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The Effect of The Vitamin-D Metabolite on The Poultry’s Bone Health

Table of Contents

Introduction.

Rationale.

Hypothesis.

Method.

Data Chosen.

Tool for Analysis.

Budget.

Analysis and Result.

Discussion and Conclusion.

References.

Introduction

Bone health is an important and concerning issue in the Poultry Farm. In the Poultry Farm, different types of Poultries are there and which are useful for the business in a healthy condition. The health of Poultry depends upon different factors. Bone health is one of the important factors which led to the strength of the bird. There are many issues can be found for the health of the bones like the deformity of the bones, fractures caused in bones. These problems led the Poultry towards the weakness and hence may cause for the malfunction in the business of the Poultry Farms (DSM, 2016).

Bones maintain the structure and the strength of the body and also control the immunity to health. If there is a problem in bones of the Poultries, this led to the breakdown of the health of the Poultry and may cause the failure of the immune system. If so, different disease mat attacks the Poultry which is not good for the economic issue as this may turn into the disease in the Poultry birds and for the epidemic issue. Thus, the maintenance of the bone health of the Poultry in the Firm is an important issue and good for the economic and welfare issues as well (Kibritoğlu & Gülçür, 2015).

In this paper, the strength of the Bones will be examined with the implication of two important food supplements like the Calcium Pidolate and the Vitamin-D metabolite. Those supplements have been provided to seven different treatments with a different amount. The observation is taken form the experiment for bone health. As the HyD is the active form of Vitamin D, it helps to regulate the minerals in the bone and body for the maintenance of the calcium metabolism. Another issue and the advantage of the HyD is that it helps to reduce the porosity of the bones and thereby can reduce the Black Bone Syndrome (Rath, et al., 2000). As the healthy bone interns make the body of the poultry healthy and thus, several customers can be attracted due to the good quality products.

The HyD supplement will be provided to the Poultry using some means of food and the diet is the important factor in this experiment and research. So, the objective of the research is taken to determine the appropriate diet to increase the span of life of the Poultry with the avoidance of the health problem that can be faced and can deteriorate the health of bones of Poultry (Muszyński, et al., 2018).

Rationale

The study and the analysis aims ate the determination of the healthy diet with the incorporation of the Calcium Pidolate and the Vitamin-D metabolite on different types of bones. The strength of different types of bones like the Femur (Thighbone), Tibia (Drumstick Bone) and the Humerus (the Pneumatic Bone) will be examined in this paper to determine the effective diet so that the bone health will be retained in a good level and the economic aspects of the Poultry can be maintained (Olkowski, et al., 2016).

Hypothesis

The hypothesis is taken to conduct the research will be discussed in this section. The analysis of the data will be done to fulfil the objectives that will satisfy the Hypothesis. The statistical tests will be performed to judge the hypothesis taken in this section (Wang, et al., 2015). The statistical analysis will be conducted on the considered data for the appropriation of the hypothesis test. The adopted hypothesis are as follows:

Assumption-1:

Null Hypothesis

H0: There is no significant difference in the strength of the bones while applying different diets to the Poultry.

Alternate Hypothesis

H1: There is a significant difference in the strength of the bones while applying different diets to the Poultry.

Assumption-2:

Null Hypothesis

H0: The strength of the bones for Humerus and Tibia is significantly similar for the application of different types of diet.

Alternate Hypothesis

H1: The strength of the bones for Humerus and Tibia is significantly different for the application of different types of diet.

As the assumptions are taken in this section, the analysis will be conducted for the fulfilment of the hypothesis. The analysis will be driven on the data to prove the realization of the Null or Alternative Hypothesis to conclude.

Method

In this research and analysis for the determination of the bone strength of the Poultry in the farm, the data is chosen and the statistical analysis is conducted on this. The method of the analysis aims at the determination of the bone strength of the poultry with the implication of the Calcium Pidolate and the Vitamin-D metabolite on the birds (Tomaszewskal, et al., 2016). The analysis will produce the result for the satisfaction of the hypothesis and to chose the proper assumption in this scenario.

Data Chosen

The data for this research is chosen from the Moodle of the University of New England. The dataset contains the details of the strength of the bones of the poultries. The data contains the following parameters:

  • Group: This parameter defines the seven separate group of treatments on the Poultry with the application of the Calcium Pidolate and the Vitamin-D metabolite.

  • Bird Nu.: This parameter reflects the nutrients in the birds in the Poultry.

  • Humerus: This parameter defines the effect of the treatment of the different group of treatment on the bone named Humerus. The details contain the outcome of the treatment for the different groups (Rath, et al., 2000).

  • Femur: This parameter defines the effect of the treatment of the different group of treatment on the bone named Femur. The details contain the outcome of the treatment for the different groups.

  • Tibia: This parameter defines the effect of the treatment of the different group of treatment on the bone named Tibia. The details contain the outcome of the treatment for the different groups.

The different type of group of treatments are briefed below:

  1. This test is starting with the control devoid of the extra supplements like the vitamin D metabolite and Calcium Pidolate.

  2. This test is for the Basal diet along with the single dose of calcium Pidolate.

  3. This test is for the Basal diet+ double dose of calcium Pidolate.

  4. This test is for the Basal diet along with the single dose of calcium Pidolate and a single dose of HyD .

  5. This test is for the Basal diet along with the single dose of calcium Pidolate and a double dose of HyD

  6. This test is for the Basal diet along with the double dose of Calcium Pidolate and a single dose of HyD

  7. This test is for the Basal diet along with the double dose of Calcium Pidolate and the double dose of HyD of diet supplements.

