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Public Health Association of Australia

Introduction to Physical Activity

Australian government to accomplish healthy live among Australian population introduces physical activity policy (Department of Health, 2020). For this, the Australian commonwealth, state, territory, and local government continue funding interventions to encourage the physical activity among population (Australian Medical Student Association, 2018). The government initiative is to reduce the burden of Australia’s inactivity, as there is a significant social, health and economic burden connected with insufficient physical activity. This can stated through the fact that around 2.6% of total disease burden in Australia, thus there is increase requirement and implementation of physical activity policy. The stakeholders associated with the policy implementation includes international organisations such as world bank, Asia and Pacific, national and local government, health care NGO, civil society, common wealth society, private sector organisations professional employers, employees, sports society, and sports trainers. The essay will provide a deep insight on the preliminary stakeholders’ assessment. The assessment comprises of matrix position of stakeholders, their low interest, influential rate, and their mapping. The essay will also demonstrate the importance of these stakeholders in maintaining the physical activity policy.

Physical Activity Policy

Physical activity and healthy eating are the allied with psychological, cognitive, physical, mental, and other benefits to the younger children, adult, and geriatric population (Stylianou & Walker, 2017). From the paper, it was found that in Australia, the inactivity crisis increase from time to time that is creating a major health issues in the people, such as obesity, overweight, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and other mental and physical co-morbidities (Schranz et al, 2016). Thus, physical activity is proven to help people in preventing and treating the communicable and non-communicable disease. Moreover, physical activity also pose to show a significant output on treating life-threatening disease such as cancer, diabetes, stroke, and other heart problems. Other than health transforming, physical activity also provide benefits to the societies, communities, and system as whole (World Health Organisation, 2018). The proper and regular implementation of physical activity in a region may show significant growth on fossil fuel consumption reduction, cleaner and good air, congestion free, safer roads, increase biodiversity, and cleaner environment.

According to WHO (2018), in Australia, 23% of adults does not meet the daily physical activity requirement and the high income countries have more than double prevalence rate of physical activity insufficiency. The barriers associated with the lesser adoption of physical activity are lack of time, preference to other things, busy schedule, cultural or linguistically diversion, lack of awareness, lack of understanding, and inferior resource availability (World Health Organisation, 2018).

The stakeholders show a significant interest in promoting physical activity, spreading knowledge, provide the evidence-based intervention to public. There are many challenges that are witnessed while implementing physical activity across region. The challenges can be social-ecological differences, resource availability, practice translation, financials, implementation staff availability, and people’s perspectives (Koorts et al., 2018). Thus, stakeholders have their important role in addressing the challenges, implementing their interventions and reliving the importance of physical activity policy.

Stakeholders Identified

 The stakeholders identified in physical activity policy are as follow:

  • International organisations – The international organisations such as World Health Organisation, United nation, and United Nation Economic and Social Commission is a major stakeholder in physical activity. These organisations help in possessing of and access to technical knowledge and expertise in relation to physical activity. These organisations also at as key pillar to the policy by providing it with key officials and leaders within the countries or regions (World Health Organisation, 2018). These organisations is taken as a stakeholder because they help in creating the accessibility to sustainable employment, productive employment, improving health, development of health communities, equitable treatment of citizen, provoking clear, fair, and civil societies in relation to physical activity (World Health Organisation, 2018).
  • National and local government – The national and local government could be the good and effective stakeholder in the region because these government help in effective policy framework creation and implementation through which organisation can promote healthy workplace, proactive environment creation, and development of health related public policy (World Health Organisation, 2018). Moreover, these government bodies hep in implementing and making awareness act in relation to physical policy. For example, in Australia, various practices are implemented under direction of government bodies, these are, “Eat well”, “Active Australia” (Australia government, 2018).
  • Non government organisation (NGO) – NGO are another set of stakeholders that have successful impact on physical activity. The NGO can be present in various region of the country, thus have a profound effect on the policy implementation (World Health Organisation, 2018). The potential role of NGO is to advocate, develop, and encourage the physical activity policy. Some of the NGO avialble in Australia are Fitness Australia, Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP), International council of sport science and physical education (ICSSPE) (NGO, N.D.)
  • Civil society: civil societies are another pillar of the stakeholder responsible to account the issues related to public health, public facilities, physical activities, and prevention of lifestyle related disease. Moreover, the society helps in increasing the awareness and understanding of physical activity in the region. The society also provides a supportive view to various organization in promoting health, wellbeing, clinical practices and procedures (World health organisation, 2018).
  • Employers: employers are also the stakeholder of physical activity policy, as they are to main body for implementing physical activity in professional manner. These stakeholders are more responsible for the providing the physical activity policy to its employees, and working staff.
  • Employees – Each and employees act as the stakeholder as they are the end-user of the policy. To maintain their health standard, health lifestyle, they are proactive in adopting and awarding the physical health policy. The end user are also responsible for the exploring the positive impacts of policy in term of controlling weights, psychology wellbeing, social interaction, better cognition, and enhance functional capability (Public Health Association of Australia, 2019).
  • Health insurance companies: these are another main pillar for the stakeholders in physical activity policy. The insurance company are sole responsible for increasing awareness among the end-users, and the public. The insurance companies are the key component for interaction with the public. Thus, they have important role in addressing the physical activity and health of the country.

