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  • Subject Name : Research Report

Introduction to Parenting Styles

Parents and children have a deep bond and a number of research studies have shown that parents have the major role in developing discipline in the children (Masten, 2018). Combination of strategies used for the developmental process of the child is known as parenting style and the parenting style used by every parent determine the developmental phase of the children. Parents use a number of positive discipline strategies that are focused on developing discipline in the children. Parenting style of each parent determines the choice of the discipline strategy and it ultimately contributes to behavior development in the children. Parents follow a number of strategies to discipline the children for example reasoning with the children, threatening the children, ignoring the children, commanding the children, allowing the children time to comply, anticipating the needs of the children, withdrawing privileges from the children for a specific time period and rewarding and reprimanding the children. Praising the positive behavior in the children and ignoring negative behavior of the children is another common parenting approach followed by the parents. The research focuses on the primary data collected by Jacqui Southey during her dissertation through a survey with 9 parents.

Research Aim and Objectives

Aim of the assignment is to understand the parenting styles and the positive disciple practices used by the parents in Aotearoa New Zealand. Main objective of the research is to identify a number of parenting practices done by parents that lead to greater discipline development in the children. Further, the research strives to investigate the best positive discipline strategy for developing discipline and positive behavior in the children. Further, the research focuses on identifying the impact of all the identified strategies on the children. 

Research Question

Research questions are developed to provide a base to the research. They are divided into primary research question and secondary research question. The primary research question is the major focus of the research. It is:

  • What are the different parenting styles and positive discipline practices that are used by parents in Aotearoa New Zealand?

Secondary research questions for the research are:

  • What are the different parenting practices in parents that lead to greater discipline development in the children?
  • What are the best positive discipline strategy for developing discipline and positive behavior in the children?
  • What is the impact of all the identified strategies on the children?

Literature Review on Parenting Styles

According to Doepke and Zilibotti (2017), parenting style is a unique attribute of a parent that determines the combination of strategies that are used by them in the development of their child’s behavior. Authors also stated that every parent have a degree of commonalities in their parenting style. Moreover, these similarities are so common that they have led to the development of 4 parenting styles. According to Harwood et al., (2019), the Baum rind parenting styles involve autocriatarian or disciplinarian parenting style, permissive or indulgent parenting style, uninvolved type of parenting style and ultimately the authoritative parenting style. Although, these parenting styles are highly effective in identifying almost all the possible parenting styles but they can vary in cross-cultural communities (Harwood et al., 2019). According to Doepke and Zilibotti (2017), culture is one of the most important factors that determine the behavior and discipline factors in a child. An inclusive community will bring up children that require fewer efforts in discipline development in comparison to an exclusive community which do not wish to change, stop or modify the faulty behavior pattern of the children.

According to Lenne et al., (2019), the authoritarian parenting involves a strict discipline style in which negotiations are very few. Moreover, punishments are common and communication is one sided i.e. from parents to the children. The researcher has stated that these parents are less nurturing in nature and they have greater expectations from their children with limited flexibility. Kuppens and Ceulemans (2019), have postulated that authoritarian parents are often considered as disciplinarians. However, they are very strict with the children which lead to fewer compatibility between the parents and the children. According to Lee, Kim andYang(2018), permissive parenting is a type of indulgent parenting style in which the parents are very lenient with the children. They have no rules for the children and let them figure out lives on their own. The warm and nurturing parenting style is effective in bringing up love and affection but it have fewer capabilities of developing habits and discipline in the children.

Kuppens and Ceulemans (2019), have stated that the uninvolved parenting style is the style in which the parents are lost in their own world. They do not get involved with the children and no specific discipline style is used. The parents in this case are either unaware of the child’s behavior, caring approach or are suffering from emotional trauma such as divorce or depression. Lenne et al., (2019), have stated that the authoritative parenting is a reasonable and clear parenting style in which the parents clearly explain the expectations from the children. The children that are developed through this parenting style are self-disciplined in nature. Moreover, they have greater understanding with their parents which reduce conflicts and enhance expectations and goal directed development.

