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Essay Question One - Sensation and Perception

Introduction to Sensation and Perception

In medicine and physiology, sensation refers to the entry into the brain of (afferent) nerve impulses called sensory, which are capable of perceiving these senses. The awareness by sensory receivers of a stimulus as a consequence of its perception (Poulton et al., 2017). Sensation is the stimulation at trigger stage of the sensory receptor cells. Perception is the basic perception of conscious sensory sensations. Perception is sensational dependent, but not everything is perceived.

Distinction Between Sensation And perception

Our senses are capable of translating real-world information into electrical information which the brain can interpret. Our method of processing this knowledge is what contributes to our perception, while the actual mechanism through which our sensory organs respond through hearing and taste is called sensation. Sensation arises when you consume noodles, sense the breeze on your skin , hear the car horn flicker away.

Pieces of Evidence that Sensation and Perception Are Not the Same

Hearing, or auditory perception- The sensation is the capacity to sense vibrations through sensing noise, shifts in the energy of the atmosphere surrounding the organ over time, whereas the perception is when somebody understands what the music is playing on the radio.

Taste- The sensation generated or stimulated when a mouth material chemically interacts with taste receptor cells on taste buds, particularly on the tongue, while perception is one who knows what fruits they eat after they are eaten.

Touch- There are four specific stimuli in the skin, i.e. pressure, coldness, hitch and discomfort, which cause thousands of nerve endings, but even the feeling of pressure has its own unique receptors, while the general perception may be divided into the light, distance, vibration, scratching, heat, temperature and movement of the fingers on the body.

Smell- The smelling sensation comes from specialized sensory neuronal sensory cells called olfactory neurons, found high within the nose in a small tissue patch. Such cells directly connect to the brain, while the perception is that the coffee aromas and cinnamon rolls have a smooth fragrance and are comfortable instantly.

Essay Question Two – Diseases Affecting Aerobic Respiration

Aerobic Respiration

The process of cellular energy generation involving oxygen is aerobic breathing. In the mitochondria, the cells split up food in a slow, multi-step cycle generating approximately 36 ATP. Enzyme activity has various factors, including pH , temperature, the concentration of the enzyme, substrate concentration–the availability of the reactants (glucose & oxygen) and the product concentration-that can limit aerobic respiration through the development of respiratory products (carbon dioxide and water) (Spees et al., 2016). It generates energy that is transferred to cells. Two waste products: carbon dioxide and water are made by aerobic respiration. Mitochondria are organelles that specialize in aerobic breathing membranes. The mitochondrial matrix is the site of the reactions of the Kerbs cycle. It is impossible to underestimate the importance of aerobic respiration in life. No living thing would survive without that process. The pathway continues to the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation if the aerobic respiration failure happens. This keeps us alive as it is associated with the release of our oxygen supply early on.

