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Nursing Science 1 - Question 1:

The assessment details of the motorcyclist Jamie reveals that he has a lacerated liver that refers to the liver injury that is a form of trauma sustained to the liver. The functions affected are include liver is unable to make bile that affects digestion and it is unable to filter and clean the blood. It is no more able to store the carbohydrates and vitamins and also does not make proteins and clotting factors. It does not normally break down hormones and certain drugs that affect its normal functioning. Almost all of the blood passes through the liver and at a specific time, there is a total of one pint of blood within the liver (Cox et al., 2018). The liver laceration results in the bleeding and this blood loss can be life-threatening. The abscesses within the liver, cholecystitis that is inflammation of the gall bladder, leaking bile and the liver failure are other common results of liver laceration (Midi et al., 2019).

Nursing Science 1 - Question 2:

Sinus tachycardia refers to the elevated sinus rhythm that is characterized by an increased rate of electrical impulses that arises from the sinoatrial nodes. In simple terms, it is the heart rate that is greater than 100 beats per minute (Baruscotti et al., 2017). This faster than usual heart rhythm is dangerous in adults and is diagnosed by increased heart rate value when the vitals are checked. The heart of a human being has a natural pacemaker that is known as the sinus node that has a role to play in making the natural smooth pace of the heart rate as it generates the electrical impulses that move throughout the heart muscles and causes it to contract. The normal sinus rhythm is when these electrical impulses are transmitted normally that produces a heart rate of 0 to 100 beats per minute. When this heart rate is over 100 beats per minute, due to these electrical impulses that are sent out faster, it is known as sinus tachycardia. The patient is the case study also has difficulty in breathing and sinus tachycardia. The exact cause of sinus tachycardia is not known but in this case, this maybe because of the motorcycle accident as a result of which breathing is difficult (Stewart et al., 2020).

The accidents throw the heartbeat out of rhythm that causes sinus tachycardia. This problem of sinus tachycardia demands for the management and the control of heart rate in the affected patients. The normal control of heart rate is done by two branches of the autonomic (involuntary) nervous system. The autonomic nervous system has both the parasympathetic nervous system and sympathetic nervous system that works together to maintain the balance. The SNS has a role to play in releasing the catecholamines hormones that are epinephrine and norepinephrine that accelerates the heart rate. On the other side, the PNS releases the acetylcholine hormone that has a major role to play in slowing the heart rate (Yadav et al., 2017). The heart rate is normally controlled by this when all of these hormones are released when needed at the correct time. There are cases when the patient may feel faster heart rate due to their exercise regime that is considered normal but in some cases, the faster heart rate is due to some trauma and difficulty of breathing and this case of sinus tachycardia needs appropriate treatment for the control of faster heart rate (Michael et al., 2017).

Nursing Science 1 - Question 3:

Concept Map of Jamie Having Difficulties in Breathing and These Affecting the Air Movement and Gas Exchange in The Lungs

Concept map of Jamie having difficulties in breathing

Nursing Science 1 - Question 4:

The kidney is an important organ of the human body that performs varied functions. The functions performed by the normally functioning kidney include maintenance of the overall fluid balance, filtering the waste material like the toxic substances and other waste materials and also plays an important role in regulating and filtering the minerals from the blood (Remer, 2018). It also has a major role to play in controlling the acid-base balance and the water and electrolyte balance. It controls the blood pressure and produces the hormone erythropoietin along with functioning in activating vitamin D. The haematuria is a condition when the red blood cells are found in the urine of the patient. This is because of the unhealthy functioning of the kidneys that fail to filter the blood into the urine that means the filtering process of the kidney is impaired (Zittema et al., 2016). The blood leaks into the urine and the blood can be seen into the urine either through the use of a microscope or there is red colour urine that can be seen through the naked eye. In this case, Jamie has developed this condition of haematuria because after the motorcycle accident she was diagnosed with a haematoma in her body that is a solid swelling of the clotted blood within the tissues (Sevillano et al., 2017). This is the cause of haematuria in this patient as this solid swelling of the clotted blood is causing redness in the urine.

References for Nursing Science 1

Baruscotti, M., Bucchi, A., Milanesi, R., Paina, M., Barbuti, A., Gnecchi-Ruscone, T., ... &DiFrancesco, D. (2017). A gain-of-function mutation in the cardiac pacemaker HCN4 channel increasing cAMP sensitivity is associated with familial Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia. European Heart Journal, 38(4), 280-288.

Cox, T. R., Crimmins, S. D., Shannon, A. M., Atkins, K. L., Tesoriero, R., &Malinow, A. M. (2018). Liver lacerations as a complication of CPR during pregnancy. Resuscitation, 122, 121-125.

Hardy, B., Sunderland, N., Perera, M., & Channing, K. (2016). Traumatic haemopneumothorax and ‘whole-body' subcutaneous emphysema: Successful use of a small-bore chest drain. Case Reports, 2016, bcr2016217357.

Michael, S., Graham, K. S., & Davis, G. M. (2017). Cardiac autonomic responses during exercise and post-exercise recovery using heart rate variability and systolic time intervals—a review. Frontiers in Physiology, 8, 301.

Midi, A., Kumandas, A., Ekici, H., Bayraktar, F., Karapirli, K., Karahan, S., ... &Ozyurek, H. E. (2019). Investigation of the Efficacy of AlganHemostatic Agent in Liver Laceration Model in Rats. EJMO, 3(1), 37-42

Remer, T. (2018). Letter to the Editor:“Fibroblast Growth Factor 23, Mineral Metabolism, and Adiposity in Normal Kidney Function”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 103(1), 356-357.

Sevillano, A. M., Gutiérrez, E., Yuste, C., Cavero, T., Mérida, E., Rodríguez, P., ... & Moreno, J. A. (2017). Remission of hematuria improves renal survival in IgA nephropathy. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 28(10), 3089-3099.

Stewart, J. M., Medow, M. S., Visintainer, P., & Sutton, R. (2020). When sinus tachycardia becomes too much: Negative effects of excessive upright tachycardia on cardiac output in vasovagal syncope, postural tachycardia syndrome, and inappropriate sinus tachycardia. Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, 1-10.

Yadav, R. L., Yadav, P. K., Yadav, L. K., Agrawal, K., Sah, S. K., & Islam, M. N. (2017). Association between obesity and heart rate variability indices: An intuition toward cardiac autonomic alteration–a risk of CVD. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, 10, 57.

Zittema, D., van den Berg, E., Meijer, E., Boertien, W. E., Kobold, A. C. M., Franssen, C. F., ... & Gansevoort, R. T. (2016). Kidney function and plasma copeptin levels in healthy kidney donors and ADPKD patients. Vasopressin in chronic kidney disease, in particular ADPKD, 9, 61.

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