main occupations in Essendon Professionals, managers, Clerical works, Community, and Personal Service. Some other occupations followed working in cafes and restaurants, hospitals, and banks. The weekly median income for people above 16 years is $817(Isaac et al., 2018).

Impact on health

The high rate of employment in the region indicates that there is stability and the people lead a standard life and are able to avail of the basic amenities of daily life. As stated by Isaacs et al., in his journal that there are some sections of people living in communities who are devoid of jobs. It can lead to bad health and low quality of life. Low employment rates can put major issues in the normal running of life. The low income perishes the chances of education and nutritional food.

References

Isaacs, A. N., Enticott, J., Meadows, G., & Inder, B. (2018). Lower Income Levels in Australia Are Strongly Associated With Elevated Psychological Distress: Implications for Healthcare and Other Policy Areas. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9. Retrieved from:https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00536

8.Education

Essendon has a lot of options in school choices. It comprises both private and government schools. There are colleges as well. The suburbs also have education and job training institutions that help in attaining the degrees. There are a total of six schools. The city does have colleges for higher education. People prefer both government and private schools for their children.

Impact on health

Education in the city and the suburbs help the communities to attain higher degrees which can improve the standard of living among the communities. Education helps in bringing a good job with good pay. It inevitably helps the youth in keeping faith in the government as well. They can afford good medical help and a better way of living can be afforded. The education in good schools help in making the personality of the kids and they can have confidence in them that help them in higher studies outside the community, state, or even country(Chen et al., 2020).

References

Chen, Y., Sabri, S., Rajabifard, A., Agunbiade, M. E., Kalantari, M., & Amirebrahimi, S. (2020). The design and practice of semantic-enabled urban analytics data infrastructure. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 81, 101484. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2020.101484

9.Interaction/ Isolation

The people living in and around Eessendan are multicultural and actively social. The people are well connected and take part in festivals and cultural activities that are organized in the suburbs. Guerin and Tayler in their journal state that there are social gatherings and community-based contests for all ages of people. Swimming and cycling competitions are held that acquire the involvement of people of all ages. The derby course also allows interaction(Guerin & Taylor 2019). The COVID 19 situation has hampered the interaction level. Many of the social activities and festivals have been put on a halt. The aboriginals living in the area are also encouraged to take part in the festivals. The government's initiative to involve all of them. Social media has helped a lot in interaction in times of pandemic.

Impact on health

The communication and interaction within the communities have helped in embracing mental health. The aboriginals have to take care of their health. According to Durey et al., mental health issues are caused by aboriginals due to the lack of communication and discrimination. It must be taken care of that such situations must be avoided by asking people to take part in community festivals and taking part in healthy interactions(Durey et al., 2016).

References

Taylor, K., & Guerin, P. (2019). Health care and Indigenous Australians: cultural safety in practice. Macmillan International Higher Education.

Durey, A., McEvoy, S., Swift-Otero, V., Taylor, K., Katzenellenbogen, J., & Bessarab, D. (2016). Improving healthcare for Aboriginal Australians through effective engagement between community and health services. BMC Health Services Research, 16(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-016-1497-0

10.Health and Social Services

The health care centers strive to provide better services to the people because it is a detrimental factor in the development of a healthy society. The area which is being discussed has risks that include coronary diseases, diarrhea, mental issues, smoking, and a few more. Bishop et al., stated that there are combinations of health centers and hospitals that work towards the progress of the health upliftment for indigenous and non-indigenous communities. The Indigenous have always been at more risk of diseases. There are rehabilitation centers and psychologists as well to look after the mental issues rising in the area. Even substance abuse cases are being checked and rehabilitation is working towards eliminating the causes of mental illness and drug abuse. The elderly have been seen with ophthalmic issues that are also looked up by the health centers.

Impact on health

There are many health centers and hospitals in Essendon. All have been helping the public to strive for good health. The main concern that rises is the expenses. The people living here have standardized lifestyles and most of them can afford to have the expenses. But the problem arises with the ones who have no or less income. They can face problems in the availability of resources and medicines required for curing the problem. The government has tried to provide the maximum help to those who cannot afford it by lessening the cost of the resources.

References

Bishop, L., Laverty, M., Gale, L., Yal Flyin G D O, R., To, C., Servic, R., & Stralia, E. (2016). PROVIDING AEROMEDICAL CARE TO REMOTE INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES. Retrieved from:https://knowinjury.org.au/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2016/11/RFDS_Providing-Aeromedical-Care-to-Remote-Indigenous-Communities.pdf

‌11.Safety

As far as safety is concerned, Essendon is quite safer than other parts of the country. There are offenses related to the intrapersonal level. The city police have initiated measures to control violence in teens and young sportspersons. There are chances of drug abuse that has to be controlled by the government to prevent youth crime. Road accidents have to be controlled by using CCTV surveillance and monitoring the movements of vehicles. The traffic lights have been put up to control congestion on the road.

Impact on health

Safety impacts the health of the population in indirect ways. Violence and high crime rates can cause early death. It also influences the family. The community is also influenced by the incidents. The youth are much more affected than the elderly. Some incidents affect their mind. The violence related to substance abuse has been controlled a lot. The women in the area are safer now. Moone valley and its surrounding areas including Essendan’s data suggest that the lessening of crime helps people live peacefully and provides them development(Clancey, 2020).

References

Clancey, G. (2020). Teaching Crime Prevention and Community Safety. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Criminology, 59–85. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-35158-8_4

‌12.Government Policies

The local government of the Moonee valley comprising Essendon has looked after the people in a proper way. The policies have been developed so that the maximum utilities in health can be achieved. It also ensures a safe environment where people can live. The government has started putting more attention on mental health in the time of COVID 19. The policies also include LGBTQ rights and their families. The indigenous communities are higher on the risk of getting affected. Their care is also in the hands of the government. It included funding of the health centers that are concerned with taking care of elderly and aged people. The rehabilitation for substance abuse and drug use are also the major concerns that are looked after in health policies(Reeve et al., 2020).

