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1. The performance indicators in the field of health care and aged services are known to be as a mechanism which can be used for measuring the quality in order to facilitate the improvement of the quality and for the better management of the systems (Mossialos et al., 2016). There have been certain indicators of performance in the field of the health care service for the better improvement in maintaining the quality of healthcare which was done by the regulators, policy makers and also by the many of the researchers for more than two decades. Some national and international incentives have also been formed so as to rate the performance of the health care systems. In Australia, one of the agency was formed in the year 2011 which was given the name as National Health Performance Authority which is also abbreviated as NHPA. It is an independent portfolio agency whose primary task is to monitor and keep a report on the healthcare system performance, this was then further merged with the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (Humphries et al.,2018).

The main task which NHPA has to perform recurrently is to review its performance and accountability background so as to ensure that there remains relevant maintenance of the services in the health care sector and then they can continue the addressing of the needs for fulfilling the people of Australia with the high-quality healthcare (Humphries et al., 2018). A healthcare KPI (Key Performance Indicator) is a process used in the healthcare so as to measure the well-defined performance which can further result in the monitoring, analysing and also sometimes optimizing all the relevant development and procedure to increase the patient satisfaction. The selection of the performance indicators needs to happen within a framework or typical so as to be sure for knowing what we are supposed to be measuring. However, the Performance Indicators (PIs) have been typically designed to assess the impact of the government policies for public services. Hence, a central feature of the government policy has been designed for the change of the public service and thus determining whether the policy objectives are being met or not. There are a lot of performance indicators which should be assessed but choosing some of the specific performance indicators among the lot can be quite a difficult task and ideally for the seeking of the effective and the efficient use of the health resources one should also seek the reinforcement of the activity of the health professionals for achieving the best results to determine by a number of performance indicators such as the five-year survival rates, incidence of complications and for allowing the case complexity and readmission rates (Sinelnikov, Inouye amp Kerper, 2015).

There is an everyday need for increasing the importance of performance indicators in the health policy as there are a lot of them so to identify which is the most important in assessing the performance from a pool full of performance indicators is difficult. However, the patient wait time is the one parameter that is one kind of a PI that should continuously have some certain kinds of changes. The helping with the staffing and the scheduling can result in the increment of the patient satisfaction. This can also give an insight as what is happening for the average amount of time a patient must wait for the checking in and seeing a provider.

The choice of this performance indicator is very essential because a patient coming to the hospital should get treated first instead of waiting for extensive and long hours in order to get treated (Sinelnikov, Inouye amp Kerper, 2015). Sometimes, there are various kinds of emergency which can happen to anyone and in order to avoid that waiting time some certain type actions should be there which can help in the better processing of the treatment. This is a part of the operations and the management and this issue should be given major importance. The second parameter for the specific performance indicator which is the most important factor in assessing the performance of the health care and its services can be the time taken for the average insurance claim and the processing time and cost of the same. It actually should average the amount of the time which is being taken by the organization and how it spends and processes the insurance claims. When it is at a point that it is comparatively low then it can further indicate that the facility receives all the payments faster and the cost is somewhat less to the patient. Another specific performance indicator which can be used for assessing the performance in the health care and the aged care service is taking feedback from the patients (Lam et al., 2016). The main and basic intention behind all the performance indicator is to facilitate the satisfaction of the patient in various aspects. Due to that, this point should come under the PI so as to ensure the proportion of individuals who can express that they are satisfied with their level of community participation and inclusion.

There are also some of the examples for this type of Performance Indicator and they are taking the survey or questionnaire which can capture how well the service providers can encourage the individuals to set the goals and identify the opportunities to meet such goals (Lam et al., 2016). The last and the most important performance indicator which should be followed and incorporated is patient confidentiality. The confidentiality of any patient is really very critical and a sensitive issue and it basically measures the number of times a patients confidential medical records were compromised or should be seen by an unapproved party even when the patient does not primarily have any issue regarding the same (Dheensa, Fenwick amp Lucassen, 2017).

2. The performance indicators which have been chosen are the effectiveness of the quality and safety which includes the satisfaction of the employees working over there and also the patient satisfaction and engagement in the various demeanours for the various activities. The outpatient time is also one of the factors which need to have some changes because of the issues of the patient which he/she can face in the case of emergency (Sinelnikov, Inouye, Kerper, 2015). This is one factor which works on a parallel basis and go hand in hand because if the patient is not enough satisfied with the services of the healthcare, it will only result in the misconduct of the management can result in the loosing of the reputation maintained by the hospital. Also this kind of increase in traffic can also result in the less attention which can be paid to the patient as there can be some employees who might fail to deliver the high quality healthcare.

