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Transmission of Power - Course Work Assessment 

The presentation scheme of the scatternet formation during the formation process uses components. The components can be a scattered, a node, or a piconet. There is a leader for each component. If the piconet is a component, the master of the piconet is a leader. In scattered, one master of piconets is considered as a leader. A leader is at the beginning of each node and running a routine (Zaruba et al., 2001).
There is one master device in each office. Since there are 10 offices there will be 10 master devices. After the selection of the masters, each master chooses slaves up to seven of them. Since, Master device cannot serve as a slave for another piconet, there will be one gateway for one piconet. Thus, there will be 10 piconets.

In the offices, here will be the deployment of the localization system. Thus, final tests would be conducted to see whether the requirements are matched by the systems in the environment that is there in the offices.
This test's purpose is in verifying the receiver's ability is meeting the minimum BER required at the maximum power output of (xi), 60 dbm. There are many methods of the Bluetooth usable for localization as the input data. RSSI is the first measure during the inquiry phase that has been a measure usable widely.

Minimum requirement for passing

8,000,000 bits followed by BER 710-6

Performance of the measurement

In performing the floor performance test of EDR BER, initially the transmission is done by the tester with pi/4-DQPSK packets to the DUT with the transmission of power and at the lowest operating frequency so that at the DUT interface the input power is -80 dBM. The packets are received by the DUT, the payload data is extracted and the recovered payload data is re-transmitted in the unchanged packed type when it is being received (Leopold et al., 2003). The re-transmitted packets are acquired from the DUT by the tester and the BER measurement is performed after receiving 8,000,000 bits. There is comparison of this measurement with the threshold 710-6. If the BER measure turns out to be less than the threshold, the procedure as stated above test is repeated at the highest and the mid operating frequencies. If the measures of BER turns out to be greater than the threshold, there is continual of the measurement till the receiving of the160 000 000 payload bits.

Maximum Input Signal Level

The maximum input signal level tests purpose is verifying the ability of the receiver in demodulating a signal at the level of high input power.
Passing requirement
Enhanced data rate
1,600,000 payload bits minimum, BER 0.01,
Basic rate
1,600,000 payload bits minimum, BER 0.1,

Performance f the measurement

In setting up this test, there is direct connection of the tester with the DUT and the turning off of the hopping. For Basic Rate, the mode loop back is set to be tested by the DUT and DH1 packets having a payload, PRBS9 are sent by the tester. The testers power level is set enabling the input DUT seeing -20 dBm.
In Enhanced Data Rate, the mode loopback is set to be tested by the DUT and the turning off of the hopping. The /4-DPSK packets are continually sent by the tester with a payload, PRBS9. The packets will be the type that is longest supported either 2-EVx or2-DHx. If 8-DPSK is supported by the DUT, there will be repeating of the tests with the packet type that is longest supported, either 3-EVx or 3-DHx (Feldmann et al., 2003).

For (xi 5), 47 dbm, the proximity detection technique is carried out. The proximity zones range has been set up to 0.5-meters radius along with the value of the RSSI value being -49 dBm. The going inside and walking around the hall has been repeated for 5 days outside the zone of proximity. In the experiment, certain error causes and proximity detection that are explained below.

Large RSSI values detected outside the proximity zone range

Outside the proximity zone, the occurrence of error detection has been spotted in a number of spots. The detection of the values of RSSI on the error spots are indicated in the figure below in red box. There have been a number of values of RSSI above -49 dBm.

Space limitation

Since some space is occupied by the proximity zone and the users proximity is detected for certain events, the users not wanting the detection of proximity, during the experiment, will have to be avoiding it. This will be critical problem in practice (Bargh and de Groote, 2008).

To set up proximity zones stable range

In setting the value of RSSI and the distance corresponding to it for the proximity zone range, the stable RSSI values has to be figured out that is usable in distinguishing outside and inside of the proximity zone. The RSSI values in the early experiments have been -49 dBm and have been most stable. Contrastingly, the values of the RSSI that ranges between -50 and -60 dBm have been very unstable with difficulty in usage. The values of RSSI that have been measured mostly within less than 0.5-meters are -49 dBm. In this sense, there is possibility of recognizing the outside and inside zone on the basis of RSSI values. In trying finding the stable RSSI values, the confusion matrix has been used that has been subject to utilization in measuring the total error rate.

Response time

The proximity detections response time is a key factor as the response time determines the usability. The response time depends on the application.


Bargh, M. S. and de Groote, R. (2008) Indoor localization based on response rate of bluetooth inquiries. In Proceedings of the firrst ACM international workshop on Mobile entity localization and tracking in GPS-less environments, MELT 08, pages 4954, New York, NY, USA, ACM.

Feldmann, S., Kyamakya, S., Zapater, A. and Lue, Z. (2003) An indoor Bluetooth based positioning system concept, implementation and experimental evaluation. In International Conference on Wireless Networks, pages 109 113, Las Vegas, USA), June.Leopold, M., Dydensborg, M.B. and Bonnet, P. (2003) Bluetooth and sensor networks A reality check. In Proc. 1st ACM Conf Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys 2003), pages 103-113. ACM Press, New York, November.
Zaruba, G., Basagni, S. and Chlamtac, I. (2001) BlueTrees - Scatternet formation to enable Bluetooth-based personal area networks, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications, ICC 2001, Helsinki, Finland, Vol. 1 (1 1-14 June) pp. 273-277.

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