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Foundations of International Security in the 21st Century

Table of Contents

Introduction. 

Discussion.

International security foundations in 21st century.

Realism about US-China relationships.

Conclusion.

References.

Introduction to International Security in 21st Century

International security is the most significant factor in the age of globalisation. Through maintaining a secure environment amongst the international territories, the development of business, employment, and income can be ensured in real-time. The concerned essay is focusing on the aforementioned factor specifically with respect to US-China relations in 21st century.

Discussion on International Security in 21st Century

International Security Foundations in 21st Century

International security consists of certain factors like economic security, nuclear security, energy security, cyber security, civil rights and democratic security, and many more. Hence, in a collective manner, it can be considered rightly that global security covers overall biosphere security. The overall discussion is highlighting the global situations in security management twenty years after the Cold War[1]. The process has been challenged by numerous sections, in which terrorist attacks on the international territories are proved to be the most devastating in nature.

Mass destruction weapons and globalisation

According to experts, the aforementioned factors are proved to be the greatest challenge in globalisation. Arguably, it can be considered that the terrorism had been considered as ‘second-order security’ in the past. However, after ‘9/11 attack’, the event of terrorism has been considering as ‘super terrorism’ or ‘hyper terrorism’[2]. Through this, the overall security in global market can be challenged. The human security index underlined the fact that the terrorism is the principle challenge in globalisation. All though, the aspects like ‘mal-nutrition’ and ‘wars’ is more challenging to mitigate[3]. The terrorism management was not the part of the international security earlier. However, the attack of the 11th September 2011 has changed the whole perception, as it caused almost 3000 fatalities[4]. The security management teams often use three approaches since then for managing the terrorist attacks across the borders. In the first approach, the terrorism is handled through intelligence and policing. By this, the terrorism can be analyzed through criminal analogy conception. Based on this, terrorism cannot be discarded, however; can be managed and punished. The second approach is considered terrorism as a disease. According to this, the management needs to consider the root causes of this. Adds to these, the third approach is advised that the attacks by terrorists are needed to be analysed under war analogy’s lens by using force implementation.

Pandemics and health

Health management is another significant factor, which needed to be managed in global security maintenance. For supporting this view, it can be considered that the pandemics like ‘the black death’ affected the world in a significant manner. The rate of death in Europe was almost half and third of overall European population. Besides this, the Spanish flu had a prominent effect on world health as well. Death rate of this disease was almost 50 million people[5]. In recent times, the Corona virus pandemic has resulted almost 809 k deaths already, which shattered the globalisation trend[6]. Hence, it is proved that the pandemic can be a greatest challenge in international security management.

Migration

This proves to be another pillar of globalisation. In recent reports, it can be identified that the rate of migrant people in the world is high recently. Supports this view, it can be said that the rate of migrant was almost 214 million in 2010, which is much higher than 1990 (almost 155 million) and so on[7]. This proves to be challenging for the national governments, as the high rate of migrated people results less control in national borders. This impacts the overall performance of the states, as the talented people are going abroad for better opportunities, and this weakens the state’s or nation’s economy, technology, and other related factors as a whole[8]. Besides this, the government cannot run their rules properly amongst the migrant people, due to having different origins and cultures; they develop the internal conflicts, which reduce the acceptance of local government.

Energy security

This proves to be another relevant aspect in globalisation management as well. The potential challenge in this regard is the different trends of energy transformation in global market. The contextual discussion can help to evaluate that the mentioned factor is considered as ‘non-specific’ to the governing bodies of various countries[9]. Thus, it can be proved that the globalisation trend in business and energy implementation resulted challenges and develops certain issues for the concerned government to manage. Sometimes, the uncertainty in energy implementation can develop inner-state challenges as well[10]. Thus, in a collective manner, it can be identified that though ability to store energy proves to be the criteria for global business, all though the factor is complex in nature for the regulating governing bodies.