Diseases

  • Mitochondrial myopathy- Mitochondrial myopathies is a group of neuromuscular diseases which can be caused by damage to the mitochondria — small, energy-producing structures that serve as power plants of the cells. Mitochondrial myopathy has an effect on anatomy that causes muscle weakness and atrophy and exercise intolerance. Respiratory failure in myopathy with mitochondria typically develops in the late stage of the disease and is associated with a weakening of the breathing muscle. Mitochondrial impairment influences breathing muscles or parts of the brain. Anyone who struggles from minor respiratory issues can require sometimes breathing help, such as air pressure. The mitochondrial disease treatment may include Vitamins and supplements such as coenzyme Q10, B complex vitamins, especially Thiamin (B1) and Riboflavin (B2), L-carnitine (Carnitor); Creatine and L-arginine. Treatment for mitochondrial disease may include workouts include resistance and physical conditioning, all cardiovascular workouts.
  • A life-threatening asthma attack- Asthma is a pulmonary obstruction. Airways distortion (bronchospasm) causes reduced air flow and difficulty breathing due to a narrowing of the bronchial muscles on the ground. The inner sections of the airways swell even more as the asthma attack is caused. This limits the region in which air can reach and leave the lungs. The muscles embedded in the airways can even contract and trigger much more challenging breathing. The airways are swollen and cause a lot of thick mucus and lower the rate of breath. Inflamed airways are also very sensitive, and the muscles around them may become tighter with things such as dust or smoke. It is generally important to be calm and use the medicines prescribed by your allergist (Singh et al., 2018). The doctor must always provide an up-to - date action plan for asthma to assist in the treatment of symptoms. Rapid treatment sometimes provided via an inhaler–is used to handle symptoms of asthma if appropriate. These include short-acting beta 2-agonistand/or bronchodilators (which relax the muscles of the airway). When symptoms continue or advance, systemic corticosteroids may be required (which will the inflammation of the airways).
  • Sickle cell anaemia- Sickle cell disease is a blood condition triggered by an hereditary defective haemoglobin, which is the element that contains oxygen in the red blood cells. The abnormal haemoglobin causes red blood cells to become distorted (sickled under a microscope). People who have sickle cell anaemia can develop high lung blood pressure (Mosmann et al., 2019). This is usually an adult complication. Breathlessness and tiredness are common symptoms that can be fatal. Sick-cell patients have several pulmonary manifestations of increased reactivity of the airway, nocturnal desaturation of oxygen, thromboembolic disease, ACS, chronic pulmonary disease of the sickle cell and pulmonary hypertension. Sickle cell anaemia management is usually designed to prevent pain episodes, alleviate symptoms, and prevent complications. Medicines and blood transfusions can be used in the therapies. A stem cell transplant may cure the disease for certain children and adolescents. Hydroxyurea is also a drug that may reduce several SCD problems.
  • Diabetes type 1- Type 1 diabetes occurs if the infection control, attack and kill the insulin-producing beta pancreatic cells of your body's immune system. Type 1 diabetes is linked to biology and environmental factors, including infections, which may contribute to the disorder (Novodvorsky et al., 2017). Pathophysiology of type 1 diabetesis that in this condition the immune system attacks and destroys the insulin producing beta cells of the pancreas. Decreased CO lung transfer capacity with evidence of other diabetic micro angiopathy has been documented in patients with type 1. Diabetes Care Form 1 includes giving medication. Take insulin, Fat and protein tracking, starch tracking, Occasional surveillance of blood sugar, Healthy foods to eat, healthy foods to eat and Regular exercise and healthy weight preservation.

Essay Question Three - Uncovering the Facts

The names of the parts of the female reproductive system

External structures of the female reproductive system include:

  • Labia majora 
  • Labia minora
  • Bartholin's glands
  • Clitoris

The internal reproductive organs in the female include:

  • Vagina
  • Uterus (womb)
  • Ovaries
  • Fallopian tubes.

Purpose and Timeline of Menstruation

Menstruation or period of time is a normal vaginal bleeding in the monthly cycle of a woman. The body gets ready for pregnancy every month. The uterus or vagina will lose its tissue if no conception occurs. The blood of the menstrual system is partly blood and partly tissue from the uterus.

There are four phases in the menstrual cycle of a woman.:

  • Menstrual phase- The menstrual cycle is complicated and regulated by several specific drums and hormones. The menstrual cycle is classified into four phases: reproductive, follicular and ovulatory. Long or uncomfortable cycles and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are common menstrual issues.
  • Follicular phase- The follicular period, also known as the proliferative process, is the estrous stage in which follicles develop in the ovary (or, in humans and in great apes, the menstrual cycle). It finishes with eggs (Larsson et al., 2020).
  • Ovulation phase- Ovulation occurs when the egg matures from the ovary. The egg travels from the fallopian tube to the uterus, where sperm is fertilized. Ovulation is the only way you will get pregnant during the menstrual period.
  • Luteal phase- One stage of the menstrual cycle is the luteal process. This occurs following ovulation and before your period begins (when the ovaries produce an egg). The lining of the uterus becomes usually tighter at this period to brace for the prospect of birth.

