Article for PM Professional Magazine
Case Study of a Project
Project delivery can be defined as the inclusive process of designing, scheduling, and construction needed to implement and complete a construction facility or any project (Franz et al 2017). The IPD (integrated project delivery) is the approach that supports the welfares of stakeholders and team associates that incorporates their work for ideal project performance using collective processes for great results for each team member. Integrated project delivery influences the initial contributions of information and proficiency through the employment of novel technologies, enabling the entire team to understand their uppermost strengths while intensifying the value they offer throughout the project lifespan. This method is used by the agencies for financing the design, construction, processes, and preservation of constructions through lawful contracts with parties.
This portfolio entails the items namely a case study of a project explaining how design can be improved in the delivery approach. Moreover, it entails a project management professional magazine article that critically analyzes where the profession needs to evolve to be more successful in approaches to project delivery. Furthermore, this portfolio discusses the literature review on change management in project management. All three items in the portfolio are interrelated with each other as change management deals with all the processes requires to bring changes and improvements in the designs of the project. Further, change management also tells what all changes are needed to bring for the project manager to be successful in the delivery of the project.
Need to evolve the Profession of Project Management to be more successful in delivering outcomes
There is no doubt saying that project management is one of the most promptly emerging arenas worldwide. It is because it has its extremely treasured application towards intentional corporate goal achievement. Moreover, this change is due to the significant advancements in the business models, global value chains, and cutting-edge technology. In this contemporary environment, none of the project managers can thrive with his traditional approaches to the delivery of the project. However, they need to evolve by adopting novel approaches, methods, strategies and took for delivering the effective outcomes of the project. Furthermore, they should move from a style of organizing strategies and direct reports to a more counseling method that needs conciliation, expedition, and relationship management. This further entails more planning and persistence, and emphasis on building and nurturing associations, and increased communication (Blaskovics 2016).
Skills that the PM profession requires to evolve to the modern world
The profession of project management requires a certain analytical set of skills that entail interaction competencies, managing stakeholders with less direct influence, and handling more activities at the same time. The skills that need to evolve in the project managers are described as follows.
Additional Consistency: In the new era, the role of the project manager is not just limited to the creation of plans, and managing the risks & issue that comes during the project. However, the novel era desires project managers to manage and plan for many more activities rather than just two. They must be more rigorous than ever before to thrive in the modern environment. To make this happen, a project manager must plan persistently, use methodologies & standards, use resources judiciously, and manage determinedly. It is not wrong saying that there has been augmented complexity of processes, solutions, organizations, and stakeholders that demands project managers be more careful at the initial stage of the project. Certain techniques may help plan for it diligently. These are:
Plan for modifying the project
Plan to entail supplementary activities like standards, governance, and more.
There must a plan for minor units of work to ensure proper monitoring for measuring the risks and progress.
There must be an identification of the critical path for knowing the influence to schedule.
Furthermore, to be more rigorous, a project manager must use standards and techniques. This will have a huge contribution to be the success of the project as it brings reliability in delivering the project. Moreover, the methodologies are useful resources for project managers for planning and running the projects as they outline the necessary steps, typically offer patterns, strategies for use, and decent instances from real projects. To be more successful in delivering a project, a project must judiciously use the resources. The resources that are most essential for the project manager must be his team associates as they are usually involved in carrying out the activities of the project. The techniques that help use the resources in a planned and intelligent manner are as follows:
Influence specialists as much as possible
Engage resources in the planning process of the project so that their desires are considered.
Provide precision of roles and responsibilities
Certify that suitable competencies are available for the project activities.
Counseling Approach: This approach includes the softer skills that are needed for a project manager to manage the people effectively. Throughput a project, a manager has to be dealing with a team having numerous people, thus he needs to have counseling skills so that he may be able to better manage the team and influence them to fulfill the objectives of the project. The activities that are involved in the counseling approach are influencing, relationship focus, self-management, and political practicality. The project manager must focus on leveraging and building associations and give importance to relationship management as he gives to planning and financial management. Furthermore, only knowing the people is not necessary for achieving the improved outcomes of the project. However, a project manager must have to influence them so that they can be keeping motivated all the time. The skills required for this are effective negotiation, effective facilitation, having a presence, and more.