The test was done on 42 birds what have been identified by the numbers in the dataset and the bone strength of the poultry birds have been measured in 80 weeks for three different bones namely femur, tibia and humerus. In this analysis, the chosen bones are Humerus and Tibia.

The analysis for the finding of the statistical issue on the data, the suitable tool will be selected such that the hypothesis testing along with the analysis of the data can be done successfully.

Tool for Analysis

In this research, the R Programming is chosen for the analysis of the data and to satisfy the hypothesis that is manipulated in the assumption in this scenario. R is the programming language which is specifically used for the statistical analysis and data mining. It is well known and famous because it is a free software for statistical computing and is capable of manipulation and production of the graphics (Wang, et al., 2015). All the libraries that are required for the data analysis and to interpret the statistical findings are open source and can be downloaded easily. There are also other languages are available for the statistical computing but R is the riches concerning the availability of library and richness in the sense of the operational features.

Budget

The scenario of the budget for the execution of the research and the analysis is shown below:

Table-1: Budget of the research

Item or Expense Type

Duration

Cost per Unit Duration

Total Cost

Travel

3 Weeks

14 USD Per Week

42 USD

Electricity Expense and WiFi facility

3 Weeks

50 USD Per Week

150 USD

Scanner

3 Weeks

8 USD Per Week

24 USD

So, the project will be running for 3 weeks and the total budget for the project is 216 USD.

Analysis and Result

In this section, the analysis of the data according to the treatment will be produced and the result will be shown. The aim of the obtaining of the result using the statistical interpretants that will fulfil the hypothesis testing. In this scenario, two different tests have been conducted for the satisfaction of two assumptions (Muszyński, et al., 2018). For this analysis, the ANOVA statistics is applied through which the p-values are obtained which will be telling the acceptance of the hypothesis.

Analysis of Assumption-1

In this analysis, the difference in the strength of the bones have been analysed using the AVONA and thereby the finding will be done for the acceptance of the hypothesis. The below table (Table-2) is showing the result of the hypothesis testing on the selected bones:

Table-2: Analysis of p-Values

Sl. No

Test Group

Humerus Strength

Tibia Strength

1

1

0.18

0.18

2

2

0.99

0.99

3

3

0.84

0.84

4

4

0.28

0.29

5

5

0.02

0.01

6

6

0.04

0.03

7

7

0.35

0.31

So, from this analysis and with the checking of the p-values, is can be said that there is a significant difference in the strength of the bones while applying different diets to the Poultry as the Group5 and Group-6 are showing the p-values less than 0.05 (Kibritoğlu & Gülçür, 2015).

Analysis of Assumption-2

In this analysis, the response is taken for the nutrients of the birds with the application of the diets on them. In this scenario, the strength of the Humerus and Tibia will be checked for different groups and the final decision of the assumption will be taken based on the analysis. The test result is shown below:

Table-3: Analysis of p-Values

Sl. No

Test Group

Humerus Strength

Tibia Strength

1

1

0.78

0.22

2

2

0.93

0.36

3

3

0.17

0.48

4

4

0.34

0.25

5

5

0.01

0.72

6

6

0.47

0.68

7

7

0.35

0.94

So, from this analysis and with the checking of the p-values, is can be said that the strength of the bones for Humerus and Tibia is significantly similar for the application of different types of diet except for the Humerus for Group-5 (Tomaszewskal, et al., 2016).

Discussion and Conclusion

In this paper, the statistical analysis is conducted for the research of the bone strength and the bone health issues of the poultry birds using R programming. For the successful conduction of the analysis, the hypotheses are proposed in two different assumptions and thereby the analysis of the data is conducted. The data is reflecting the practical test on the Poultry using the Calcium Pidolate and the Vitamin-D metabolite in different ways and the bone strengths are checked for the Femur, Humerus and Tibia. In this analysis and research, the Humerus and Tibia are taken into consideration. The aim of the research is taken to check whether there is any difference between the bone strength in those two types of bone with the implication of different diets. The statistical analysis tells that the application of the diets on the Poultry reflects the significant difference for the bone strength.

References

DSM, 2016. Vitamin Supplementation Guidelines in Animal Nutrition.

Kibritoğlu, E. & Gülçür, H. Ö., 2015. Optimization of coil geometries for bone fracture healing via dielectrophoretic force stimulation - a simulation study. 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC).

Muszyński, S. et al., 2018. Analysis of bone osteometry, mineralization, mechanical and histomorphometrical properties of tibiotarsus in broiler chickens demonstrates a influence of dietary chickpea seeds. PLoS ONE, 13(2).

Olkowski, B., Charuta, A., Radzki, R. & Toczko, R. B. a. M., 2016. Skeletal response to diet with soya bean seeds used as primary source of protein in growing broiler chickens. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr., Volume 100, p. 731–737.

Rath, N., Huff, G. R., Huff, W. & J.M., B., 2000. Factors Regulating Bone Maturity and Strength in Poultry. Poultry Science, pp. 1024-1032.

Tomaszewskal, E. et al., 2016. Comparison of the effect of a standard inclusion level of inorganic zinc to organic form at lowered level on bone development in growing male Ross broiler chickens. Ann Anim Sci., p. 507–519.

Wang, X., Peebles, E., Bricka, R. & Zhai, W., 2015. Protein source and nutrient density in the diets of male broilers from 8 to 21 days of age: Effects on tibia dimension, breaking strength, and mineral density.. J Poult Sci., 2015(52), p. 197–205.

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