Journey that Sperm Takes Through the Reproductive System and How and Where It Might Be Involved in Fertilisation

Ejaculation induces a fast secretion of semen into the vessels from the thumb of the epididymis. Sperm then travels through the vas to the pelvic cavity via the sperm cord to the prostate behind the bladder (Mobarak et al., 2019). The sperm is produced and ripened in the epididymis in the bobbled tube. They pass through a vas deferens and mix with fluids from the prostate and seminal vesicles at the end of sex. The sperm passes through the urethra and into the tip of the penis and the vagina.

Fertilization of humans is the union of a human egg with sperm, usually in the fallopian tube ampulla. The consequence of this union is the growth, through the prenatal formation of a zygote cell or of the fertilized egg. Egg and sperm move to (most frequently) the falopian tubes in opposite directions. Ovaries expel one of the truthopian tubes after ovulation, and the embryo descends into the uterus to allow for future implantations (Saxena et al., 2016).

Explanations

Ectopic pregnancy- When a fertilised egg attaches and develops outside the fetus' principal cavity, an ectopic pregnancy happens. The most frequent cause of an ectopic pregnancy is in a fallopian tube that brings the ovaries into the uterus. That form is regarded as an ectopic birth.

Twin production- One fertilized egg (vum) splits into two children bearing exactly the same genetic material in the development of identical or monozygotic twins. Two semen fertilized eggs (ova) create two genetically distinct offspring for the development of brotherly and dizygotic twins.

Endometriosis- Endometriosis is a disorder in which the tissue forming the uterine lining grows outside the uterus. The lower abdominal or pelvic region typically has Endometriosis, although it can develop elsewhere in the body.

Human papilloma virus- A form of virus which can induce an irregular growth of tissue (such as warts) and other cell changes. Some forms of human papilloma virus may induce cervical cancer over a long period of time (Lipatova & 2016). Human papilloma virus ( HPV) is a viral infection that occurs through skin-to - skin contact between people. There are over 100 types of HPV that can impact the penis, mouth or neck, and more than 40 of these proceed by sexual touch.

Chlamydia- The bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for chlamydia. The disease is transmitted by genital, vaginal or anal intercourse. Chlamydia is a common illness that is sexually transmitted. It is triggered by Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria. It can kill men and women alike. Females in the cervix, rectum, or throat may have chlamydia. The urethra (inside the penis), rectum, or throat may get chlamydia in males.

Herpes- The HSV is an infection that causes herpes. The virus is also known as the HSV. Herpes can appear in various areas of the body, most commonly on the mouth or the genitals. The herpes simple virus is two kinds. It is caused by unprotected sex, oral intercourse with a sulphurizer and getting an infected person in genital contact.

Differentiation between the terms STI and STD

STI (sexually transmitted infection) applies to an infection that is sexually transmitted and STD ( sexually transmitted disease) to an disease that is sexually transmitted. STD is the most common term used in the collection and transmission of medical infections via sexual contact (Kim et al., 2019). Individuals affected will not often show any signs or turn their infection into a disease. That is the root of the more common word 'STI.'

Provide different methods women may use to prevent STIs and/or pregnancy

  • Using a latex condom— A latex condom is used to minimize the risk of pregnancy whether you have vaginal, genital, or anal intercourse.
  • Avoid unsafe sex activities — Greater likelihood of STIs resides in the intimate actions that rip or crack the flesh. Also minor cuts that do not bleed cause germs to move.
  • Geting immunized— Vaccinations are required for hepatitis B and other forms of HPV prevention (see FAQ191 for Human Papillomavirus ( HPV), and FAQ125 for Yourself Safety against Hepatitis B and C).