Leadership: This is the most desired skill needed for the project manager to accomplish the project successfully. In a project, a project manager is a project leader. Despite qualities like an influencer, and communication, a project manager must have the ability to motivate the team members, empowering the team, to be a champion for the team, and managing conflicts. In the contemporary environment, some people engage in a project as part-time members and they need to be motivated by the project manager all the time to ensure success. There is no doubt that the modern project is lengthy in duration and individuals incline to lose motivation over the long period. Therefore, it is the accountability of the project manager to keep them engaged and concentrated throughout the project.
Furthermore, empowering them is also an essential thing to do in the leadership role. It is the idea in which the project manager distributes the right of activities of the project to the team members. It seems to be an effective technique to enhance and develop the products and establish leadership. Moreover, leadership also demands the project manager to resolve the conflicts that occur due to reasons like work style, diverse cultures & personalities, diverse backgrounds, and more. These must be managed properly else they will lead to minimized productivity, lowering of morale of workers, and fulfillment of goals in an incomplete manner (Sutton et al 2019).
The case study is based on the project of the Colombo center in Lisbon. The Colombo center is a commercial building that consists of office, leisureliness, and retail areas. The area of entire construction was about 4000000 square meters including six floors and two identical sixteen-floor office towers. There were around 6800 places for car parking, around 400 shops, swimming pools, restaurants, cinemas, and more. The project of construction of Colombo Cernerentails the building of 3 flyovers, roads, tunnel road as complements to the management of the city, and others. The project of that construction took 167 million pounds to get completed within approximately three years of the time period.
The major objective of the project manager was to deliver that construction project on time and within the allotted budget that was set in the initial stages of the planning phases. Moreover, the project owner faced certain exchanges between issues like conflict of interest; an assortment of delivery of project approach; conveying & allocation of risks; designers as mediators; partnerships; and many more. Due to its complexity and long duration, it needed the comprehensive approach of project delivery that the cloud provides. The notion behind using the same was that this approach results in the delivery of projects within the allotted time and budget at the least risk. Therefore, the project manager decided to use a framework for project delivery consisting of aspects like design-build construction management; partnerships with external resources; simultaneous construction; and constructability at trade contractor level to attain the project goalmouths designed by the project proprietor.
Indeed, understanding a building project on a large scale with an extraordinary amount of multidisciplinary works has headed to a move to decrease the number of organization levels and maximize the degree of devolution. Therefore, the delivery method decided for the construction management was proved to be acceptable as it offers a way to minimize the organization levels by removing the part of the chief supplier and to estimate the proprietor to the trade suppliers. In this project, the contract of the construction management was given to a group of three companies having familiarity in architectural, building, attaining, and manufacturing arenas. The delivery method chosen for the different activities of the project was a design-build method.
This method provides proprietors with the sole point of interaction for both the design and construction stages of the project. It means that one unit grasps solo source accountability and prescribed risk for each phase of a build that is construction, pre-construction, and post-construction. Moreover, the unit named as design-build organizes and handles every contract with business-like subcontractors, material providers, and equipment vendors. Usually, the design-build process consists of five stages namely selecting a design-builder, pre-construction assessments, architectural design, construction, and post-construction (Cho et al. 2020).
During the Colombo center project, the trade suppliers were not provided comprehensive design, however; to complete the scheme and build the work suite put under the proposal. The reasons for choosing the design-build approach to project delivery were numerous. The worth of this delivery approach in the construction management of project originates in: the combination of the design and construction of every work suite in the similar agreement plan that was responsible for bringing technology and knowledge for construction; design-build proposing prospects to minimize the time and costs associated with construction; lump-sum agreement& design-build offering the proprietor with an initial work price assurance.
In the construction project, the design-build (DB) approach adopted at the trade servicer level had the strengths of the DB process and the stable price agreement type. The concerned project was divided into sixty design-build suites of work as per the work breakdown structure established for the project. Every individual DB belonged to the different activity of work that was given to solo trade supplier and in a certain situation of a group of trade suppliers by competitive bidding based on DB delivery approach.
Furthermore, the project delivery method needed a well-organized and price-effective project arrangement. Moreover, the chief element of the project arrangement was MP (manual of procedures) and the partnerships that were established at the initial stages of planning. The major objective of the manual of procedure was to offer orientation and guidelines for entire project stakeholders and to govern the association between them during the project. The project proprietor entailed major Portuguese private economic groups and a huge scope Dutch real estate business. He gave the construction management project to a group of four expertise companies in which two were American and rest two were Portuguese.
