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  • Subject Name : Nutrition and dietetics

Table of Contents

Introduction

Meal Plan for Sally and Justification

Plate Plan for Tom with Justification

Vera and Her Meal Plan

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction

Daily intake of food and selection of the type of food is highly associated with the nutritional aspect of an individual. However, in recent time, with the change of lifestyle and fast-moving schedule, the majority of the population deprives themselves of proper nutritional intake. The purpose of this assignment is to provide a proper nutritional plan with 2000 calorie intake on average for three different people with different ages and lifestyles. 

Meal Plan for Sally and Justification

The pattern of food selection and food intake is tagged with the socio-cultural aspects of an individual. Sally is in the practice of taking a vegetarian diet and her food plan should not include any of the non-vegetarian items. As per the idea of Ponzio et al. (2015), the vegetarian population mainly depends on, gains, vegetables, fruits and dairy products like milk, butter, cheese and more. This fact is felicitous for Sally as well as she is also in the vegetarian dietetic practice. Hsieh, Yang & Tsai (2016) has researched regarding human nutrition and has mentioned that most of the vegetarian population suffers from malnutrition with over intake of carbohydrate and fat. This idea has further been supported by Attini et al. (2016), as in the scholarly article it has been mentioned that most of the vegetarians suffer from mal-nutrition for low protein intake which triggers protein deficiency among them. Hence a balanced deity plan should be developed for Sally in order to safeguard her from mal-nutrition and over intake of carbohydrate or fat.

The intake of grains is necessary for any pattern of diet and especially the intake of whole grain. As per the idea of Wu et al. (2015), refined grain always loses the majority of its nutrient content through machined germ and husk removal along with the polishing. Barley, millet, popcorn or Oatmeal are the fine examples of whole-grain which contains most of the nutrient. For Sally, 3 Ounces of Oatmeal should be suggested for breakfast with 2 cups fat-free milk. 2 cups fresh fruit juice should also be consumed. This should include citrus fruit like lemon along with a banana for its iron content and apple as well. Additionally, 3 Ounces of brown rice should be given for her lunch.

The providence of protein supplement is critical for Sally as she does not take animal protein. Mixed pulses of 1 Ounce and 2 and a half ounces of Soya chunk should be consumed in lunch. 1 cup of vegetable curry should be taken which should contain carrot, peas (1ounce) yellow pumpkin, bell pepper, spinach cooked in 10 gm. of oil and 10 gm. added sugar. 1 Ounces of unsalted nuts can be taken in the evening with biscuits. At dinner 1cup vegetable curry should be taken with 1 cup yoghurt with 2 wheat or barley bread. Very little sugar should be added in the fruit juice and yoghurt which should not exceed 30 grams. The total salt content in the time of cooking should be within 2300 milligrams.

Plate Plan for Tom with Justification

It has been identified that Tom has a lifestyle which is associated with a busy job schedule which has its direct relationship with his food intake pattern and nutrition as well. It has further been identified that Tom has to take his dinner and lunch in restaurants and fast-casual food shops. As per the statement of An (2016) over the intake of fast food or foods of restaurant invoke malnutrition as the sugar, unsaturated fat along with low-density lipoprotein content of the foods are very high. This invokes chronic diseases like obesity, CVD, diabetes and more. Mazidi & Speakman (2018) has mentioned that dietary patterns associated with lifestyle are one of the major factors which invoke cardiac disease and especially strokes. The facts are pertinent to the case of Tom as well. Hence the plate of Tom should be designed with a balanced diet. Tom should have a cup of low-fat yoghurt smoothie with a poach of 4 eggs with low-fat butter and little salt which contains 0.56 ounce of protein. As per the idea of Miranda (2015), about 4 grams of protein is available from a single egg. Smoothies should contain fruits like banana, apple, lemon and strawberry.

 For lunch, 3 Ounce of Quinoa should be ordered along with 1 bowl of fresh vegetable curry. In recent times Quinoa is highly preferred by the Americans and is available in fast food restaurants (Nowak, Du & Charrondière, 2016). All the foods should be taken for low calorie which should keep the oil consumption within 20 grams and sugar consumption within 50 grams. A curry with 200 grams of chicken provides more than 400 calories but about 3.80 ounces of protein. In the evening, 2 ounces of popcorn along with 1 and a half ounce unsalted nuts should be taken with sugarless tea. This should help to get light snacks. For dinner, 2 wheat bread with roasted chicken and 1 cup of vegetable should be taken. 1 cup of buttermilk is optional but all the items are available in the restaurant.

