Table of Contents
II. COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT AND NEEDS ANALYSIS
Data to specify health issues in the community
What and why is this issue emerging?
Existing policies/programs related to this issue? Are they effective?
Community resources, assets or strengths to fight drug abuse
Smart goals for your program and target audience
Changes to be implemented to bring about change.
4 Actions or Activities to make the change
The time required to meet the target
Health Promotion Model
Setting or Location of the program
Individual health education
Stakeholders to be involved in the program
The intended outcome of the program
Impact evaluation of the program
Process Evaluation of the program
The objective behind this report is the creation of a Health Promotion Program based on the research conducted on the Cranbourne community drug addiction affecting the age groups of 20-29. Drug addiction is a psychological and physical abuse largely affecting the Cranbourne community. This report is dedicated to organizing a Health Promotion Program based on Community Assessment and Needs Analysis, Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation.
According to a survey conducted in a span of 12-month, it has been observed that about 990 clients had easy access to drugs in parts of the Cranbourne community. It has also come to notice that there has been a rise in offenses in the community due to the consumption of illicit drugs, which had a dire negative impact on the people of the community (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2018). In a survey conducted in 2011, it has been found out that people from the age of 20-29 are more likely to possess illicit drugs (Kandel & Raveis, 1989). The use of cannabis is the highest in the population of Australia, and it is no different in this community (Zaza et al., 2000).
The main issues that are contributing to this health issue relating to illicit drug abuse can be broadly stated under the social, environmental, and behavioral determinants. Social determinants are mostly related to the social, economic, and cultural characteristics of the community. It has been reported that gender also plays a huge role in this health issue, as male drug users are more than those of females. The socioeconomic conditions also increase this issue. The environmental determinants mostly factor in physical environment problems like the situation of accommodation and the presence of community (Spooner, 2005). Behavioral determinants are connected to the psychology of an individual, which is severely impacted by social and environmental issues.
There were several drug-related programs issued by the Australian government to tackle the problem of drug abuse in the communities of the country. One of the most effective programs was the Ottawa Health promotion, which aims to promote physical health and improvement of mental wellbeing. In addition to this, the State Government’s Drug Policy Expert Committee has also sketched out plans to control the increasing addiction. But on a larger scale, drug-related issues are still very much a reality in the community. The policies while setting in place haven’t been a success.
The Cranbourne community, with the help of government plans, can play an active role in the fight against drugs. Through steady awareness, the community can decide for themselves the steps required to bring about a positive change. Individual needs can only be understood by community activity and response. As the lifestyles of people in the community change, the evolution of health promotion policies and strategies is important.
The objective of my program is to set up a program that would help the community to fight the issue of drugs. My target audience is individuals ranging from 20-29 years. To promote the aspect of a healthy lifestyle among the population and the development of personal skills are some of the primary aims. By following the six components of the Ottawa health promotion strategy, a systematic framework can be set in place. A significant population of youth is affected by drug problems. By the spread of awareness and education relating to a better lifestyle can curb this problem to a huge extent (Freij, 2019).
The building up of a healthy public policy like that of ‘Municipality public health and well-being plan 2017-2021’ in Victoria can be used to bring about a positive change. Stricter drug laws need to be put into immediate effect to curb the ever-growing impact of continuous drug abuse. While awareness and education is a requirement, it needs to be backed by consequences for it to be properly followed. Nurses can also provide their input on the implementations of certain social and community changes to fight this issue.
Some active steps are to be taken to change the pace and structure of drug issues in the community. It is a thing of process evaluation. In this aspect of practical action, mass media and face-to-face communication will be very effective. Through the platform of my program, I can spread awareness concepts through a rigorous use of an effective advertisement. Not just that, promoting education will also be a key context to follow. The community as a whole needs to go through the changes. Individuals must be regularly accessed to update their promotion strategies (Frank et al., 2017).
The prevention and implementation of the program will take some significant time. A long and tedious culture of drugs has been prevalent in society. To fight the same and achieve the target of a healthier society will take time. It won’t be an easy task. Since most of the youngsters are habituated to the intake of drugs from the beginning of their teenage years, to rehabilitate and show them a good path of life won’t come easy. The recurring urge for drug intake in recovering individuals will be a major challenge. In addition to that, social evils in the form of individual protest against change will be an issue.
Some significant models can be utilized properly to achieve the objective of the program. One of them is the Health Belief Model. It is a speculative model that can be used to direct health promotion and disease prevention programs. Its usage can help explain and predict individual changes in health behaviors. This model is widely used in various sectors to understanding health behavior (Luquis, 2019). In addition to this, the Ottawa Charter is a great guide to follow in this case of drug abuse.
