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The protein-energy malnutrition is the chronic liver disease that is said to be the independent risk factor to clinical outcomes. The treatment of persons suffering from protein-energy malnutrition is treated as a priority. It is because the consequences of protein-energy malnutrition are related to increased infection rate, worsening encephalopathy, increased mortality, poor control of ascites, and increased hospital admissions (Jacobs, Sioen & Pieniak et al., 2015). The reasons for the development of this imbalance is the anabolic and catabolic hormones imbalance in an individual body. In the cirrhotic patients, protein-energy malnutrition is accompanied by malabsorption and anorexia.
The digestion process starts with a thought, smell, and sight for the food. At the time brain anticipates an incoming meal, the acetylcholine is released from the stomach when the vagus sends the nerve message. The combination of acetylcholine and histamine occurs at the time of gastrin secretion from the stomach. Then, this stimulates parietal cells for the secretions of gastric glands from the stomach to start producing hydrochloric acid in the body. The secretions of the stomach are made up of hydrochloric acid, mucus, and several enzymes that protect the lining of the stomach. Hydrochloric acid function in the body is to absorb, break down, and digest nutrients as protein (Kim, Sargent‐Cox & Anstey, 2015). Moreover, it helps in eliminating viruses and bacteria in the stomach for the protection of the body from infection.
As per the literature, the deficiency of Vitamin C in both males and females causes many diseases and disorders like scurvy. Moreover, patients suffering from chronic diseases like cataracts, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases can be required to take vitamin C above the recommended level. It is because the role of vitamin C in the body is related to prevention from diseases. Vitamin C is the essential micronutrient in the person's body so to maintain the normal functioning of the body, an adequate level of vitamin C has to be maintained as per dietician recommendations (Verbeke, Marcu & Rutsaert et al., 2015).
Niacin flush is the common side effect of the high dosage of supplement niacin by an individual. This is advised to take to treat the problems of cholesterol in the body. The skin of a person becomes itchy, warm, and red that is uncomfortable. The symptoms of niacin flush are redness on the skin, warming of skin to touch, burning, itching, and tingling of the skin. The dosage of niacin is given to the patients so that the cholesterol level is maintained (Gaspar, Luís & Seibt et al., 2016).
The behavioral motives that govern people’s food choices can be liking, food choices, and pleasure. Liking is seen as the strongest motivation to drove people for their food choices. In addition to this, price, convenience, hunger, and habits are found to be the main driving factors for an afternoon meal and snack. Visual appeal and pleasure are associated with late-night snacks. For dinner, people are mostly interested to have traditional eating and variety seeking. Meats, pasta, and grain are the material hat are linked to convenience, traditional eating, and variety seeking (Zhu & Xie, 2015).
The “24-hour recall” method in dietary history has many limitations such as it could be limited to some groups because it led to potential selection bias. By single administration of 24 hours, it becomes difficult to have an account on a day to day variation, non-consecutive recalls, and two recalls. To have 24 hours examination of diet, health, and other variables, there is a need for doing multiple administrations (Hudson, Caplanova & Novak, 2015). It usually captures the short term diet of a person and relies on a specific and generic memory. However, the detailed account of a person’s diet is also captured through this process.
“Hunger” and “Satiety” are driven by the factors besides the internal signals that influence a person’s energy intake and appetite. They are such as physical factors consisting of age, gender, and body weight, and behavioral factors including the influence of another person present and diet. Satiety and hunger are controlled by the drinks and food that are consumed and continues to enter the gastrointestinal tract for absorption and digestion. The sensory, post-absorptive, cognitive, and post-ingestive is also characterized by satiety cascade. The cognitive factors are affected by the level of consumption, smell, and taste of food (Murakami, Nakatani & Oki, 2016).
Dietary fiber is the roughage, includes parts of the plant that help in digestion and absorption. The benefits of a high-fiber diet are to normalize bowel movements as it increases the weight and size of stool. It helps in maintaining bowel health as high fiber is linked with lowering the risk of small pouches and hemorrhoids in the colon. It helps in living a longer life as high fiber intake is associated with a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular diseases and all types of cancers. Moreover, it helps in weight management as the person consumes fewer portions along with a high fiber diet (Hudson, Caplanova & Novak, 2015).
Gaspar, R., Luís, S., Seibt, B., Lima, M. L., Marcu, A., Rutsaert, P., ... & Barnett, J. (2016). Consumers’ avoidance of information on red meat risks: Information exposure effects on attitudes and perceived knowledge. Journal of Risk Research, 19(4), 533-549. https://doi.org/10.1080/13669877.2014.1003318
Hudson, J., Caplanova, A., & Novak, M. (2015). Public attitudes to GM foods. The balancing of risks and gains. Appetite, 92, 303-313. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2015.05.031
Jacobs, S., Sioen, I., Pieniak, Z., De Henauw, S., Maulvault, A. L., Reuver, M., ... & Verbeke, W. (2015). Consumers' health risk-benefit perception of seafood and attitude toward the marine environment: Insights from five European countries. Environmental Research, 143, 11-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2015.02.029c
Kim, S., Sargent‐Cox, K. A., & Anstey, K. J. (2015). A qualitative study of older and middle‐aged adults' perceptions and attitudes towards dementia and dementia risk reduction. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 71(7), 1694-1703. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.12641
Murakami, M., Nakatani, J., & Oki, T. (2016). Evaluation of risk perception and risk-comparison information regarding dietary radionuclides after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. PloS One, 11(11), e0165594. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165594
Verbeke, W., Marcu, A., Rutsaert, P., Gaspar, R., Seibt, B., Fletcher, D., & Barnett, J. (2015). 'Would you eat cultured meat?': Consumers' reactions and attitude formation in Belgium, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. Meat Science, 102, 49-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2014.11.013
Zhu, X., & Xie, X. (2015). Effects of knowledge on attitude formation and change toward genetically modified foods. Risk Analysis, 35(5), 790-810. https://doi.org/10.1111/risa.12319
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