The overall project of delivering and managing the construction project for the building Colombo Center was successful with the project delivery approach that was based on design-build methods and construction management as well as numerous tools. The approach of project delivery has made possible the production of improved performance that resulted in cost reduction, time reduction, and conflict reduction at large.
However, the project was successfully done with the design-build approach of project delivery, but the design of the project could be improved more with the novel project delivery approach for construction project named as IPD (Integrated Project Delivery) approach. The IPD approach can be defined as the approach that incorporates systems, procedures, people, corporate structures, and more into one single process that collaboratively joins the abilities and visions of every stakeholder to enhance the results of the project, enhance the worth of proprietor, minimize waste, and increase the effectiveness throughout the stages of a project like design, construction and more. The main elements of the IPD approach are the deliberate formation of a cooperative culture; employment of lean theories, practices, and tools, and multi-party agreements (Mesa, Molenaar, and Alarcón, 2019).
There is no doubt that integrated project delivery is a collaborative method unlike the traditional design-build, design-bid-build method, and more. The benefits of using this approach in construction projects are numerous. When we compare the two approaches that are DB and IPD, we get that the design-build approach allows the proprietor to contract both supplier and designer. Moreover, the DB method is inclined with the risk of increasing costs that go beyond the budget. However, the other method IPD motivates the notions while sinking costs. It collaborates with the proprietor, designer, and supplier by forming a solo, multi-party agreement that indicates the estimation of costs, scope of the project, risks associates, and the rewards. Certain benefits are as follows:
Transparency in the entire project: This method promotes transparency throughout the project of construction that cannot be seen in the DB method of project delivery. It is because, in the initial stages of planning, there has been a clear discussion on the project goals between stakeholders. This approach allows all the team members to share their notions, costs, and profits. There are hardly ant hidden agenda as the information flows without any hindrance and interruption.
Improved value: Furthermore, this approach is suitable for construction projects due to its better value after the completion of the project. In this, all the stakeholders including the proprietor can see the value much quicker than in other approaches of project delivery. The value can be seen in the form of time savings, a minimal amount of risk, and better quality. Moreover, there are reliable promises by working with experts and anyone can't do overpromises in the project.
Minimization of project costs: The DB approach of project delivery allows the proprietor to pay to the construction manager, and contractor based on the amount spent on the project and the number of efforts made. However, the integrated project delivery approach incentivizes the lower costs of the project. In this approach, there is an exclusive cost-sharing system that enables shared savings and hence this results in enlarged profits.
No information dumps: Since there is just one stakeholder team, it is easy to share the information among all the members. Moreover, it is simple to receive clarification on a definite part of the project and understand the objectives. In this, the suppliers and the designers are connected in a better way throughout the project via the free flow of information.
Collaborative decision making: There is a single channel for all the stakeholders that allow all to access the data related to the project in a prompt manner. It further certifies team members to take shared possessions of project accountabilities.
Turnkey delivery arrangement: The IPD approach allows the planning in such a manner that the manager can predict the capacity of workers and defines roles & accountabilities to them. He assigns them based on skills, experience, location, and available hours (Ma, Zhang and Li 2018)
Several studies have been conducted for describing the change management concept in project management by numerous social scientists. This literature review discusses how important it is to integrate change management with project management to bring about innovativeness in the delivery of projects. Further, this literature review aids in reviewing different academics’ research on the same study.
As per the study of Teczke et al (2017), change can be defined as the modification of the strategy of a company, its culture, due to the changes in technology, people, and environment. He suggested that there are numerous theories and models signifying change management such as Lewin’s change theory, Chin & Benne’s change theory, 7 S Model, and more. Their study indicated that there is one approach to change management named as change as a project. In this, it is assumed that there will be one-time activity along with suitably defined initial and end dates for the project.
This tactic is utilized in case of restructuring of business takes place. Moreover, the benefit of this approach is its concreteness, focusing on essential risks associates with the management of the project. Karkukly, PMP, and Lecoeuvre (2014) defined change management as the inclusive, recurring, and organized approach for transitioning persons, groups, and establishments from the present state of business to the future intended state. Their study demonstrated the role of project manager officer in the change and project management. The main role of PMO is to train the project and the change managers on any change. PMO influence the people to deliver the change in any project in an improved manner. Moreover, their study suggested the seven areas that are essential for the alignment between project management and change management.