Stakeholder Mapping

The stakeholder mapping can be done on the basis of their level of interest, requirement setting, their considerable insight, and their way of responsibility. Moreover, the influential power, and their relation with public also determine the stakeholder’s level of engagement.

Level1: International organisations – The international organisations such as World Health Organisation, United nation, and United Nation Economic and Social Commission is a major stakeholder in physical activity.

Level2: National and local government – The national and local government could be the good and effective stakeholder in the region because these government help in effective policy

Level3: NGO – NGO are another set of stakeholders that have successful impact on physical activity. The NGO can be present in various region of the country, thus have a profound effect on the policy implementation (World Health Organisation, 2018).

Level4: Civil society: civil societies are another pillar of the stakeholder responsible to account the issues related to public health, public facilities, physical activities, and prevention of lifestyle related disease.

Level5: Health insurance companies: these are another main pillar for the stakeholders in physical activity policy. The insurance company are sole responsible for increasing awareness among the end-users, and the public.

The above level of the stakeholder is maintained on the basis of their characteristic, roles and responsibility. The international organisation were set at the top most priority, because they are the one who are law makers. Along with this, they are also responsible for inducing pressure on the country, region, and community regarding the implementation of physical activity. The national and local government are set on second level because they are responsible for the country health growth. They are responsible for managing the government laws in compliance with their population. The third and fourth level is assigned for the NGO and civil society, as they are influential organisation in the manner that they will influence the people, society, and community to adopt the physical activity. Lastly the employees and employers are mentioned as they are the end-user whose incorporation in the physical activity policy will create the demand and awareness of the policy.

Conclusion on Physical Activity

From the above discussion, it can be concluded that physical activity is one of the important policy that help in providing health benefits to the public. The physical activity is an important consideration in proving healthy lifestyle, and disease protection. Public communities, healthcare settings, NGO, hospitals, nursing homes, offices, and home care setting are the main area where physical activity can successfully implemented. The implementation, incorporation, and increasing usage of physical activity policy is being one by the effective working and involvement of the stakeholders. The stakeholder plays an important role in policy working and increasing awareness among the public. Development and comprehensive implementation of national strategy through multi-sector public health organisation such as research organisation, civil society, NGO, government body, and end users. All these stakeholders are collectively responsible for the implementing culture, education, resources, health, and leisure in the society. However, for future consideration, number of individual, social, political, and structural barrier need to be addressed for the effective implementation of physical activity.

References for Physical Activity

Department of Health, 2020. Retrieved from: https://www1.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/health-pubhlth-strateg-phys-actguidelines#:~:text=Australia's%20Physical%20Activity%20%26%20Sedentary%20Behaviour,cultural%20background%2C%20gender%20or%20ability

Australian Medical Student Association, 2018.Retrived from https://www.amsa.org.au/sites/amsa.org.au/files/Physical%20Activity%20%282018%29.pdf

Stylianou, M. & Walker, J. (2017). An assessment of Australian school physical activity and nutrition policies. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 1-6. doi: 10.1111/1753-6405.12751.

Schranz, N. (2016). Results from Australia’s 2016 report card on physical activity for children and youth. Journal of physical activity and health, 13, 87-94.

World Health organisation (2018). Global action plan 2018-2030. Retrieved from: https://apps.who.int/iris/rest/bitstreams/1138597/retrieve

Koorts, H., Eakin, E., Estabrooks, P., Timperio, A., Salmon, J., & Bauman, A. (2018). International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity, 15, 1-11.

Australia government (2018). Retrieved from: http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/ public-health/healthpromotion/activity/campaigns/ active-australia/index.html 

Australia government (2018). Retrieved from: http://www.health.gov.au/intern et/wcms/publishing.nsf/Content /health-pubhlth-strateg-foodnphp.htm

NGO, (n.d.).Retrieved from: https://fitness.org.au/directory/health-organisations/5

Public Health Association. Retrieved from: https://www.phaa.net.au/documents/item/2555

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