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Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 1

Open loop control system acts completely on the base of input and the output has no outcome on the control action. A close loop control system cogitate the current output and modifies it to the desired form.

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 2

  • Automatic washing machine

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 3

  • Thermostat Heater

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 4

In a closed-loop system, a controller is used to compare the output of a system with the required condition and convert the error into a control action designed to reduce the error and bring the output of the system back to the desired response.

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 5

A discrete system is one in which the state movable(s) change only at a discrete set of points in time. Forexample. customers reach at 3:15, 3:23, 4:01, etc. A constant system is one in which the state flexible(s) change constantly over time. Forexample the amount of water streams over a dam.

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 6

Example of discrete process is automobile, furniture and smartphone etc.

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 7

Example of continuous process is ice-cream production , pasta production etc.

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 8

The control determination of the toilet flushing mechanism is to keep the height of the water in the tank which is considered as the output of the structure at a perpetual level. First of all, the chosen water level, which is the condition input, can be adjusted at a programmed height with the assistance of the adjustment screw. The certain level of the water, forthat, the output, is detected by the float ball and supported back to the ballcock through the float rod. If the authentic level of the water is lower than the required level, the ballcock keeps the creek float regulator open to fill the tank. On the further hand, if the definite level gets above the wanted level, then the leftover water is exhausted off by the overflow tube. The usage of the handle to empty the water tank happens to be the major disorder input that rapidly falls the water level down to zero, forthat, completely further than the wanted level.

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 9

The control purpose of the toilet flushing device is to keep the largeness of the water in the tank which is considered as the output of the association at a continuous level. First of all, the required water level, which is the position input, can be attuned at a programmed height with the support of the electric sensor. The certain level of the water, for that the output is detected by the electric sensor and fed back to the ballcock determined the in tank electric sensor. If the definite level of the water is lower than the desired level, the ballcock keeps the creek drift valve open to fill the tank. On the other hand, if the physical level gets above the desired level, then the additional water is exhausted off by the runoff tube.

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 10

Change in the signal of transducer usually a signal in one form of energy to a signal in another. Transducers are often affianced at the boundaries of automation, measurement, and control systems where electrical signals are changed to and from other corporeal amounts 

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 11

  • A Strain gaugeis a sensor whose resistance changes with functional force; it changes tension, pressure, force, load etc., into a translation in electrical resistance which can then be dignified. When external armies are applied to a fixed object, strain and stress are the result.
  • Strain gaugesare used to measure the torque functional by an engine to fans, wheels, propeller, generators, motor, or turbine. This equipment is found in power plants, ships, refineries, automobiles and industry at large.

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 12

  • An inductive sensoris a technique that uses the principle of electromagnetic induction to sense and amount objects. An inductor progresses a magnetic field when a current activities from it; instead a current will flow from a circuit infolding an inductor when the magnetic field through it changes.
  • Inductive sensorare widely used in rail, military, robotics, industries , aerospace, etc. inductive sensor are used to notice ferrous metals like nickel, cobalt, iron, and steel.

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 13

  • A Conductive Level Controller electrically notifications the level of a liquid. When the electrodes are in interaction with liquid, the circuit is closed the liquid concludes the track for electricity to effort and the electrical current that activities in this circuit is castoff to notice the level of the liquid.
  • Floatless switch is castoff in auto-control circuit with the circuit of AC50 by 60Hz as liquid level apparatus. It can be used in water industry as liquid level controller mechanisms. LED Pointer for water supply and drainage position.

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 14

  • A thermocoupleis an electrical expedient containing of two distinct electrical conductors founding an electrical junction. A thermocouple generates a temperature reliant voltage as an outcome of the thermoelectric effect and this voltage can be subsidiary to degree temperature.
  • Include temperature measurement for gas turbine exhaust, diesel engines, kilns and other industrial processes. Thermocouples are also castoff in families, workplaces and manufactures as the temperature sensors in thermostats, and also as flame sensors in safety devices for gas-powered applications.

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 15

A programmable logic controller is a work computer control procedure that constantly displays the state of impact devices and makes choices based upon a custom program to control the state of output expedients. Another benefit of a PLC assembly is that it is modular.

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 16

  • An inputmodule senses the status of input signals such as temperature sensor, switches, push-buttons etc. An output module controls plans such as relays, motor starters, lights, etc.
  • The control logicor the program instructions are engraved onto the brainwashing way through symbols or through mnemonics and stored in the user memory. The CPU creates these instructions from the user memory and implements the input signals by functioning, computing, handling them to control the output stratagems.

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 17

Programmable logical device shorts for, a general term for a combined circuit that can be programmed in a laboratory to perform complex functions. A pld consists of arrays of OR and AND gates. Scheme designer contraptions a logic design with a technique programmer that blows fuses on the PLD to control gate operation.

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 18

The advantage of PID controller is its possibility and easy to be applied. This is a useful function recently supplementary to PLC. It use for any kind of controller tasks that need PID controller such as oven temperature, DC motor.