Realism about US-China Relationships

After going through the aforementioned factors, it can be identified that the globalisation is going to be the most prominent factor in world territories and the factor is challenging for the regulatory bodies as well for its nature. In this section, the essay deals with the relationship or rivalry between two giant sources of power in globalised market, China and US in recent times. In-depth analysis of the mentioned factor, it can be identified that the aforementioned nations are engaging in costly and intensive trade war recently[11]. This proved to be challenging to manage and offers less stability in the global trading. Besides this, the factors like convergence, engagement, and cooperation are proved to be doubtful with respect to the relationship difficulties between US and China[12]. After accumulating relevant information sets from the valid sources for US China relationship, it can be identified that the countries like China have emerged as one of the dominant sources of power in the world recently. This emergence of the concerned country proves to be challenging for US interests. Adds to this, the Asian territory is the home for 20 fastest increasing economics in the world.

This generates almost two-thirds of overall international growth[13]. Hence, it is proved that the overall Asian territory or the countries like China are not reflecting the underlying international dynamics, similar to the period of Cold war. In this context, the security competition has emerged as the global trend for the mentioned two countries and this affects the behaviour of China to US in a significant manner. Detailed analysis of the fact also reflects that the US-China interest conflicts have been proving to be apparent on security range, which includes Taiwan’s security and status as a whole, Chinese modernisation of military, US alliances, missile and nuclear non-proliferation, and many more[14]. As found in the historical information sets, it can be identified that the territories like Beijing and Washington found numerous ways to manage their various security interests by implementing ‘mix-changing behaviour’, expectations, and demands[15].

Besides the political issues, the rivalry of the aforementioned countries has been resulted for the economic change especially in China. The country becomes aggressive in their capital contribution to Latin America, Africa, Middle East, and territories of Asia as well[16]. This exercise has crowded out the Western investors. Hence, this proves to be conflicting for the US’s economic interest and this weakens the relationship between China and US recently. Contextually, it can be identified that the regions like Asia have been considered as attractive for the countries like US. However, the rise of China in the market offers obstacles for US to control the aforementioned economy. This adds fuel to the rivalry as well. In a more detailed manner, it can be evaluated that the government bodies of China has blamed the governing bodies of US for initiating the globalisation conflicts. To support this, the applicant country includes that the policies of America and their actions are making the negotiation process hard to perform. Hence, the business in globalised context cannot be maintained. However, the leaders of China have confessed that the trade war between the two countries proves to be challenging for the rest of the world[17].

The issue of trade war has created many crises for the traders of both China and America as well. In the recent time, internationalisation has been identified as one of the major trend which helps the traders to stabilise their business chain the profitable market of foreign nation. However, being such a prospectus market like China, the trading organisations of the USA are not able to run their trade. This is imparting the negative impact over the maximisation of the economic strength for both the nations. Hence, from this angle, it can be analysed that peaceful, cooperative and collaborative relationship in the international level is always favourable for each of the nations.

Conclusion on International Security in 21st Century

At the final section of this study, it can be concluded that security in the international level is highly essential to be maintained and this includes the aspects like cyber security, democratic security, nuclear security, energy security and more. The creation of a secured space between the two countries helps in the development of harmonic and collaborative relationship. However, in the real context, it has been noticed that the international relationship between China and America has got disrupted and trade war is one of the major factor behind the same. The issue of hyper terrorism has also been noticed and the attack of 2011 has proved the same. 

References for International Security in 21st Century

Bello, Valeria. International migration and international security: Why prejudice is a global security threat. Milton Park: Taylor & Francis, 2017.

Breuer, Adam, and Alastair Iain Johnston. "Memes, narratives and the emergent US–China security dilemma." Cambridge Review of International Affairs 32, no. 4 (2019): 429-455.

Chen, Dean P. US-China rivalry and Taiwan's mainland policy: Security, nationalism, and the 1992 consensus. NY: Springer, 2017.

Cimbala, Stephen J. "Chinese military modernization: Implications for strategic nuclear arms control." Strategic Studies Quarterly 9, no. 2 (2015): 11-18.

Fernandes, Nuno. "Economic effects of coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19) on the world economy." Available at SSRN 3557504 (2020).

Gill, Amandeep Singh. "Artificial intelligence and international security: the long view." Ethics & International Affairs 33, no. 2 (2019): 169-179.

Harshé, Rajen. Africa in World Affairs: Politics of Imperialism, the Cold War and Globalisation. Taylor & Francis, 2019.

