Nutrition in the Lifespan - Part A

Introduction

Nutrition is important at every stage of life because it is the foundation for healthy beings and knowledge about nutrition in children. Children do not eat healthy foods and are like a battle to uphill them for energy foods. Children need proper foods to stay healthy and strong, also maintain nutritional value in eating styles (Harris & Kalnova, 2018). This is the essay that will focus on unhealthy food advertising that needs to be banned so that unhealthy food consumption could be reduced including nutrient-poor foods and drinks to improve health and reduce obesity.

There is a great relationship between health, nutrition, and learning of children to have a great impact on a child's development. At the time of birth, under-nutrition hurts a child's development. A healthy diet is recommended by the dietician to consume a healthy diet that contains carbohydrates, iron, calcium, protein, and vitamins A, C, and D (Boyland & Whalen, 2015). There are endless benefits of child nutrition as they help the children in fighting as they help them in fighting against several diseases including meningitis, diarrhea, and ear infection. Iron is the essential component of brain tissue; iron deficiency moves impulses slower and can also cause permanent damage to the brain of the child (Boyland & Whalen, 2015). Under-nutrition is related to a decrease in a child's activity, curiosity, cognitive functioning, and social interactions. So, nutrition is very important for the health of children in many ways (Boyland & Whalen, 2015).

The essential nutrients requirement includes energy, protein, fats, carbohydrates, and water. There is always variability in the energy requirements of children, plus 3 to 4 percent is needed to cover the growth of the child (Watson, Lau & Wellard et al., 2017). Protein is necessary to maintain the growth of children, repair tissue, and making essential changes in hormones and enzymes of the body (Watson et al., 2017). The recommended levels of protein for children are 1g/kg body weight per day. Food products such as cheese and milk are excellent sources for protein and calcium in children's bodies. Fats are concentrated sources of energy and it is recommended by the dietician that children have not to take more than 30 percent of calories (Watson et al., 2017). The same composition of carbohydrates intake is recommended for children as adults (Watson et al., 2017). Water is the source of hydration and heat stress, so this is recommended to regulate body temperature and fluid intake of children as per the recommended levels. Nutrition problems for children include iron deficiency anemia, food allergy, growth flattening, constipation, and rickets (Watson et al., 2017).

Consumers go for food choices based on household inclinations and accessible reserves. In Australia, the financial theory states that acquiring foods and other marketplace goods boost utility or well-being based on inclinations, and other constraints (Li, Cheng & Zhang et al., 2016). The household production theory states a combination of market goods and time to produce medical commodities for consumption in the household. Food choices are based on the consumption of food that requires time expenditures for preparing, purchasing, and consumption of food (Campos, Hernández-Torres & Agil et al., 2016). The individual and cultural factors are related to the food choices based on time availability, experience, abilities, and mindset related to food preparation and availability. The program goals are related to taste preferences, social factors, personal factors, acculturation, employment status, and access to personal transportation (Harris & Kalnova, 2018).

Food advertising strategy for children has influences on children’s food predilections and intake likely to add to obesity and overweight. However, the regulations are useless for reducing children’s exposure to harmful food advertising. The marketing campaigns utilize multiple platforms that stimulate unhealthy food for children and undermining healthy eating messages for schools, parents, governments, and children. Food advertising affects children’s food predilections and intake like to add to poor diets, obesity, and weight gain in children (Harris & Kalnova, 2018). Food advertising raises concerns on ethical concepts and children cannot comprehend and avoid the impact of advertising. Food advertising influences the preferences of children based on demand, consumption, and contribution to poor diet that has negative health outcomes, obesity, and weight gain in children. Advertisements have an emphasis on communicating specific product information and communicating the social uses of the product. The consumer-oriented society has a great impact on consumption by consumers. So, there is a greater impact on an unhealthy food advertising strategy on all stages of a person's life (Harris & Kalnova, 2018).

In Australia, the approaches have been taken such as the evidence presents children’s vulnerability to advertising, the effects of food advertising on children, and the benefits of restricting food advertising. The actions have been taken for current food advertising that in Australia, there are no specific government regulations to stop advertising to children in Australia (Kelly, King & Xiao et al., 2016). Children's Television standards are the only ones to deal with the regulations of children in advertising. The P and C programs were classified as free to air advertising mechanisms that include delivery of information about nutritional content. The standards are very clear and do not apply at the times of watching programs when most of the children watch, and do not include any general restrictions on unhealthy food advertising (Royo-Bordonada, Damian & Bosqued-Estefanía et al., 2016). International Human Rights is one of the approaches related to unhealthy food marketing to children. The advocates of public health state that unhealthy food marketing to children is linked with an obligation under the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. British Heart Foundation stated the second approach to protect the children from unhealthy food marketing by regulating non-broadcast programs to children. This was launched to control the problem of obesity in children ad minimizing the potential risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes (Kim, Lee & Hong et al., 2016).