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 19

  • Procedure in electric switch is electrochemical that are used in electrical circuits to regulatorpower, sense when systems are outside their working arrays, signal controllers of the locations of appliance members and work fragments, provide a means for physical control of mechanism and development functions.
  • Motor controlthe generation and coordination of effort patterns to produce task; it may either control activities of the body in space or soothe the body in space.
  • A module of mechanism of actuator that is accountable for affecting and regulatoryan instrument and system, for example by opening a valve. In modest expressions, it is a mover. An actuator needs a control signal and a foundation of vitality.

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 20

  • Examples of switches
  • Toggle switches
  • Rotary switches
  • Rocker switches
  • Switchesare most usually used as the network assembly point for armies at the edge of a network. In the categorized internet working model and related network structures, switches are also used pro creator in the network to provide connections between the switches at the edge.
  • Switchesaccomplish the flow of data across a network by communicating an expected network packet merely to the one, two or more devices for which the packet is intended. An Ethernet switch functions at the data link coating of the OSI model to create a distinct impact field for each switch

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 21

  • Examples of infrared sensor
  • Passive infrared sensor
  • Active infrared sensor
  • Infrared sensors are used in pir-based indication detectors. PIR munitions also castoff in the safety alarms and programmed lighting presentations.
  • An infrared sensordischarges and senses infrared radiation to sense its surroundings. The basic idea of an infrared sensor which is cast-off as obstacle detector is to transfer an infrared indication, this infrared signal bounds from the surface of an entity and the signal is received at the infrared

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 22

  • Examples of limit switch
  • A set of limit switcheswill sense when a garage door is fully raised or dropped and shut off the motor once a certain position is reached.
  • Limit switch usedfor regulatory equipment as portion of a regulator system, as a security interlocks to count objects transitory a point.
  • A limit switchis an electromechanical expedient that involves of an actuator perfunctorily linked to a set of contacts. When an entity comes into interaction with the actuator the device functions the links to create or break down an electrical connection.

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 23

  • Access control system which is stand-alone such as Paxton's Compact or Switch2 is ideal for regulatory contact on one or many independent doors in a building. Access is gained by using a numeric code, magistrate token, by presenting proximity, PIN with a keypad.
  • Standaloneaccess regulator is naturally found on doors with low-level safety or on smaller structures with no supplementary exits. Standalone units can be constructed with a touch lock system, which means that the consumer must type in a PIN code to be granted access.

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 24

  • Level zero defines the actual carnal processes. Level one defines the events involved in sensing and working the physical processes. Level two describes the activities of monitoring and controlling the physical processes. These schemes are typically implemented on plcs and distributed control systems.
  • The Integrated Control Systemfor the European Spallation Source is a multifaceted network of software, hardware and alignment databases that incorporates the operations of all facility infrastructures. It is a dispersed system that is organised in multiple layers.
  • The integrated control systemDivision is an administrative unit responsible for the control systems within the ess facility, counting control systems for neutron scattering, target, accelerator systems and conventional facilities.

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 25

  • In dcs, two or more statement protocols are used between two or more areas such as between field control devices and dispersed controllers and another one between discrete controllers and supervisory control positions such as engineering and operating stations.
  • A dcs administers all of the tasks and processes in a plant by taking in real-time data through smart expedients and using the trends found in that information to make conclusions about how each controllerin the plant functions.
  • Distributed controlsystems are devoted systems used in industrial practices that are continuous or may be batch-oriented. Processes where a dcs influence be used include refineries, petrochemical (oil) and chemical plants.

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 26

  • Analogue control systemdeals, processes and outputs continuous values between a certain range (theoretically infinite, but practically all actuators are limited to a certain range) while digital makes use of an intermediary binary language for all sorts of computation before it is converted back to analogue using digital.
  • Data transmitting technique of the communication data is in a set-up that exploits constant signalsto transmit data with appearance, expression, video, electrons etc. An analogue signal is a variable signal continuous in both time and amplitude which is usually passed by use of intonation.

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 27

  • Digital controlis a branch of control theory that uses digital computers to act as organization Depending on the necessities, a digital control system can take the form of a microcontroller to an ASIC to a standard desktop computer.
  • The sections of the digital communication system.
  • DigitalDemodulator
  • Channel Encoder.
  • Source Encoder.
  • Input Transducer.
  • Channel Decoder

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 28

  • Networked control systems are control systemsin which , structure to be measured and the different mechanisms such as controllers, actuators and sensors are spatially spread and communication between these mechanisms is achieved through the useof a digital communication network that is communal by other.
  • Different form of communication work
  • Wireless WANs
  • System interconnection
  • Wireless LANs

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 29

  • 4mA to 20mA current loop control is mutual in manufacturing surrounds. Circuitry used to temper transducer data into this loopmust function well below the 4mA smallest current. Over of 0° C to 100° C range, accuracy is ± 0.3° C and the circuit is current loop No outer supply is necessary.
  • 20 mA current loopsoffer an active means of as long as sequential data communications over lengthy distances, typically using RS232 protocols. The current loop technology for serial data infrastructures is a technique that has some rewards over the more widely used voltage approach.

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 30

Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) is a structure of software and hardware fundamentals that allows manufacturing administrations to: Control work processes locally or at remote locations. Gather moniter and process real-time data.

Process Control in Mechanical Engineering - Answer 31

A human-machine interface (HMI) is the user interface that connects an operator to the controller for a manufacturing arrangement. Term human machine interface originates in picture when any human being move toward in connection with a machine.

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