Naveneet, Bhuvana, and Krishnaprasad (2018) revealed that the change management base is formed like a pyramid with project management handling practical phases and people executing change at the base and management setting the direction at the uppermost. As per their study, there are 4 stages of the change management model namely determine the need for change, prepare for change, implement the change, and sustain the change. Pokela (2013) signified the need for change management for the success of the project by using the case of Nokia solutions network. His study suggested that change management has been identified as an important need of the hour for project management. Further, the entire team of projects including the project manager is held accountable for bringing the change project in the organization.
Moreover, the project team must have the resources from the change management team also to make it successful. He inferred that both the change management and the project management must be aligned to attain effective results by ensuring that technical solution is developed, and delivered, and change is adopted and utilized successfully. The effective results by aligning these two diverse disciplines can be seen from the process dimension, people dimension, tool dimension, and methodology dimension. It described that change management has been adopted by the Nokia solutions network (NSN)as its project management methodology. There are a total of five elements of the change management that are being described in this case. These elements are stakeholder management, communication, roles & responsibilities, training, and monitoring.
According to the study conducted by Donovan (2018), change management and project management are discrete, however, interrelated fields. It is since project management is concerned with the sustained provision of change. Moreover, change management is concerned with getting participants on the journey and confirming that change fulfills the desires of the company and is entrenched. The study of Alexandrova and Kuzmanova (2017) suggested that the main concern in contemporary project management is the apprehension of actual organizational change through the implementation of directed projects. It also inferred that using the ideologies of the project management, a change is meant for changing the organization from its present to an anticipated state.
Moreover, this study demonstrated the three conditions required for the successful change throughout the project. These conditions are: boosting organizational philosophies, effective project communications, and guidance. This emphasizes the cultural norms and human nature or attitude to bring about successful changes in the project. Furthermore, the study by de Andrade et al (2016) suggested that a project manager must always be prepared to deal with the changes as they always exist. It focused on the importance of change management for information technology-related projects. It showcased how the application of change management processes adjusts the process to the culture and development of the company.
According to report Osipova and Ayupova (2013), there is a positive impact of change management on the effectiveness of the project. This report of Deloitte suggested that change management is a project output expected to support the revolution. With change management, it has become possible for the companies to enhance the competence of the project activities by making the employees and the corporate environment for future changes to be realized concerning ongoing projects. Further, it suggested that change management means close association with the workers, which aids to adjust the insight of change in the company preserve an optimistic attitude to change, and enhance the inclination and willingness of workers to get and apply novel skills and knowledge. Moreover, the methodology followed by the Deloitte’s management for the change management entails seven main elements of the activities.
These elements are stated as stakeholder management, communications, change impact assessment, corporate culture change, change readiness assessment, and training. As per the study of Crawford, Aitken, and Hassner-Nahmias (2014), there is a strong relationship between organizational change management and project management. Their study inferred that the experts in the project roles seem to be implementing the change employment practices, although their nonexistence from the main project management morals for performance and awareness. Besides, their study suggested that the project managers assert to be mediators of change and the effective organization of such a change has been identified as a factor responsible to bring project achievement. Certain strategies have also been identified in their study in respect of the success of project management integration with change management.
These strategies entailed enabling the business incorporation by bearing in mind business policy, ethos, organization, along with handling change. Moreover, it consisted of taking well-versed decisions with a complete vision; communicate the change, and more. The study of Pollack (2017) suggested that change is an important part of organizational project management. His study showcased the need for integration of the two aspects namely change management and project management. There must be integration between these two fields in case the corporate project management is considering and addressing the entire organization during the commencement, start, distribution, and preservation of any change within the organization. It suggested that although they are different disciplines, they can enhance the effectiveness and the efficiency of a project when used in combination. Moreover, their integration also leads to abridge the divide of the strategy and the goals of the project.
In addition to this, the emphasis of the project management on the stakeholder engagements, governance, benefits management, and strategic alignment in the program management can be useful in implementing the change strategies. The study by Karimi and Munyori (2019) suggested that integrated change control is an essential process for project management success. They inferred that there occur certain change requests during the project and then these changes must be assessed by the change control board. This evaluation then leads to its implementation and then closure. This entire process ensures effective change management in the project using the integrated change control technique. The study by Mesa, Molenaar, and Alarcón (2016) also demonstrated the role of the project manager in performing the integrated change control process. The project manager must work to get the final necessities as soon as possible.
