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Contents

Introduction..

Method.

Data Analysis.

Results.

Discussion.

Conclusion.

References.

Introduction to Oxidative Stress

Oxidative stress is defined as the delicate balance between free radicals production followed by amelioration through the antioxidant protection system. Free radicals production is initiated through molecular oxygen consumption. A free radical is a reactive unpaired electron. In living beings, free radicals multitude exist in the form of hydrogen atom, carbon and/or sulphur centred radicals and transition metal reactive ions, derived from nitrogen and/or oxygen. Most of the radicals are reactive and highly unstable. Further, hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion radicals, peroxynitrite and nitric oxide radicals are usually associated with many disease processes. The above-stated radicals can damage cell membranes and nucleus. It is well recognized that physical activity has a direct impact on the production of reactive oxygen species. Further, free radicals have both have negative and positive physiological effects. Exercise can decrease the negative effects of free radicals on the body. Further, a living organism has antioxidant protection system like superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, vitamins and catalase1. The present report aims to evaluate the relationship between exercise and oxidative stress levels through an experiment in the rats as exercise and free radicals production is yet to be thoroughly understood. This would be followed by a thorough discussion of the methodology and results of the experiment, followed by discussion and conclusion.

Method of Relation Between Exercise and Oxidative Stress Levels

In the present report, the hypothesis was “What is the impact of physical exercise on oxidative stress levels in the diet-controlled rat”? The null hypothesis was “There is a significant impact of physical exercise on oxidative stress levels in the diet-controlled rat”. The alternative hypothesis was “There is no significant impact of physical exercise on oxidative stress levels in the diet-controlled rat”. The experiment had consisted of 10 months old 18 Wister rats. 18 rats were divided into three groups including Group A, Group B and Group C. In each group, six rats were placed and each group had provided with the different diet and exercise chart. Rats of Group A had to involve in 20 minutes of exercise on wheels schedule for 18 months and Group B for 40 minutes for the same duration of time. Further, Group C was the control group and rats of this group had been involved in exercise freely as per their capacity.

While conducting research, it is vital to compare the study groups with the control one to fetch data from both normal and abnormal condition. In the present research, every month the body weight (in grams) of the 18 rats were calculated. In every research, it is essential to set the indicators to monitor the research process2. Similarly, in the present research rats’ weight had been deployed to indicate the research process as health rats could be proven better in the research process. After 18 months the liver samples of each rat were taken to evaluate superoxide dismutase concentration in per mg of protein units. Superoxide dismutase is an enzyme that acts against the consequences of free radicals3. In the following paragraph, the data analysis technique would be encompassed.

Data Analysis of Relation Between Exercise and Oxidative Stress Levels

Data analysis is the systematical technique that aids in describing and illustrating the collected data. It is essential to apply the appropriate data analysis tool to evaluate the research findings. In the present research, the mean and standard deviation data analysis method had been deployed. Mean is the average of all the data collected, for example, if the researcher has four different responses, the mean of the four ratings can be calculated by adding all the four response divided by the number of response4. Standard deviation is helped in finding the mean-variance. Standard deviation can be calculated by subtracting then mean from each data, then square the difference and add all the values follow by dividing the value with the number of data values then take the square root. Standard deviation is the good variation measure5. The mean and standard deviation value of the superoxide dismutase had been calculated. Further, the graph would be plotted using excel.

Results of Exercise and Oxidative Stress Levels

Group A

Count

observation (x)

x-mean

(x-mean)2

 

1

16.5

-2.666666667

7.111111

 

2

19.7

0.533333333

0.284444

 

3

22.35

3.183333333

10.13361

 

4

17.6

-1.566666667

2.454444

 

5

21.45

2.283333333

5.213611

 

6

17.4

-1.766666667

3.121111

Sum

 

115

-7.1

28.31

Count (n)

 

6

6

6

Average (mean)

 

19.16

   

variance

     

5.66

Standard deviation 2.37

Table1: Depicting the superoxide dismutase units per mg of protein (SOD) values in Group A at 18 months.

As per the Table1, the average of the SOD in Group A rats are 19.16/mg, further, the standard deviation is 2.37. 

Group B

Count

observation (x)

x-mean

(x-mean)2

 

1

26.1

2.166667

4.694444

 

2

21.35

-2.58333

6.673611

 

3

22.9

-1.03333

1.067778

 

4

26.2

2.266667

5.137778

 

5

21.75

-2.18333

4.766944

 

6

25.3

1.366667

1.867778

Sum

 

143.6

0

24.20833

Count (n)

 

6

6

6

Average (mean)

 

23.93

   

variance

     

4.84

Standard deviation 2.20

Table2: Depicting the superoxide dismutase units per mg of protein (SOD) values in Group B at 18 months.

As per the Table2, the average of the SOD in Group B rats are 23.93/mg, further, the standard deviation is 2.20. Rats of Group A had to involve in 20 minutes of exercise on wheels schedule for 18 months and for Group B for 40 minutes for same duration of time.