Describe the Role of Doctors in Assisting Women in Maintaining a Healthy Reproductive System

The most popular female practitioner is a gynaecologist (Karges et al., 2017). Gynaecologists are physicians whose primary field of practice is the general health care of women and the female reproductive system. Doctors assist people in ensuring the health of their reproductive organs in the management of concerns such as sexually transmitted infections, abortion, and preventive treatments and more common health issues including asthma , diabetes, or depression. Doctors also scan for tumours in female patients such as breast , ovarian, cervical and uterine diseases.

Essay Question Four - The Power of Evolutionary Diversity

This essay should include

An Explanation of All the Processes that Cause Diversity in A Person’s DNA

The total number of genetic features in the genetic composition of a species is genetic diversity. The genetic variation describes the tendency to differ in genetic characteristics. Genetic variation is a means of adjusting societies to growing conditions (Krishna, 2017). Genetic variation could be caused by mutation, random matching, random fertilization and the recombination of the homologous chromosomes during meiosis (which can create completely new alleles in a population).

Chromosomal arrangement at Metaphase 1- The homologous chromosomes are arranged with the kinetochores facing opposite poles in the middle of the cell during metaphase I. The equivalents are naturally directed to the Ecuador. In Metaphase I, tetrads are uniformly positioned on the metaphase plate and homologous sets. Such variability is attributed to the individual distribution and overlap of gametes during meiosis and a spontaneous mixture during fertilization.

Recombination and mutations- Recombination is a process through which DNA pieces are broken and recombined to produce new allele combinations. This process of recombination creates genetic diversity in the genes reflecting differences in DNA sequences of various organisms whereas a change in our DNA sequence is either a result of errors copying the DNA, or due to environmental factors such as UV light and cigarette smoke.

Sexual reproduction- New live species are created through the combination of genetic material by two people of different types (sexes). One sex (male) produces in most higher organisms a small and mobile gamete, which fuses with a bigger gamete produced by the other (female) (Han et al., 2017). Sexual reproduction provides genetic variation, as the developed sperm and eggs have different gene variations than the parent species. The resultant cell, or gamete, is just around half the sum of DNA as the parent cell.

Why Is Diversity Not Usually a Good Thing

Generally, genetic diversity supports resilience and persistence of the population. Reductions in population growth and lack of gender distribution will reduce genetic diversity, improve reproductive health and raise chances of extinction.

How Does the Diversity Give Human Power? Provide at Least One Specific Example of Where Diversity/mutation (at the Dna Level) Has Helped the Species

 Diversity promotes creativity and addressing challenges by pushing us from different backgrounds to see issues. Diversity also facilitates the recruitment and success of top-quality companies. Genetic variation is the primary explanation for human diversity. Serial impacts and a limited community (increasing the likelihood of genetic drift) have had a substantial impact on neutral community disparities.

Changes in an organism's DNA are mutations. Mutations may be beneficial, healthy, or malignant, due to the position of the genetic code (Bonnett et al., 2019). Example where diversity/mutation (at the DNA level) has helped the species include HIV susceptibility, lactose tolerance and trichromatic vision.

How Can the Diversity (at the Dna Level) Be Visualised in The Lab? Why Does This Work? What Information Can Be Gleaned About an Individual by Looking at Dna This Way (at Least 2 Different Ideas)

The most best - known color used to visualize diversity at DNA level is probably ethidium bromide. The gel combination, the electrophoresis buffer, or the gel stain after running it may be used. Dye molecules bind to DNA fibers and fluoresce under UV illumination, revealing where the strips are in the water (Arias et al., 2018).

Information that can be gleaned about an individual by looking at DNA this way includes the molecular instructions for life, called deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA. Encoded within this DNA are the directions for traits as diverse as the color of a person's eyes, the scent of a rose, and the way in which bacteria infect a lung cell.

References for Power of Evolutionary Diversity

Arias, L., Barbieri, C., Barreto, G., Stoneking, M., & Pakendorf, B. (2018). High‐resolution mitochondrial DNA analysis sheds light on human diversity, cultural interactions, and population mobility in Northwestern Amazonia. American journal of physical anthropology, 165(2), 238-255.