It has been stated that both mother and father can have different parenting styles for their children (Lee, Kim&Yang, 2018). However, van der Horst and Sleddens (2017) have stated that having authoritative parenting style in at least one parent can be effective for the child. It is not always the disciplinary factors that determine the behavior and developmental pattern of the child but it also involve the child’s temperament, teaching style and influence of the child’s peer group. Positive company makes the child more considerate toward the society and the parents. However, negative company makes the child more resilient toward the society and the parents. Segrin and Flora (2019), have explained parenting styles such as the helicopter parenting style and the free range parenting style that determine different discipline based strategy for the children. The helicopter parenting style is similar to the authoritative style with a greater involvement and nurturing. Moreover, the free range parenting style is completely uninvolved style with more independent thinking.

Methodology of Parenting Styles

The research used the primary data collected by Jacqui Southey which was focused on the investigation of positive discipline practices of the parents in children from Aotearoa New Zealand. The research conducted was both qualitative and quantitative in nature and the questions asked from the study participants included both close and open ended questions. According to Levitt et al., (2018), quantitative research is numerical in nature but the qualitative research is more descriptive and analytical in nature. 9 parents from the Aotearoa New Zealand were selected for the survey and both open and close ended questions were asked to them. The open ended questions included open communication and interactions with the parents. It assessed the views of the parents and then analyzed their views.

Moreover, the close ended questions in the survey were asked to analyze the numerical data related to the prevalence of parents opting a certain parenting style and discipline strategies. The discipline strategies such as reasoning with the children, threaten the children, ignoring the children, commanding the children, allowing the children time to comply, anticipating the needs of the children, withdrawing privileges from the children for a specific time period and rewarding and reprimanding the children were used in the close ended question survey. Praising the positive behavior in the children and ignoring negative behavior of the children is another common parenting approach followed by the parents. The data analysis of the close ended survey was thus performed by basic statistical tools such as mean, standard deviation and mode.

Results of Parenting Styles Report

Number of parents involved in a certain type of disciplinary activity indicated the prevalence of that activity in practice. The statistical analysis followed indicated maximum use of daily anticipation of children needs, weekly ignoring the negative behavior of the children. However, a number of parents ignored their children weekly which was okay for their independent development. The authoritative parenting style was most effective form of parenting style for the children and it indicated maximum use of engagement with the children with anticipation of expectations clearly and recognizing the needs of the children.

Survey questions such as “how important is affection between your child and you?”, “what things do you do like to do with your children?” and “what happens when yours rules are broken?” were asked. The results reported that affection is very important for the developmental process of the children. At least one parent must be emotionally involved with the children but a number of parents face difficulty in involving emotionally because of conditions such as depression. Parents like to do weekly inclusive activities such as sports and tramping with the children. But, some parents leave the children alone and does not engage with them in any sort of activities. While rules are broken some parents ignore them, some analyze their actions and be respectful toward the children, some try to modify the rules as per the needs of the children and some scold the children.

Data Analysis and Discussion on Parenting Styles 

The results of the research bought up that there are a total of four types of parenting styles that uses a number of disciplinary strategies to change, develop or modify a certain type of behavior in the children (Detnakarintra et al., 2020). These four types of parenting styles involve authoritarian parenting, permissive parenting, uninvolved parenting and authoritative parenting (Bi et al., 2018). Findings of the research indicated that authoritative parenting style was the most effective form of parenting style in developing disciplinary actions in the children. Parental practices such as communicating expectations of behaviors from the children early in addition to allowing the child to comply can be effective disciplinary strategies for greater development of discipline in the children. Moreover, it is important for the parents to recognize the feelings and efforts of the children so disciplinary strategies such as anticipating the child’s needs, rewarding the child and acknowledging the feelings of the child are also important discipline developing strategies (Martínez et al., 2019). The identified strategies in the research can have both positive and negative impact over the children. The positive impact is because of inclusive parents however, the negative impact is because of uninvolved parents.

Conclusion on Parenting Styles

In conclusion, it can be stated that parents have different parenting styles. These parenting styles justifies their actions and in actions. Although every parent is different in nature but parents often have similar parenting patterns which are divided into four types of parenting styles. These four types of parenting styles involve authoritarian parenting, permissive parenting, uninvolved parenting and authoritative parenting. Findings of the research indicated that authoritative parenting style was the most effective form of parenting style in developing disciplinary actions in the children and at least one parent was expected to have authoritative parenting approach in developing needs of the children. It is important for the children to be informed about expectations hence the discipline style that contained proper recognition to the feelings of the children, anticipating needs of the children and ignoring slight mistakes of the children was effective form of parenting style and it had positive impact over the development of the child in terms of disciplinary actions.