Group C

Count

observation (x)

x-mean

(x-mean)2

 

1

15.45

-0.725

0.525625

 

2

17.9

1.725

2.975625

 

3

11.55

-4.625

21.39063

 

4

16.3

0.125

0.015625

 

5

22.25

6.075

36.90563

 

6

13.6

-2.575

6.630625

Sum

 

97.05

1.6

68.44375

Count (n)

 

6

6

6

Average (mean)

 

16.17

   

variance

     

13.68

Standard deviation 3.6

Table3: Depicting the superoxide dismutase units per mg of protein (SOD) values in Group C at 18 months.

As per the Table1, the average of the SOD in Group B rats are 16.17/mg, further, the standard deviation is 3.6. Group C was control group and rats of this group had been involved in exercise freely as per their own capacity.

SOD values

Group A

Group B

Group C (control)

Mean

19.16

23.93

16.17

Standard Deviation

2.3

2.2

3.6

Table4: Mean and Standard deviation of SOD values in all the three groups.

As per the Table4, the SOD values are more in Group B as compared to Group A and control group.

Plot 1: Mean and Standard deviation of SOD values in all the three groups.

As per the plot 1, the SOD values are more in Group B as compared to Group A and control group.

Excel sheet1: Showing the body weight changes from 10 months to 17 months in all the groups. In all the groups the weight of the rats are increasing with the time.

Discussion on Relation Between Exercise and Oxidative Stress Levels

The main findings of the present research were an improve SOD levels in the rats with increased exercise duration. Regarding body weight, all three groups showed an increase in body weight throughout the research. The present research findings are compatible with other studies Marmeet et al., 20186 and Simioni et al., 20187. Moderate physical activity along with an energetic lifestyle can be proven useful in the inhibition of oxidative stress; further helps in prevention from diabetes mellitus type II, neurodegenerative disease, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disorders. The aids of exercise are reflected in the production of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase etcetera and non-enzymatic antioxidants like uric acid, bilirubin, and lipoic acid1. Reactive oxygen species induced by exercise is accompanied by intensification in oxygen uptake mechanism due to leakage of an electron in the energy production site. As per the research, acute exercise with moderate to high concentration can increase oxidative stress. Whereas, long duration with low intensity does not consume all the antioxidant that leads to unaltered oxidative stress. Some epidemiological studies suggest that increased duration of exercise can increase the risk of cardiac disease and mortality that is associated with the oxidative damage due to prolonged aerobic workout. However, the above-stated response can be mitigated in athletes because of exercise induce adaptations like decreasing reactive oxygen species and increase antioxidant defence6.

Conclusion on Relation Between Exercise and Oxidative Stress Levels

A free radical is a reactive unpaired electron. In living beings, free radicals multitude exist in the form of hydrogen atom, carbon and/or sulphur centred radicals and transition metal reactive ions, derived from nitrogen and/or oxygen. Further, free radicals have both have negative and positive physiological effects. Exercise can decrease the negative effects of free radicals on the body. The main findings of the present research are to improve SOD levels. Regarding body weight, all three groups showed an increase in body weight throughout the research. The aids of exercise are reflected in the production of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants. long-duration exercise with low intensity does not consume all the antioxidant that leads to unaltered oxidative stress. Increased exercise duration can upsurge the cardiovascular disease risk and mortality that is related to the oxidative harm due to extended aerobic workout. However, the response can be lessened in athletes as exercise induce adaptations include decrease reactive oxygen species and increase antioxidant defence can develop in them.

References for Relation Between Exercise and Oxidative Stress Levels

Ighodaro OM, Akinloye OA. First line defence antioxidants-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX): Their fundamental role in the entire antioxidant defence grid. Alexandria Journal of Medicine. 2018 Dec 1;54(4):287-93

Northey JM, Cherbuin N, Pumpa KL, Smee DJ, Rattray B. Exercise interventions for cognitive function in adults older than 50: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2018 Feb 1;52(3):154-60.

Shrivastava A, Aggarwal LM, Mishra SP, Khanna HD, Shahi UP, Pradhan S. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal versus cancerous cells—An overview. Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics (IJBB). 2019 Aug 26;56(1):7-19.

O'Leary Z. The essential guide to doing your research project. Sage; 2017 Mar 20.

Petrie A, Sabin C. Medical statistics at a glance. John Wiley & Sons; 2019 Sep 30.

Marmett B, Nunes RB, de Souza KS, Lago PD, Rhoden CR. Aerobic training reduces oxidative stress in skeletal muscle of rats exposed to air pollution and supplemented with chromium picolinate. Redox Report. 2018 Jan 1;23(1):146-52.

Simioni C, Zauli G, Martelli AM, Vitale M, Sacchetti G, Gonelli A, Neri LM. Oxidative stress: role of physical exercise and antioxidant nutraceuticals in adulthood and aging. Oncotarget. 2018 Mar 30;9(24):17181.

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