1.1 What is fever? Explain how Peter’s fever developed.
During an infection the body’s defensive reaction is referred to as a Fever. It is basically when the WBC’s release Pyrogen protein that encounters harmful body micro- organism in case of Peter. These Pyrogen protein or chemicals are transported through blood to a particular brain’s part (hypothalamus) known to regulate the body functions like temperature, hunger, thirst as well as sleep. They comprise of heat-sensing neurons and are instrumental in exciting the cold -sensing ones making the hypothalamus to assume the body temperature to be cooler than in reality. This illusion sets a higher than normal temperature by the hypothalamus (Bullock & Manias, 2017). The skin’s blood vessels constrict and increase blood supply to different body organs reducing heat loss through skin causing Peter to feel cold. Peter is suffering from the condition of influenza with pharyngitis which made his body temperature rise because of the aforesaid mechanism.
1.2 State, with explanation, two benefits of fever.
1. A fever is instrumental in stimulating the immune system of Peter’s that produce white blood cells, infection fighting antibodies, as well as interferon all working toward protecting Peter’s body from harmful microorganism’s attack. 2. A fever benefits the body by shuttling iron in the liver making it unavailable or not easily available to ignite the virus growth inside the body. With the raising of body temperature to a few degrees, a fever provides ultimate defense from invading viruses and make it impossible for them to survive and flourish. The higher the body’s core temperature, the lesser the chances of critical and harmful microorganisms survival.
2.1 Given that influenza is caused by a virus, why was Peter prescribed an antibiotic?
The doctor prescribed Peter with phenoxymethylpenicillin 500 antibiotics to treat his sore throat (pharyngitis). Oral penicillin is at present is the preferred drug for pharyngitis, so physicians may prescribe this antibiotic. Phenoxymethylpenicillin is an antibiotic of narrow-spectrum known as penicillin V or penicillin VK. Penicillin is administered orally and is
actively used for moderate / mild infections of the respiratory tract, soft tissues, and skin caused by G-sensitive microorganisms (Marieb & Hoehn, 2019).
2.2 The doctor prescribed phenoxymethylpenicillin. Discuss the mode of action of phenoxymethylpenicillin.
Phenoxymethylpenicillin is a type of Penicillin that belongs to a larger class of antibiotics called beta-lactams. Beta-lactams only cure infections that are caused by free living bugs, AKA extracellular bacteria. In particular, plain penicillin only provides good coverage against gram positive bacteria, because gram positive bugs have more peptidoglycan in their cell walls that the antibiotic can target. In case of animal infections they use the human cells as host, which type of cell depends on the type of virus. Viruses are supposed to be primitive. As drugs act against viruses they do not "kill" the virus but they help the body (wbcs') destroy the viruses with more ease, they are called antiviral (Bullock & Manias, 2017).
2.3 Explain why antibiotics are not effective against viruses.
Viruses are unique minimalistic organisms. They have only those instruments by which they penetrate a host, inject or release a RNA/DNA, a few enzymes to place/inject said DNA/RNA into host system, and a few proteins that form a coat no organelles no machinery to synthesize proteins. This is the reason why they cannot be classified as a living organism. Antibiotic, by definition means against life so a virus is non-living and cannot be killed technically as it is not exactly living. More importantly the targets on which the antibiotics work in case of bacteria are not present in a virus. A virus uses the host machinery to create its proteins for it and "reproduce" on its own it cannot survive like a bacterium (Lehne et al. 2013).
3.1 Name and describe two (2) possible ways that Peter could have contracted the influenza virus (modes of transmission).
The influenza virus may have contracted Peter by direct or indirect contact that is by touching contaminated objects or surface or through a contaminated person. Influenza viruses are subjected to be transmitted to humans through various infectious mechanisms, primarily through droplets, respiratory secretions (mucous membrane) or with contact of an infectious element with the respiratory tract on the University Premises.