Impact on health

The policies work on the positive side of the community. All must be taken care of as an individual. Health is a major factor that decides the wellbeing of the community as a whole. The health care policies are applied by hospitals and health centers. It helps in uplifting the health scenario of town. It must be made sure that all can avail of the profits of the applied policies. The government policies must work in providing good standard services by funding the healthcare centers.

References

Reeve, B., Thow, A. M., Baker, P., Hresc, J., & May, S. (2020). The role of Australian local governments in creating a healthy food environment: an analysis of policy documents from six Sydney local governments. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 44(2), 137–144. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1111/1753-6405.12968

13.Recommendation of Health Plan 2021

After assessing Essendon and its surrounding areas, several health plans can be implemented and can be taken care of in order to assure the well being of the people.

Mental health

Mental health has been a critical issue for people living around the country. Mental health is an important issue arising in the time of pandemic as well. The loss of interaction has increased the chances of mental health issues. The indigenous population is always at a risk of mental health due to the discrimination they face in society. Therefore a plan must be made and implemented so that this issue can be resolved. Many things must be included that helps in boosting mental health among the community.

Coronary and kidney diseases

Coronary diseases or heart diseases and kidney diseases become fatal for the majority of the community. The indigenous as well as the non-indigenous both are affected by these complications caused in the body. The healthcare centers must plan and implement certain ways through which awareness can be done regarding this disease. The type of lifestyle, food, and living must be elaborately explained to the family’s infected person. The funding must be provided by the government in order to meet the expectations of the plan.

Substance abuse and Alcohol

The problem of substance abuse and alcohol originate if the youth is not educated well. There are chances when the crime rises as well. The government must plan and recommend the preparation of rehabilitations and proper hospitals where only the victim’s drug abuse will be dealt with. The psychiatrist must help the victims and try various measures that evict the possibilities of getting into the addiction again. Meditation, body detoxification are such measures that can help get the victim a better life in the future.

Conclusion on Essendon Community Profile Report

On the basis of the survey and findings through this intervention, it can be concluded that major risks that are identified are drug abuse and its effect, kidney and heart diseases among the indigenous and non-indigenous, and mental health. The health promotion plan can thus be implemented to take care of these issues that can hamper the overall health statistics of the town.

References for Essendon Community Profile Report

Bishop, L., Laverty, M., Gale, L., Yal Flyin G D O, R., To, C., Servic, R., & Stralia, E. (2016). PROVIDING AEROMEDICAL CARE TO REMOTE INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES. Retrieved from:https://knowinjury.org.au/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2016/11/RFDS_Providing-Aeromedical-Care-to-Remote-Indigenous-Communities.pdf

Chen, Y., Sabri, S., Rajabifard, A., Agunbiade, M. E., Kalantari, M., & Amirebrahimi, S. (2020). The design and practice of semantic-enabled urban analytics data infrastructure. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 81, 101484. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2020.101484

Clancey, G. (2020). Teaching Crime Prevention and Community Safety. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Criminology, 59–85. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-35158-8_4

Durey, A., McEvoy, S., Swift-Otero, V., Taylor, K., Katzenellenbogen, J., & Bessarab, D. (2016). Improving healthcare for Aboriginal Australians through effective engagement between community and health services. BMC Health Services Research, 16(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-016-1497-0

‌Duric, M., & Duric, D. (2015). Rethinking Public Transport Accessibility: A Scenario for Decentralized Melbourne. Retrieved from https://apo.org.au/sites/default/files/resource-files/2015-12/apo-nid63236.pdf

Ezzy, D., Bouma, G., Barton, G., Halafoff, A., Banham, R., Jackson, R., & Beaman, L. (2020). Religious Diversity in Australia: Rethinking Social Cohesion. Religions, 11(2), 92. Retrieved from:https://doi.org/10.3390/rel11020092

Gilbert, H., Whitzman, C., Pieters, J., & Allan, A. (2018). Children’s everyday freedoms: Local government policies on children and sustainable mobility in two Australian states. Journal of Transport Geography, 71, 116–129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2018.07.007

Hendrickx, D., Bowen, A. C., Marsh, J. A., Carapetis, J. R., & Walker, R. (2018). Ascertaining infectious disease burden through primary care clinic attendance among young Aboriginal children living in four remote communities in Western Australia. PLOS ONE, 13(9), e0203684. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203684

Isaacs, A. N., Enticott, J., Meadows, G., & Inder, B. (2018). Lower Income Levels in Australia Are Strongly Associated With Elevated Psychological Distress: Implications for Healthcare and Other Policy Areas. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9. Retrieved from:https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00536

Lung, T., Jan, S., Tan, E. J., Killedar, A., & Hayes, A. (2018). Impact of overweight, obesity, and severe obesity on the life expectancy of Australian adults. International Journal of Obesity, 43(4), 782–789. Retrieved from:https://doi.org/10.1038/s41366-018-0210-2

Reeve, B., Thow, A. M., Baker, P., Hresc, J., & May, S. (2020). The role of Australian local governments in creating a healthy food environment: an analysis of policy documents from six Sydney local governments. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 44(2), 137–144. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1111/1753-6405.12968

Sindel, T. (2014). Moonee Valley Library and Learning. The Australian Library Journal, 63(2), 144–153. https://doi.org/10.1080/00049670.2014.898237

Taylor, K., & Guerin, P. (2019). Health care and Indigenous Australians: cultural safety in practice. Macmillan International Higher Education.

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