a) It is given that sensor is made up of copper
Dimensions of hall sensor=120 micrometers (thin copper film of thickness (d) 120 micrometers is used for Hall probe).
Current needed =20 Amperes
External magnetic field activates the Hall Effect sensors. There are two major features of magnetic field
2) Flux density
The Hall Effect sensor output signal depends on magnetic field density surrounding the device. The sensor will detect and generate an output voltage when the magnetic flux density surrounding the sensor is more than a certain pre-set threshold.
Hall Effect Sensor is composed of a thin piece of p-type semiconductor (gallium arsenide (GaAs), indium antimonide (InSb) or indium arsenide (InAs)) rectangular in shape. Placing a Hall Effect sensor in a magnetic field results in magnetic flux lines that exert force on the semiconductor material. As a result, the charge carriers (electrons or holes) are deflected to either side of semiconductor slab. Charge carriers movement is due to magnetic force they are experiencing while passing through semiconductor material.
Movement of electron and holes leads to potential difference. External magnetic field impacts the electron movement through semiconductor. This impact is more in flat rectangular shape material.
b) Hall Effect Derivation
The Hall Effect derivation is as follows
The downward magnetic field is equal to upward electric force at equilibrium
c) It is given that Hall Voltage must be 1V. Thus, the selected parameters are
B=0.087 Tesla (given)
Sensitivity of Hall probe= = 10-6/87× 10-3 = 0.00001149 V/T or 0.01149 Mv/T
d) Design Evaluation
The range of sensitivity for modern Hall probes is between 50 mV/T and 1 V/T at the nominal biasing current. The sensitivity drifts with time which necessitates periodic calibration, VH = f (B), of the Hall probe.
Another research shows that range of sensitivity for Hall Effect sensors goes around -0.07 to + 0.07T but it is too sensitive.
It is practical to construct our designed Hall sensor as our sensitivity is close sensitivity of commercial hall probes available.
The sensitivity of Hall sensors can be improve by implementing them into an especially tailored magnetic concentrator. In this way Noise Equivalent Magnetic Induction (NEMI) can be reduced.
Ausserlechner, U., 2016. Hall Effect Devices with Three Terminals: Their Magnetic Sensitivity and Offset Cancellation Scheme. Journal of Sensors, 2016, pp.1-16.
BYJUS. 2020. Hall Effect Derivation With Simple Steps And Applications Hall Effect. [online] Available at: <https://byjus.com/physics/derivation-of-hall-effect/> [Accessed 17 October 2020].
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