3.2 Identify and explain two (2) ways by which the modes of transmission could be broken
Transmission can be broken with not coming into direct contact with objects such as commonly used plates or things that are used by numerous people. Using gloves and sanitizing hands. Wearing masks and social distancing from an infected person will help in breaking the chain. A plentiful warm drink of room temperature can be recommended - tea
with lemon and honey, cranberry or lingo berry juice, alkaline mineral water. Taking very large doses of vitamin C, up to 1000 mg per day can also be helpful (Lehne et al. 2013).
4.1 Describe the physiological basis of the first signinPeter’sthroat. Relate your response to this case study.
The 1st sign is Redness. In context to the case study it has been seen that Peters throat is red due to the infection of pharyngitis. When an infection of pharyngitis occurs, throat often becomes red (WHO, 2015).
4.2 Describe the physiological basis of the second signinPeter’sthroat. Relate your response to this case study.
The 2nd sign in context to Peter’s throat is that the throat was swollen. Swollen lymph glands and sore throat is frequently subjected by a bacterial infection so antibiotics are generally used to cater the infection. In this case it is very important to consider that if it is caused by a virus then antibiotics will not be effective. Antibiotics were prescribed to Peter in this case as his throat was swollen due to pharyngitis (Marieb & Hoehn, 2019).
4.3 Describe the physiological basis of the third sign inPeter’sthroat. Relate your response to this case study.
The 3rd sign is the patchiness and yellow white exudates of Peter’s tonsils. White discoloration subjects in the tonsils or may sometimes come into view in context to the tonsils. The discoloration can be on the back of the throat or around the tonsils or bleach. White spots in context to the tonsils are often the result of a throat infection (WHO, 2015).
5.1 Compare and contrast the processes by which viruses and bacteria replicate
A virus is comprised of a capsule (shell) inside with DNA/RNA. A virus enters, a eukaryotic or host cell it controls cell’s internal machinery begins to replicate itself. The cell membrane cannot hold viral copies and bursts open, letting the viruses free to infect’ another cell to. Viruses are significantly smaller than bacteria and can be fourth with antiviral with an envelope and capsid inside which there is DNA instrumental in coding the enzymes and proteins that carry out its functions. Viruses cannot make their coating of their own enzymes and require a host to do as in the case of influenza. They do have some interesting features, like the ability to have their genetic the information encoded in pretty much any way conceivable, from double or single stranded DNA to double or single-stranded RNA need a host cell to replicate their selves (Boland, SantaII & Video Education Australasia, 2011).
On the other hand, a bacterium is a single-celled also known as (prokaryote) organism without a nucleus and a DNA ring inside of a cell membrane’s outer cycle to replicate itself. Thus, they exist in colonies with a huge number of known bacteria species. Bacteria are made up of cell wall peptidogly can and are living things with no organelles like mitochondria or endoplasmic reticulum. Most bacteria can be parasitic and their spread can be broken using antibiotics. These antis biotic are capable of working on its photosynthesis as well as chemosynthesis and restrict its replication. Still, there are some that are necessary for life on this planet and on a cellular level they make up about 90% of human bodies with the majority of them living in the intestines protecting from pathogens and helping digest food and taking vitamins (Lehne et al., 2016).
Boland, M. (Director), SantaII, J. (Presenter), & Video Education Australasia. (2011). Infection control in healthcare [Videorecording]. Bendigo, Australia: VEA. Available online
Bullock, S., & Manias, E. (2017). Fundamentals of pharmacology (8th ed.). Frenchs Forest, Australia. Pearson Australia
Lehne, R. A., Moore, L , Crosby, L., & Hamilton, D. (2016). Pharmacology for nursing care (9th ed.) St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier.
Lehne, R. A., Moore, L., Crosby, L., & Hamilton, D. (2013). Pharmacology for nursing care (8th ed.), St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier). (Available online).
Marieb, E.N., & Hoehn, K. (2019). Human anatomy & physiology. Global edition. (11th ed.). Essex, England: Pearson Education Limited.
WHO. (2015). Influenza, an unpredictable threat. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/topics/
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