Bonnett, L., Bridge, J., & Blakey, J. D. (2019). A Systematic Review of Methodology Used in the Development of Prediction Models for Future Asthma Attack. In D36. INNOVATIONS IN RESEARCH METHODS AND EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS (pp. A6224-A6224). American Thoracic Society.

Han, P., Li, Y., Yang, X., Xue, L., & Zhang, L. (2017). Effects of aerobic respiration and nitrification on dissolved inorganic nitrogen and carbon dioxide in human-perturbed eastern Jiaozhou Bay, China. Marine pollution bulletin, 124(1), 449-458.

Krishna, A. (2017). An integrative review of sensory marketing: Engaging the senses to affect perception, judgment and behavior. Journal of consumer psychology, 22(3), 332-351.

Kim, Y. H., Sol, I. S., Kim, S. Y., Choi, S. H., Kim, H. R., Kim, K. W., & Sohn, M. (2019). Clinical Implication of Exhaled Breath Temperature in the Hospitalized Children with Asthma Attack. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 143(2), AB10.

Karges, B., Kapellen, T., Wagner, V. M., Steigleder‐Schweiger, C., Karges, W., Holl, R. W., ... & DPV Initiative. (2017). Glycated hemoglobin A1c as a risk factor for severe hypoglycemia in pediatric type 1 diabetes. Pediatric diabetes, 18(1), 51-58.

Lipatova, O., & Campolattaro, M. M. (2016). The miracle fruit: An undergraduate laboratory exercise in taste sensation and perception. Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education, 15(1), A56.

Larsson, N. G., & Clayton, D. A. (2020). Molecular genetic aspects of human mitochondrial disorders. Annual review of genetics, 29(1), 151-178.

Mobarak, H., Heidarpour, M., Lolicato, F., Nouri, M., Rahbarghazi, R., & Mahdipour, M. (2019). Physiological impact of extracellular vesicles on female reproductive system; highlights to possible restorative effects on female age‐related fertility. BioFactors, 45(3), 293-303.

Mosmann, J. P., Talavera, A. D., Criscuolo, M. I., Venezuela, R. F., Kiguen, A. X., Panico, R., ... & Cuffini, C. G. (2019). Sexually transmitted infections in oral cavity lesions: Human papillomavirus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Herpes simplex virus. Journal of oral microbiology, 11(1), 1632129.

Novodvorsky, P., Bernjak, A., Chow, E., Iqbal, A., Sellors, L., Williams, S., ... & Sheridan, P. J. (2017). Diurnal differences in risk of cardiac arrhythmias during spontaneous hypoglycemia in young people with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes care, 40(5), 655-662.

Poulton, J., Finsterer, J., & Yu-Wai-Man, P. (2017). Genetic counselling for maternally inherited mitochondrial disorders. Molecular diagnosis & therapy, 21(4), 419-429.

Piccin, A., Murphy, C., Eakins, E., Rondinelli, M. B., Daves, M., Vecchiato, C., ... & Smith, O. P. (2019). Insight into the complex pathophysiology of sickle cell anaemia and possible treatment. European journal of haematology, 102(4), 319-330.

Spees, J. L., Olson, S. D., Whitney, M. J., & Prockop, D. J. (2016). Mitochondrial transfer between cells can rescue aerobic respiration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(5), 1283-1288.

Saxena, S., Shukla, D., & Bansal, A. (2016). Augmentation of aerobic respiration and mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle by hypoxia preconditioning with cobalt chloride. Toxicology and applied pharmacology, 264(3), 324-334.

Singh, P., Singh, P. P., & Mishra, P. K. (2018). Association of Socioeconomic Status on STI/STD Awareness Among OPD patients attending a Tertiary Care Hospital. Indian Journal of Preventive & Social Medicine, 49(2), 3-3.

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