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A review is critical appreciation of any written or performed material. Literature review is meant to analyze literature on any particular topic and its link with the topic. It highlights drawback and weak areas with suggestions to improve them.
This abstract is written to analyze role of human resource development in organizational change process. Now rigid and primitive ideas are exchanged with modern and innovative techniques. Change according to time and situation has become essential for every discipline. Human resource management is an integral part of any organization. This is the only department linked directly to human resources. Role of H.R. management in change of any organization is a vital topic. (Ployhart, 2018)
This review has a wide scope because change is occurring in every discipline and business can be successful only by keeping pace with changing time and strategies.
All important aspects related to change in organizations will be discussed. Factors that cause change, role of management, resistance with its causes and implementation of change will be critically evaluated and analyzed. (Alfes K, 2010)
The pattern of “Order of importance” and compare and contrast has been used to get unbiased results with all pros and cones of the topic.
Any organization depends on its human resources for achievement of its objectives. Human resources are employees in the organization. Changes in policies and structure are also necessary for keeping it up to date. Changes are made to maintain external and internal forces to achieve goal. There are various reasons that call for changes in organizations. (Ployhart, 2018)
Change is alteration of overall working status of an organization. Change is made due to various reasons. Two most important factors are:
Every organization has to exist in a context. It is linked with a chain of consumers, suppliers, other organizations, stakeholders and many governmental departments. An organization has to give respect to goals of others in order to gain its own goal.
When a new technology is introduced and adopted by other organizations it becomes necessary for all the organizations to adopt that technology. When new technology is once adopted it demands for a complete new work structure. The use of computer and automation brought complete change in red tape process of organizations. (Jiang K, 2012)
Customer’s and consumer’s changed requirements, needs and orders are social changes in organizational working. People started thinking in a new way their likes and dislikes had been changed after the rise in level of education, urbanization and international aspects after the modern sources of information that brought social change. An organization is required to change its way according to social behavior and demands of people. (Mettler T, 2009)
Political and legal forces determine the ways and activities that can be undertaken by organization to achieve their aims. The change in political and legal factors affects organizational work.
Every organization exports its products to market. Other organizations with same product and buyer who are buying that product develop a competition in organization. Any change in above mention two conditions calls for appropriate change in organization.
This is not the external factor only that demands change in organization. Internal factor is equally important in this regard.
Old managers are changed with new managers due to retirement, transfer and dismissal. New managers bring their new ideas in the organization. Although the post is same but personality and thoughts are different and demand different changes. (Mettler T, 2009)
If process of an organization faces drawbacks, change becomes inevitable. If management is fail in managing targeted levels are too high to approach, no uniformity in policy decisions and lack of communication in various disciplines.
Nature of workers has changed with the passage of time. Workers of ripe age are loyalty organization, middle age workers to themselves and youngsters to their professions. New and educated workers question the authority and human resource department. (Jackson, 2014)
Management and line managers have to lead the teams according to change. Changes in organizations affect manager and his team but managers are required to influence the employs.
Manager is communicator of change because he tells the employees about change and its conditions. He answers their questions and resolves all the problems. Talking points and information about change are delivered by him. (Alfes K, 2010)
Level of support of manager about any change motivates the employees. Managers and supervisors show their support in the favor of change. They create a targeted and customized way to engage the employees in change.
A manager is a coach for employees as he performs coaching in aware making people about need for change. They share their knowledge and need for change. Require skills and behaviors are implemented by them. (Mettler T, 2009)
Human resource managers are like bridges between employees and project teams. Managers provide input, utilization, results and feed backs of employees about change and its various aspects to the project team. (Jiang K, 2012)
A manager is familiar with resistance and its causes. They know very well its cause, starting point and the ways to control it. They overcome this problem through good governance.
Resistance against change is a common phenomenon in organizations. A few of them are:
If technology and administration bring such changes that results in reducing the roles and status of employees it leads to resistance. If such changes are implemented by force they prove useless with the passage of the time side by side the fear of resistance and organizational turnover.
It is said that managers get what the reward. Rewards motivate the employees. A change which offers rewards is easily acceptable to employees. But a change without reward causes resistance in them. (Jackson, 2014)
A change is always new and unknown to employees. They feel fear about its implementation. This fear with lack of proper communication leads to resistance of employees. Chaotic conditions can be seen in such circumstances.
All organizational owners and employees will resist change to protect benefits of a specific group. They resist protecting their co-workers. This happens at all the levels. Any change threatening the interests of people who are in social bonds is strongly resisted. (Ployhart, 2018)
If mistrust prevails in organization it creates resistance in employees. Faith in intentions of manager is important. But mistrust leads to failure of any change.
It is estimated that in 70% cases changes in organizations meet failure due to negative behavior of employees. Some important steps need to be taken.
It is necessary to define the change clearly in front of all employees of organization. There should be a critical review of objectives of organization and role of change in strategic, ethical and financial goals of organization. It will determine nature of change as well as efforts needed for it. (Nielsen, 2014)
Impacts of change at various organizational levels must be elaborated. There should be a keen observation about impacts of change from organizational interest level to the interest level of an individual. It will determine the need of practice at various parts and provide a sketch for future.
Proper communication about change must be held. Such strategies should be use that will make employees at home with complete understanding of process. A good communication strategy should be use with all those tools which are useful for conveying ideas. (Jiang K, 2012)
Proper training for change is required after the message of change. Structures or informal training in the form of micro learning, online module and face to face training and on job coaching can be held.
In order to get required business goals proper support structure must be provided to employees to help them emotionally and practically in adjustment with change. A mentorship or open door policy is helpful for it. (Jiang K, 2012)
After the implementation of change there should be a proper process for the measurement of change. Manager should keep an eye on the benefits of change and attained goals. Strategies should be use to compare and contrast the change with previous conditions to estimate its benefits. (Jackson, 2014)
An organization which desired for adoptive culture is required to adopt the strategies like:
All large or small organizations need changes in their structure when a new technology is introduced or they want to introduce new products. Human resource development plays a vital role in this change. They help an organization to move towards new ways of doing things. Resistance in employees can be seen many times but it can be resolved through proper guidance. If they are skilled, facilitated, and guided in a proper way they prove embodiment of achievement. Many external and internal factors made changes necessary. Whether the change is caused by internal or external factors. Human resource development proves change adopters. Managers play an important role in successfully managing the change because they know how to deal with human resources. Managers and management can control the resistance and make the change useful through strategy of communication and elaboration.
Alfes K, T. C. (2010). The HR manager as change agent: Evidence from the public sector. Journal of Change Management, 109–127.
Jackson, S. S. (2014). An aspirational framework for strategic human resource management. The Academy of Management Annals, 1–56.
Jiang K, L. D. (2012). How does human resource management influence organizational outcomes? A meta-analytic investigation of mediating mechanisms. Academy of Management Journal, 1264–1294.
Mettler T, R. P. (2009). Performance management in health care: The past, the present, and the future (PDF). x. International Conference Business Informatics., (p. Vienna.). Vienna.
Nielsen, P. A. (2014). "Performance Management, Managerial Authority, and Public Service Performance.". Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory., " 24(2):431–458.
Ployhart, K. a. (2018). The strategic value of selection practices: Antecedents and consequences of firm-level selection practice usage. Academy of Management Journa, 46–66.
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