Due to this divided attention towards the various different patients the misconduct of the reputation can happen and this can be maintained by the hospital as there is no point increasing the traffic if the employees cant provide services which a patient can be satisfied with. The other indicator is maintaining the patient confidentiality, an act was formed regarding the same in the year 1974 called as The Privacy Protection Study Commission (PPSC) for investigating the personal data recordkeeping practices of the governmental, regional and the private organizations (Bennett amp Raab, 2017). The primary health record is no longer a tool which can be used to record the impressions, observations and certain instructions, but instead it is more than that and serves many purposes beyond direct health care.

The resource allocation is an important aspect which is used so as to ensure the clear picture on the amount of work that has to be done and how it can be incorporated for a particular amount of work to be done and it also involves the planning of the number of resources that are required for the project. The main concern which is there is that the resource allocation affects primarily public health although most of the investments in this sector aim at reducing the population health risks (Mckie, Singer amp Richardson, 2016).

3. The construction of the indicators which needs to be followed for the support of each of the indicators should have various number of different assets. Some of the performance indicators which are chosen and given a specific priority among the pool of the performance indicators are the outpatient time which has to face by the patient when in the urgent need of the treatment, taking feedbacks from the patient for maintaining the flow of the treatment and also is useful for the patient satisfaction. The patient confidentiality and the time taken for the processing of the insurance claim and also the need of the utilisation of the multiple health care policies is a task a patient has to face (Rieder et al., 2016). The confidentiality of a patient is a foremost important thing and it is one of the essential and core duties of medical practice. The patients tend to routinely share all of the personal information with their respective health care providers.

If that is not followed, and not protected by the providers of the health care services, then this can result in the demolishment of the patient and health care provider relationship. In order to maintain this type of indicators, a proper comprehensive policy should be met and all of the confidential information should be stored by the best IT services and should be secured within the secure systems and no one should have been given the allowance of the misconduct of the same (Zibrowski et al., 2019). The outpatient time should also be given a major importance and in order to overcome that the admission of the patients should be given some extra priority based on the emergency of the situation and can only be achieved by the appropriate management of the healthcare services.

4. The selection of all the performance indicators that have been identified are done in keeping all the respective measures only and due to this, it is safe to say that these performance indicators are appropriate to all the level be it any health or aged care services the first one being the outpatient time (Stimpfel et al., 2016). The outpatient time is the most important key for being a performance indicator, based on the emergency factors and the average time which should be given to all the patients. The performance indicators should be realistic and the above chosen indicator is the most specific and the most realistic indicator which should be assigned and implemented in the health care services. The performance indicators help in achieving and also keeping a track of occupancy rate with time, as sometimes the seats can be overbooked and vice versa is also tend to happen.

The patient satisfaction is also a key which should be measured and implemented as the low patient satisfaction rate is believed to be as a huge red flag in the health care services. Hence, proper amount of attention should be given to all these feedbacks in order to stay in the business and also so as to provide proper care and also to streamline the efficiency (Stimpfel et al.,2016). The average time taken for the insurance claim is also one of the factors which need to focus some light on as it contains a lot of drawbacks such as the patient sometimes do not have the liability of choosing multiple health policies (Kreif et al., 2016). Due to this factor, one has to take a lot of sufferings for the same and in order to ensure the smooth flow of the patient treatment proper amount of focus should be given for the policies and for the average processing time which should be taken for the claim of the insurance.

5. The selection of performance indicators needs to occur within a framework or model so as to be sure that one needs to measure progress or the performance against. The performance measurement has really become as one of the foundations of current efforts in order to the quality of health care or aging in many ways (Friis et al., 2016). The measured performance is mainly putting the evaluation at the level of the indicator. The performance indicators play a very important role in the improvement of health care quality. Sometimes, there is a misconception that the good performance will always lead to good care but unfortunately, that is not true and can thus sacrifice good care. In the current scenario too, the performance indicator is better suited for refining the measured care rather than the caring of the individual patients. The performance measurement is said to be as the major basis of the current effort so as to improve the health care quality.