Vera and Her Meal Plan

Vera is an old aged lady of 85 years and is physically senile. She is not able to take hard food. Bernstein & Munoz (2019) has mentioned that with age the capacity of food intake gets decreased and this triggers the possibility of mal-nutrition. Moreover, Kwon et al. (2017) has researched and commented that due to senility, aged persons have problems chewing which minimize the option of the food items. In breakfast, 2 ounce of oats, boiled in 2 and a half cups of fat-free milk with half cup water should be served. Along with this, apple, banana, pomegranate, strawberry and lemon should be squished in a mixer grinder in the quantity of 2 cups for the breakfast of Vera. In lunch, well-boiled brown rice of 2 ounces and vegetable curry (2 cup volume) with pumpkin, potato, carrot paste and spinach paste should be served. Green okra should be added in the curry as Vera cannot take hard food. A boiled egg and fish curry can be served. As per Khalili Tilami & Sampels (2018), fish is a potent source of lean protein. In the evening, protein beverages (2 ounces) made from soya bean should be given with half cup milk and water. At night, chicken soup with bell pepper and mushroom should be given for her adequate protein and calorie intake. Pudding made with one cup of boiled quinoa and yoghurt (fat-free) can be added with her dinner dish.

Conclusion

At the end of the study, it can be concluded that balanced protein, carbohydrate and calorie intake is highly essential for each and everyone irrespective of gender, age and social class. The improper volume and type for food and liquid intake is the key factor which invokes malnutrition which further invokes different health issues. In society, different groups of people are existing which includes, non-vegetarian, vegetarian, vegan and more. Through this study, a diet plan for a vegetarian, a fast-food eater and an aged lady has been designed with prime focus over nutrient content. This assignment has further indicated that person-centred nutrition or food intake plan is essential to improve dietetic practice.

Reference list

An, R., 2016. Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption and daily energy and nutrient intakes in US adults. European journal of clinical nutrition, 70(1), pp.97-103. Retrieved on 27 July 2020, from: https://www.nature.com/articles/ejcn2015104?previewDate=17-11-2014%2021:15%20Europe/Helsinki/viihde?form_vo%3Dohjelmat-kadonneenjaljilla/api/fragment/html/

Attini, R., Leone, F., Parisi, S., Fassio, F., Capizzi, I., Loi, V., ... & Alemanno, M. G. (2016). Vegan-vegetarian low-protein supplemented diets in pregnant CKD patients: fifteen years of experience. Bmc Nephrology, 17(1), 132. Retrieved on 27 July 2020, from: https://bmcnephrol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12882-016-0339-y?optIn=false

Bernstein, M., & Munoz, N. (2019). Nutrition for the older adult. Jones & Bartlett Learning. Retrieved on 27 July 2020, from: https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=iBGCDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=gerontology+and+nutrition&ots=gq0Hd2LTSc&sig=4weuo93VkyPBmqcZH3DBWSt05Jo

Hsieh, M. J., Yang, T. M., & Tsai, Y. H. (2016). Nutritional supplementation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 115(8), 595-601. Retrieved on 27 July 2020, from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0929664615003460

Khalili Tilami, S., & Sampels, S. (2018). Nutritional value of fish: lipids, proteins, vitamins, and minerals. Reviews in Fisheries Science & Aquaculture, 26(2), 243-253. Retrieved on 27 July 2020, from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/23308249.2017.1399104

Kwon, S. H., Park, H. R., Lee, Y. M., Kwon, S. Y., Kim, O. S., Kim, H. Y., & Lim, Y. S. (2017). Difference in food and nutrient intakes in Korean elderly people according to chewing difficulty: using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 (6th). Nutrition Research and Practice, 11(2), 139-146. Retrieved on 27 July 2020, from: https://synapse.koreamed.org/DOIx.php?id=10.4162/nrp.2017.11.2.139

Mazidi, M., & Speakman, J. R. (2018). Association of Fast‐Food and Full‐Service Restaurant Densities With Mortality From Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke, and the Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of the American Heart Association, 7(11), e007651. Retrieved on 27 July 2020, from: https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1161/jaha.117.007651

Miranda, J. M., Anton, X., Redondo-Valbuena, C., Roca-Saavedra, P., Rodriguez, J. A., Lamas, A., ... & Cepeda, A. (2015). Egg and egg-derived foods: effects on human health and use as functional foods. Nutrients, 7(1), 706-729. Retrieved on 27 July 2020, from: https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/7/1/706

Nowak, V., Du, J., & Charrondière, U. R. (2016). Assessment of the nutritional composition of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). Food chemistry, 193, 47-54. Retrieved on 27 July 2020, from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814615003027

Ponzio, E., Mazzarini, G., Gasperi, G., Bottoni, M. C., & Vallorani, S. (2015). The vegetarian habit in Italy: Prevalence and characteristics of consumers. Ecology of food and nutrition, 54(4), 370-379. Retrieved on 27 July 2020, from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03670244.2014.1001981

Wu, H., Flint, A. J., Qi, Q., Van Dam, R. M., Sampson, L. A., Rimm, E. B., ... & Sun, Q. (2015). Association between dietary whole grain intake and risk of mortality: two large prospective studies in US men and women. JAMA internal medicine, 175(3), 373-384. Retrieved on 27 July 2020, from: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/article-abstract/2087877

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