The health care worker gets affected by a different infection that is associated with the health care facilities and one of the major issues is respiratory infection (Adegboye et al., 2018). The study is going to highlight the two methods that can be used to reduce respiratory infection within health care workers. The second section will describe the clinical question for the clinical problem that will be followed by the search strategy for the two databases.
Healthcare-associated remains continuously in contact with the patient encountered with the different respiratory infection this increase their chance to acquire or transmit the infection. The health care workers can transmit the infection among their group thus there is a need to improve the working practice. One of the methods that have been applied to stop the spread of respiratory infection among the health care worker is the use of the mask. Mask is considered to be one of the methods that reduce the respiratory infection as it reduces the exposure to the aerosols that is the main route of transmission of infection (Radonovich et al., 2019). Moreover, another article presented by Hillier (2020) discussed the importance of hand hygiene in controlling the infection among health workers. Hand hygiene is considered to be the one the most promising method to reduce the rate of healthcare-associated infection. Health care workers think that hand hygiene is necessary to decrease the rate of infection among patient but it also helps to reduce the infection among the health care worker.
Hands of the healthcare worker are the major source of the transmission thus it is expected by the health care professional to perform hand hygiene. Respiratory infections are one of the most quickly spreading infections as the main source aerosols. Hand hygiene practices help the health care worker to improve the working practice and reduce the rate of spread of infection. Hand hygiene is considered to be the key practice that health care workforce should use to reduce the rate of transmission of the infection within the workforce (Oliveira et al., 2019). Moreover, the study presented by Mukerji et al (2015) discussed the increased use of the mask after the COVID pandemic that has increased the awareness of the health care staff regarding the utility of mask to reduce the chance of respiratory infection. The increased workload and continuous contact with the patient increase the chances for the health care worker to acquire an infection that can be transferred to their colleagues. Mask helps to reduce the areoles exposure that is important to decrease the rate of respiratory infection spread among the health care workforce. The mask helps the workforce to be safe to acquire infection from the patient and it also helps to reduce the chances of the health care worker to be the carrier to transmit the infection.
Both of the methods are considered to be promising in reducing the respiratory infection that can directly affect the health care workforce. Hand hygiene is considered to be less specific as it utilized in daily practice to reduce the rate of any type of infection. On the other hand, the mask is considered to be a specific intervention that is designed to reduce the rate of respiratory infection.
The PICO model is considered to be one of the preferred tools to structure the research question in a format to improve the quality of the question. The P stand for population followed by I that stand for the intervention. C is for the comparative aspect of the research and O is the outcome of the research (Eriksen & Frandsen, 2018).
Which is better to reduce the respiratory infection in the health care worker mask or hand hygiene procedure?
P: Health care workers
C: Hand hygiene
O: reduce respiratory infection
Retrieving proper article for the research is considered to be one of the issues due to lack of information regarding the relevant search strategy. The different factor that should be considered while searching for the article includes the right database, specific requirement, clear question and right keywords (Bramer et al., 2018).
The search strategy used to retrieve the relevant article for the research is performed by using the relevant keywords to improve the search. There are different databases like PubMed, Medline, Cinahl, Cochrane that can be used for the research but the two databases that be utilized are PubMed and Cinahl. The different sets of keywords are used to improve the search and synonyms are applied to increase the resulting number of the relevant articles. Some of the keywords that are used for search are “mask to reduce respiratory infection”, “hand hygiene to decrease respiratory infection”, “methods to decrease respiratory infection” and “method to decrease the spread of infection among workforce”. The Boolean operators are used to improve the search and to combine the keywords that included AND and OR that used to improve the search results.
PubMed: NCBI interface is utilized to search the relevant article in the PubMed and advance search option is utilized to improve the use of keywords. The advance search option helps you to add two queries together by combining it with Boolean operators. After retrieving the results from the keywords different NCBI filters are utilized to retrieve the relevant article like “free full text”, “2015-2020” and language. Only the relevant articles are retrieved and after the full-text analysis, then they are included in the study.
Cinahl: It is another database that is utilized to improve the quality of the articles that are included in the study. The advance search options help to use the Boolean operator with the keywords that are necessary to retrieve the relevant articles. It also provides different filters that are important to specify the requirement for the article like publication date, full-text availability, typo of research, language and Publication type. The studies have utilized different filters to improve the quality of the article that add quality to the work.
Adegboye, M. B., Zakari, S., Ahmed, B. A., & Olufemi, G. H. (2018). Knowledge, awareness and practice of infection control by health care workers in the intensive care units of a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. African Health Sciences, 18(1), 72–78. DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v18i1.11
Bramer, W. M., de Jonge, G. B., Rethlefsen, M. L., Mast, F., & Kleijnen, J. (2018). A systematic approach to searching: an efficient and complete method to develop literature searches. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA, 106(4), 531–541. DOI: 10.5195/jmla.2018.283
Eriksen, M. B., & Frandsen, T. F. (2018). The impact of patient, intervention, comparison, outcome (PICO) as a search strategy tool on literature search quality: a systematic review. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA, 106(4), 420–431. DOI: 10.5195/jmla.2018.345
Hillier, M. D. (2020). Using effective hand hygiene practice to prevent and control infection. Nursing Standard, 35(5), 45–50. DOI:10.7748/ns.2020.e11552
Mukerji, S., MacIntyre, C. R., & Newall, A. T. (2015). Review of economic evaluations of mask and respirator use for protection against respiratory infection transmission. BMC Infectious Diseases, 15(413), 1-8. DOI: 10.1186/s12879-015-1167-6
Oliveira, M. A., Leuthier, R. M., Oliveira, F. J. R., Leite, M. A. P., Fernandes, L. G. A., & Santos, A. F. (2019). Hand hygiene: knowledge and attitudes of healthcare professionals. Journal of Nursing UFPE, 13, e236418 DOI: 10.5205/1981-8963.2019.236418
Radonovich, L. J., Jr, Simberkoff, M. S., Bessesen, M. T., Brown, A. C., Cummings, D., Gaydos, C. A., Los, J. G., Krosche, A. E., Gibert, C. L., Gorse, G. J., Nyquist, A. C., Reich, N. G., Rodriguez-Barradas, M. C., Price, C. S., & Perl, T. M. (2019). N95 respirators vs medical masks for preventing influenza among health care personnel: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA, 322(9), 824–833. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2019.11645
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