Conclusion

Hence, in this essay, it has been discussed that unhealthy food advertising is harmful as it promotes negative behavior of children. Unhealthy food advertising should be banned so that the reduction of consumption, poor foods, and drinks are not promoted that cause ill effects on children's health. The importance of nutrition in children's population is realized in this topic along with nutrient requirements and major problems related to that. The potential factors affect the nutritional requirements of people belonging to various cultural, socioeconomic, and other groups.

Nutrition in the Lifespan - Part B

Childhood obesity is one of the public health issues of the 21st century that focuses on overweight and obese children who are susceptible to chronic health complaints such as cardiovascular health and diabetes. The diseases are considered a burden to health systems and economies. The policies have been designed by the government to encourage healthy eating behavior of children (Kim et al., 2016). The increasing availability of food rich in sugar, fat, and salt is becoming a challenge for healthy eating behavior. This challenge has been compounded due to influences on consumption patterns and people’s food preferences. As a consequence, the government is promoting advocacy through programs to limit the consumption of junk and fast food in children. The Australian government has prohibited the influence of advertising and posted some approaches to deal with the issue (Vandevijvere, Soupen & Swinburn, 2017). The self-regulatory regime has been followed by other associations and groups in different parts of countries to promote a healthy lifestyle of children and prevent them from a serious illness such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Hence, this will promote public demand with an intervention to makeshift in health policy towards preventive healthcare management based on past disease patterns. World Health Organization is also a contributor towards introducing policies and prohibit the limitation of unhealthy foods (Boyland, Nolan & Kelly et al., 2016). #obesity #unhealthy foods #children.

References for Communication Contemporary Issues in Nutrition

Boyland, E. J., & Whalen, R. (2015). Food advertising to children and its effects on a diet: A review of recent prevalence and impact data. Pediatric Diabetes16(5), 331-337. https://doi.org/10.1111/pedi.12278

Boyland, E. J., Nolan, S., Kelly, B., Tudur-Smith, C., Jones, A., Halford, J. C., & Robinson, E. (2016). Advertising as a cue to consume: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of acute exposure to unhealthy food and nonalcoholic beverage advertising on intake in children and adults, 2. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition103(2), 519-533. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.115.120022

Campos, D., Hernández-Torres, J. J., Agil, A., Comino, M., López, J. C., Macías, V., & Campoy, C. (2016). Analysis of food advertising to children on Spanish television: Probing exposure to television marketing. Archives of Medical Science: AMS12(4), 799. https://dx.doi.org/10.5114%2Faoms.2016.60969

Harris, J. L., & Kalnova, S. S. (2018). Food and beverage TV advertising to young children: Measuring exposure and potential impact. Appetite123, 49-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.110

Kelly, B., Hebden, L., King, L., Xiao, Y., Yu, Y., He, G., ... & Hoe, N. S. (2016). Children's exposure to food advertising on free-to-air television: An Asia-Pacific perspective. Health Promotion International31(1), 144-152. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dau055

Kim, H., Lee, D., Hong, Y., Ahn, J., & Lee, K. Y. (2016). A content analysis of television food advertising to children: Comparing low and general‐nutrition food. International Journal of Consumer Studies40(2), 201-210. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijcs.12243

Li, D., Wang, T., Cheng, Y., Zhang, M., Yang, X., Zhu, Z., ... & Zeng, L. (2016). The extent and nature of television food advertising to children in Xi’an, China. BMC Public Health16(1), 770. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12889-016-3468-0

Royo-Bordonada, M. Á., León-Flández, K., Damian, J., Bosqued-Estefanía, M. J., Moya-Geromini, M. Á., & López-Jurado, L. (2016). The extent and nature of food advertising to children on Spanish television in 2012 using an international food-based coding system and the UK nutrient profiling model. Public Health137, 88-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2016.03.001

Vandevijvere, S., Soupen, A., & Swinburn, B. (2017). Unhealthy food advertising directed to children on New Zealand television: Extent, nature, impact, and policy implications. Public Health Nutrition20(17), 3029-3040. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980017000775

Watson, W. L., Lau, V., Wellard, L., Hughes, C., & Chapman, K. (2017). Advertising to children initiatives has not reduced unhealthy food advertising on Australian television. Journal of Public Health39(4), 787-792. https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdx004

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