Recommendation of Parenting Styles

According to Zarra-Nezhad et al. (2018), affection between the child and the parent is one of the most important factors that determine the development and growth of the children. An affectionate parent is more considerate toward healthy development and needs of the children which makes the children to respect the parents and hence it makes it easy for the parents to develop disciplinary behavior in the children. But, some parents who are either suffering from personal crisis or depression must be considerate and affectionate toward the children in order to develop emotional bond and respect.

Some parents often ignore the needs of the children and primarily focus on reduction of the mistakes of them. However, this is an inappropriate approach of discipline development (Dunbar et al., 2017). The children are expected to feel loved and this can be done by recognizing their needs and amending the rules as per their needs.

Reference for Report on Parenting Styles

Bi, X., Yang, Y., Li, H., Wang, M., Zhang, W., & Deater-Deckard, K. (2018). Parenting styles and parent–adolescent relationships: The mediating roles of behavioral autonomy and parental authority. Frontiers in Psychology9, 2187.

Detnakarintra, K., Trairatvorakul, P., Pruksananonda, C., & Chonchaiya, W. (2020). Positive mother‐child interactions and parenting styles were associated with lower screen time in early childhood. Acta Paediatrica109(4), 817-826.

Doepke, M., & Zilibotti, F. (2017). Parenting with style: Altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission. Econometrica85(5), 1331-1371.

Dunbar, A. S., Leerkes, E. M., Coard, S. I., Supple, A. J., & Calkins, S. (2017). An integrative conceptual model of parental racial/ethnic and emotion socialization and links to children's social‐emotional development among African American families. Child Development Perspectives11(1), 16-22.

Harwood, C. G., Knight, C. J., Thrower, S. N., & Berrow, S. R. (2019). Advancing the study of parental involvement to optimise the psychosocial development and experiences of young athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise42, 66-73.

Kuppens, S., & Ceulemans, E. (2019). Parenting styles: A closer look at a well-known concept. Journal of Child and Family Studies28(1), 168-181

Lee, D. W., Kim, J. G., & Yang, Y. M. (2018). The influence of parenting style on child behavior and dental anxiety. Pediatric Dentistry40(5), 327-333.

Lenne, R. L., Joyal-Desmarais, K., Jones, R. E., Huelsnitz, C. O., Panos, M. E., Auster-Gussman, L. A., ... & Simpson, J. A. (2019). Parenting styles moderate how parent and adolescent beliefs shape each other's eating and physical activity: Dyadic evidence from a cross-sectional, US National Survey. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology81, 76-84.

Levitt, H. M., Bamberg, M., Creswell, J. W., Frost, D. M., Josselson, R., & Suárez-Orozco, C. (2018). Journal article reporting standards for qualitative primary, qualitative meta-analytic, and mixed methods research in psychology: The APA Publications and Communications Board task force report. American Psychologist73(1), 26

Martínez, I., Murgui, S., García, O. F., & García, F. (2019). Parenting in the digital era: Protective and risk parenting styles for traditional bullying and cyberbullying victimization. Computers in Human Behavior90, 84-92.

Masten, A. S. (2018). Resilience theory and research on children and families: Past, present, and promise. Journal of Family Theory & Review10(1), 12-31

Segrin, C., & Flora, J. (2019). Fostering social and emotional intelligence: What are the best current strategies in parenting?. Social and Personality Psychology Compass13(3), e12439.

Van der Horst, K., & Sleddens, E. F. (2017). Parenting styles, feeding styles and food-related parenting practices in relation to toddlers’ eating styles: A cluster-analytic approach. PloS One12(5).

Zarra-Nezhad, M., Moazami-Goodarzi, A., Nurmi, J. E., Eklund, K., Ahonen, T., & Aunola, K. (2018). Children’s Shyness Moderates the Associations between Parenting Behavior and the Development of Children’s Pro-Social Behaviors. Journal of Child and Family Studies27(9), 3008-3018.

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