The requirements may include the project scope. Also, the project manager must spend time in the risk management to recognize the risks as these are the primary cause of bringing variances in the project. Furthermore, there must be proper planning for the costs, and time buffers done by the project managers to avoid the subsequent risks. There can be two types of changes: first that may influence the project management plan, procedures, charter, baselines, and more; and the one that has no impact on project management. Erdogan et al (2015) described the change management in construction projects by signifying the numerous stages of the project management in construction namely contracting, estimation, engineering, designing, planning, and more. However, change management in the projects of construction needs an integrated solution to discipline and coordinate the process like personnel, information, documentation, and more.
Their study suggested changes may arise at any stage of the construction project that may cause extra demands of apparatus, overtime, labor, project schedule, and more. Furthermore, it demonstrated a process for change management for construction projects in the form of stages. The process initiated from the identification of changes, followed by evaluation of changes, approval of changes, implementation of changes, and lastly analysis of changes. However, the study by Halou, Samin, and Ahmad (2019) signified the impacts of change management on the cost and risk management of the construction project. Construction projects are difficult to manage at the initial stages of the project due to the lack of availability of suitable information needed to plan and design the project.
Their study identified the reasons for the changes in construction projects namely design changes, errors, unforeseen site conditions, and more. Moreover, their study inferred that there exists a robust association between the threats of increasing the cost of construction projects and the changes. Furthermore, they concluded that the proffering based on the partial design is the most surpassed reason for the change challenging in the construction era followed by the unforeseen geological condition, climate change, budgeting, and more. The study by Ziemba and Obłąk (2015) showcased that change management is the procedure, techniques, and the methods to handle the people side of the change to attain the requisite business consequences. It integrates the corporate tools that can be used to aid the people make effective personal changes causing acceptance and understanding of change.
Moreover, change management is responsible for the successful employment of a wide range of projects. Project management is the use of knowledge, abilities, tools, and methods to project doings to fulfill the project requests. Their study suggested that both the project management and change management are responsible for moving the organization from the present state through an evolution state to an anticipated future state. The main motive of their study was to study the change management for information technology projects. They defined change management in terms of information system projects, like the actions, processes, and techniques that guide the workers' understanding and business aspects during the IT project. Moreover, they concluded that the critical success factors of the change management in the IT projects are: support from the top management; the shared vision for change; managerial activity; planned project; information flow; performance management; employee motivation; training; effective communication; employee satisfaction; and identification of change.
Sjögren et al (2014) stated that the ETO projects (Engineering-to-order) are complex and hard to handle throughout the project completion. To make these processes easy, there is ECM (engineering change management) that incorporates systems, techniques, and processes that further regulate the change in product understanding. Moreover, their study inferred that engineering change management is an important part of the ETO projects. According to the study of Jadhav and Bhirud (2015), it can be stated that change orders are essential effects on the performance of the construction projects. It has been also signified by their study that these change orders are easy to manage at the earlier stages of the project of construction, Their study was about the construction projects in Pune that have changed order due to the modification to prior work, owner changes, and additional work.
There was a lack of involvement from the contractor side that created change order condition to happen. Moreover, the ultimate effect of the change order could be seen by the increase in the costs of the project. Lřnvik, Pettersen, and Verhulst (2016) suggested that the success of the service design projects is reliant on the effective employment of the project. In addition to this, it has been described that creating a sense of readiness for the change from the beginning of the project are important aspects of the service design projects and change management. It emphasized that the creation of willingness for the change must be taken place at the unfreezing stage. That must be concentrated on recognition and understanding of the necessity for change towards a future state. The basic motive of the authors in this study was to say that the creation of willingness for change in a company where there is new service to be introduced, is essential for effective implementation of the service design. It has been concluded from their study that stakeholder management, change from within, journey over destination, are the important principles supporting the readiness to change.
The study conducted by ChePa, Jasin, and Bakar (2017) suggested there can be an occurrence of changes in any phase of the information system projects like software development, thus change management must be in place so that change could be managed properly. The study identified the challenges that have led to the failure of information system project implementation. These challenges were utilized to build a prevention model for the implementation of projects related to information systems. Moreover, their study signified that change management is an essential part of project management without which on cannot predict the success of the project. Besides, their study showed that numerous information system implementation projects have been successful with the contribution of change management.
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