Husslage, Bart, Peter Borm, Twan Burg, Herbert Hamers, and Roy Lindelauf. "Ranking terrorists in networks: A sensitivity analysis of Al Qaeda's 9/11 attack." Social Networks 42 (2015): 1-7.

Jackson, Richard. "Writing September 11, 2001." In Writing the war on terrorism. Manchester University Press, 2018.

Johnson, James. "Artificial intelligence & future warfare: implications for international security." Defense & Security Analysis 35, no. 2 (2019): 147-169.

Kennedy, Andrew B., and Darren J. Lim. "The innovation imperative: technology and US–China rivalry in the twenty-first century." International Affairs 94, no. 3 (2018): 553-572.

Sohrabi, Catrin, Zaid Alsafi, Niamh O’Neill, Mehdi Khan, Ahmed Kerwan, Ahmed Al-Jabir, Christos Iosifidis, and Riaz Agha. "World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19)." International Journal of Surgery (2020).

Somerstein, Rachel. "Newspapers commemorate 11 September: A cross-cultural investigation." Journalism 16, no. 3 (2015): 359-375.

Vlados, C. (2020). The dynamics of the current global restructuring and contemporary framework of the US–China trade war. Global Journal of Emerging Market Economies, 12(1), 4-23.

Waugh, M. E. (2019). The consumption response to trade shocks: Evidence from the US-China trade war (No. w26353). National Bureau of Economic Research.

[1] Harshé, Rajen. Africa in World Affairs: Politics of Imperialism, the Cold War and Globalisation. Taylor & Francis, 2019.

[2] Husslage, Bart, Peter Borm, Twan Burg, Herbert Hamers, and Roy Lindelauf. "Ranking terrorists in networks: A sensitivity analysis of Al Qaeda's 9/11 attack." Social Networks 42 (2015): 1-7.

[3] Somerstein, Rachel. "Newspapers commemorate 11 September: A cross-cultural investigation." Journalism 16, no. 3 (2015): 359-375.

[4] Jackson, Richard. "Writing September 11, 2001." In Writing the war on terrorism. Manchester University Press, 2018.

[5] Sohrabi, Catrin, Zaid Alsafi, Niamh O’Neill, Mehdi Khan, Ahmed Kerwan, Ahmed Al-Jabir, Christos Iosifidis, and Riaz Agha. "World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19)." International Journal of Surgery (2020).

[6] Fernandes, Nuno. "Economic effects of coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19) on the world economy." Available at SSRN 3557504 (2020)

[7] Johnson, James. "Artificial intelligence & future warfare: implications for international security." Defense & Security Analysis 35, no. 2 (2019): 147-169.

[8] Gill, Amandeep Singh. "Artificial intelligence and international security: the long view." Ethics & International Affairs 33, no. 2 (2019): 169-179.

[9] Bello, Valeria. International migration and international security: Why prejudice is a global security threat. Milton Park: Taylor & Francis, 2017.

[10] Kennedy, Andrew B., and Darren J. Lim. "The innovation imperative: technology and US–China rivalry in the twenty-first century." International Affairs 94, no. 3 (2018): 553-572

[11] Breuer, Adam, and Alastair Iain Johnston. "Memes, narratives and the emergent US–China security dilemma." Cambridge Review of International Affairs 32, no. 4 (2019): 429-455.

[12] Chen, Dean P. US-China rivalry and Taiwan's mainland policy: Security, nationalism, and the 1992 consensus. NY: Springer, 2017

[13] Waugh, M. E. (2019). The consumption response to trade shocks: Evidence from the US-China trade war (No. w26353). National Bureau of Economic Research.

[14] Cimbala, Stephen J. "Chinese military modernization: Implications for strategic nuclear arms control." Strategic Studies Quarterly 9, no. 2 (2015): 11-18

[15] Chen, Dean P. US-China rivalry and Taiwan's mainland policy: Security, nationalism, and the 1992 consensus. NY: Springer, 2017

[16] Vlados, C. (2020). The dynamics of the current global restructuring and contemporary framework of the US–China trade war. Global Journal of Emerging Market Economies, 12(1), 4-23.

[17] Waugh, M. E. (2019). The consumption response to trade shocks: Evidence from the US-China trade war (No. w26353). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Political Science Assignment Help

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