In the context of a sensitive issue such as drug rehabilitation, a supportive and safe environment is a must. A supportive environment aids and boosts the social, academic, physical, and emotional development of the participants. In order to create an appropriate environment, it is important to consider the external and internal design and location of buildings, capability, provision, usage, and accessibility of space; and location of equipment and facilities (Killington, 2019). The architecture, as well as the surroundings of a place, is essential in this regard (Gold et al., 2018). A natural environment will serve as the proper place for such a program to take place. It has to be somewhere away from human habitation, but close enough to ensure ease of access for the community.
The spread of awareness is not the only method. Constant education on the negative aspects of drugs should be practiced. Education can play a compensation role in influencing a normative background of safety, restraint, and learned decision making. When drug or alcohol abuse consumes one’s life, one of the primary things to consider is the individual's capability to formulate rational and moral choices (Roche et al., 2019). The process does not end with theoretical knowledge only. A practical implementation of the information learned needs to be carried out to have a lasting impact on the individuals of the community.
In order to bring some considerable change to a community, there is a need for various programs and important stakeholders to uphold the integrity of the program (Jordan, 2019). Some chief stakeholders in this regard are-
Alcohol and other drug workers,
Drug users or their representatives,
Local government officers,
Youth workers and the young people they work with,
General practitioners, and
The program will supposedly be successful when the community goes through a positive change. When through proper evaluation of the reports periodically, there is a significant decline of drug usage among the youth of the community, the program would have reached its primary goal. The impact of the program will be seen in the upgraded lifestyle of not only the youth but the community at large. The building of a healthy community will be the first sign of improvement.
The objective of the program, by and large, is to reform a healthier community, free of drug abuse. The impact of the strategies will be visible when 80% of drug users face a positive change in their life. With the eager participation of the community towards this goal will be the biggest impact of the program. The addition of new members to the rehabilitation program can be seen as another implication.
So as to analyze the effectiveness of the program, periodic evaluation needs to be carried out. The actions or activities that are effective in bringing a positive result will be utilized and promoted more often. Those that are not seen to create an impact that will be reformed will have a better idea in place. The reaction and action of the participants and their responses towards various activities act as a signal of proper growth. For any program to be successful, the active participation of the members is the essential indicator.
In order to gather proper intelligence on the effectiveness of the program, certain factors can be considered-
Comparing changes in behavior over time
Evaluating skills developed by program participants
Documenting the level of success in fulfilling certain objectives
Utilize information achieved to predict the probable effects in similar programs (Lancaster, 2014).
Through the completion of this report, we gather a practical analysis of the program’s utilization, goal, and intended impact. A practical study, as such, is highly necessary to arrive at a proper understanding of the issue and the change desired to bring a positive outcome.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2018). https://www.abs.gov.au/ Alami, H., Gagnon, M. P., Ghandour, E. K., & Fortin, J. P. (2017). Reorientation of health
Frank, J. R., Snell, L., Englander, R., Holmboe, E. S., &Icbme Collaborators. (2017).Implementing competency-based medical education: Moving forward. Medical Teacher, 39(6), 568-573.
Freij, M., & Germov, J. (2019). Drug use and abuse in Australia: Social origins, impacts and responses. In Second opinion: An introduction to health sociology (pp. 345-366). Oxford University Press, USA
Gold, R., Bunce, A., Cowburn, S., Dambrun, K., Dearing, M., Middendorf, M., ... & Davis, J. (2018). Adoption of social determinants of health EHR tools by community health centers. The Annals of Family Medicine, 16(5), 399-407.
Jordan, J. (2019). Stakeholder Attitudes Toward Student Drug Testing.
Kandel, D. B., & Raveis, V. H. (1989). Cessation of illicit drug use in young adulthood. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46(2), 109-116.
Killington, M., Fyfe, D., Patching, A., Habib, P., McNamara, A., Kay, R., ... & Crotty, M. (2019). Rehabilitation environments: Service users’ perspective. Health Expectations, 22(3), 396-404.
Lancaster, K., & Ritter, A. (2014). Examining the construction and representation of drugs as a policy problem in Australia's National Drug Strategy documents 1985–2010. International Journal of Drug Policy, 25(1), 81-87.
Luquis, R. R., & Kensinger, W. S. (2019). Applying the Health Belief Model to assess prevention services among young adults. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education, 57(1), 37-47.
Roche, A. M., Ryan, K., Fischer, J., & Nicholas, R. (2019). A review of Australian Clinical Guidelines for Methamphetamine Use Disorder. Prepared by the National Centre for Education and Training on Addiction for the National Centre for Clinical Research on Emerging Drugs (No. 2019/01). Technical Report.
Spooner, C., & Hetherington, K. (2005). Social determinants of drug use. Sydney, Australia: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
Zaza, S., Wright-De Agüero, L. K., Briss, P. A., Truman, B. I., Hopkins, D. P., Hennessy, M. H., ... & Pappaioanou, M. (2000). Data collection instrument and procedure for systematic reviews in the Guide to Community Preventive Services. American journal of preventive medicine, 18(1), 44-74.
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