The performance indicators are designed so as to act as a safety net for the nurture and care which is missed immediately due to the fact that sometimes the patients do not receive the recommended care (Mossialos et al., 2016). The performance measurement has been shown so as to improve compliance with the standards of the care and disease-specific outcomes pertaining to health. Some of the performance indicators have a vast effect on the clinical benefit too. The performance measures have undoubtedly improved the care in some of the clinical areas and with a time when nearly most of the people did not receive the care which they required and deserved some felt that the performance indicator will be a part of the solution and hence its discovery is justified (Lloyd, 2017).

There are some of the ways through which we can improve the performance measurement and the very first one of them is known to be as the good performance measure, all the conditions of the indicated condition must be widespread and the events which are related to all these conditions must be very common and also a well-established evidence-based suggesting intervention in the indicated condition must improve the outcomes sufficiently for justifying the overall effort. The indicators set a certain amount of a benchmark and through that better sustainability and better treatment are given to the patients and this helps directly in the progress towards the attainment of health (Lloyd, 2017). The active aging model is basically based on six different aspects and they are as mentioned below (Lloyd,2017)
1. Health and social services, which basically promotes health by preventing diseases and promoting health services such as continuous care and also mental health care.
2. Behavior-based activities which include the consumption of the alcohol and also smoking and it also focuses on the physical activity, food intake and the maintenance of oral health and proper use of medications.
3. Personal factors such as biological and genetic factors.
4. The ambiance and the physical environment which includes in being with the friendly environment and safety of houses and falls and the absence of the pollution.
5. Social support including the promotion of non-violence and education.
6. Economic factors such as the work and wages provided due to that./


Bennett, C. J., ampRaab, C. D. (2017).The governance of privacy Policy Instruments in Global Perspective. London Routledge.
Dheensa, S., Fenwick, A., amp Lucassen, A. (2017). Approaching confidentiality at a familial level in genomic medicine A focus group study with healthcare professionals.BMJ Open,7(2), e012443.
Friis, K., Lasgaard, M., Rowlands, G., Osborne, R. H., amp Maindal, H. T. (2016). Health literacy mediates the relationship between educational attainment and health behavior a Danish population-based study.DenmarkJournal of Health Communication,21(sup2), 54-60.
Humphries, B., Stanton, R., Scanlan, A., amp Duncan, M. J. (2018). The prevalence and performance of resistance exercise training activities in an Australian population in relation to health authority guidelines.AustraliaJournal of Science and Medicine in Sport,21(6), 616-620.
Kreif, N., Grieve, R., Hangartner, D., Turner, A. J., Nikolova, S., amp Sutton, M. (2016). Examination of the synthetic control method for evaluating health policies with multiple treated units.Health Economics,25(12), 1514-1528.
Lam, A. W., Varona-Marin, D., Li, Y., Fergenbaum, M., ampKuli, D. (2016). Automated rehabilitation system Movement measurement and feedback for patients and physiotherapists in the rehabilitation clinic.HumanComputer Interaction,31(3-4), 294-334.
Lloyd, R. (2017).Quality health care a guide to developing and using indicators. Burlington Jones amp Bartlett Learning.
McKie, J., Singer, P., amp Richardson, J. (2016).The Allocation of Health Care Resources An Ethical Evaluation of the QALYapproach. London Routledge.
Mossialos, E., Wenzl, M., Osborn, R., ampSarnak, D. (2016).2015 International Profiles of Health Care Systems. Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.
Rieder, P., Louis-Courvoisier, M., amp Huber, P. (2016). The end of medical confidentiality Patients, physicians and the state in history.SwitzerlandMedical humanities,42(3), 149-154.
Sinelnikov, S., Inouye, J., amp Kerper, S. (2015). Using leading indicators to measure occupational health and safety performance. Safety Science,72, 240-248
Stimpfel, A. W., Sloane, D. M., McHugh, M. D., amp Aiken, L. H. (2016). Hospitals known for nursing excellence associated with better hospital experience for patients.Health Services Research,51(3), 1120-1134.
Zibrowski, E., Shepherd, L., Booth, R., Sedig, K., amp Gibson, C. (2019). A qualitative study of the theory behind the chairs balancing lean-accelerated patient flow with the need for privacy and confidentiality in an emergency medicine setting.JMIR Human Factors,6(1), e11714.

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