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Nurses Role in Health Promotion Plan for Diabetes

Diabetes is a lifetime illness that directly hampers individual functionality and leads to a poor health outcome. It is considered to be one of the most common non-communicable disorders that directly affect the major portion of the population (Pham & Ziegert, 2016). Health promotion plan is important to help the individual at the community level to empower them to deal with the fluctuation in the health to improve lifestyle. The community-level interventions are important to help the patient to understand and implement the changes that are important to improve the lifestyle (Springer et al., 2017). The nurses play an important in health promotion due to their changing role at community role and they are expected to actively engage in the different intervention to improve the health of the population at the community level (Kemppainen et al., 2012). The essay is going to discuss the role of nurses in the health promotion plan considering the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. The essay will address the role of nurses in all the five strategies mentioned in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion.

World Health Organization proposed the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion has been considered to be the gold standard template to build the health promotion plan. Five strategies are important to build the health promotion plan and the first strategy is to build healthy public policy. The health public policy is a diverse and complementary approach that helps to put the health as a major agenda for the policy by decrease obstacles and adopting healthy public policy (Thompsone et al., 2017). Nurses are the major contributing workforce in the health care sector and they are in direct contact with the patient thus having an understanding of the gap in the care. Nurses contributing major role in the development and implementation of the effective health policy that help to improve the health policy for health promotion. Nurses’ participation in health policy development is important to improve the decision-making process that is important to improve the community-level health status. Nurses are the major care providers and they are the major source of the health promotion activity thus they action directly impact the individual health status related to the health promotion plan (Shariff, 2015). The policy related to diabetes needs to address the lack of knowledge of the population to understand the risk factor that can lead to the prevalence of the risk factors. Another aspect that can be covered by the policies will include improving the health care services and self-management intervention that can help the patient to understand followed by implementation of the change. Diabetes polices are to be framed by utilizing the person-centric approach that helps to address the specific diabetic issue faced by the patient (Herman & Cefalu, 2015). 

The second strategy that is included in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion is creating a supportive environment for the population in the health promotion plan. The supportive environment in health care is important to support the patient in the community dealing with a health issue (Thompsone et al., 2017). Nurses are expected to provide quality care by utilizing the appropriate clinical practise approach to develop a supportive environment. Nurses are in direct contact with the patient and their clinical practice directly impacts the patient health outcome. The supportive environment is important to help the patient-facing issue with their health and unable to understand the different strategies that can improve the quality of care. The supportive environment provided by the nurses helps the patient to express and understand the health-related aspect that is important to improve the health status by addressing the issue with the right intervention (Iriarte‐Roteta et al., 2020). The supportive environment in diabetes care is important as it is a lifetime illness and there is a need to empower the patient to improve self-efficacy for managing the health of the population at the community level. The nurses are expected to improve their clinical practice that can deliver safe and quality care to help the individual at a specific level. The supportive environment to the diabetic patient is important to improve individual understanding regarding the precaution method or risk factor that can increase complication (Kumar et al., 2013).

The third strategy in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion is to strengthen community action to improve the health status. The effective community action is important by framing the priorities that are important for making decision, planning and implementation of the intervention (Thompsone et al., 2017). There has been a drastic change in the health care setting and the nurse’s role has been broader from primary health care to community health care to improve and support the population at the community level. Nurses at the community level are expected to educate and support the population by providing right assistance by improving individual ability to deal with deteriorated health status. The nurses at the community level act by addressing the three level of the prevention that is important to assist the patient in the community due to the different stage level at the community level. The nurses at the community level are expected to utilize their cultural competence and communication skills to support the population during the health promotion plan (Maaitah & AbuAlRub, 2017). They strengthen community action for diabetes need to include setting the priority for the intervention following by the making decision. The next step is planning the strategies for the different strategies that will help to implement the intervention to achieve the health-related goal at the community level. The strength community action at the community level in diabetes care helps the patient to improve their self-efficacy to handle the different aspect of the care strategies to improve and stabilize the health status (Egbujie et al., 2018).

Develop personal skills are the fourth strategies of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion that is important for the health care professional to improve the quality and safety of care. The health care professionals are also expected to help the population in improving the personal skills to improve the individual ability to deal with the deteriorated health status (Thompsone et al., 2017). Nurses are in direct contact with the patient thus they are the first line of contact of the patient to address their issue. Nurses are directly responsible to help the patient to understand and implement the changes that are important to improve the health status. Nurses are expected to develop a professional and personal skill while coordinating with the patient that is important to improve the health status by empowering the patient. Health promotion plan has major aim to improve the patient ability to hold the power to deal with the different issue related to the disorder (Bulotaitė et al., 2017). In diabetes management, individual personal skills are very improvement so maintain the stabilize health status during the lifetime. The personal skill development for the diabetic patient is important to continuously monitor the blood glucose level, maintaining the right diet, adherence to medication and improving the physical exercise that is directly important to improve the health status. The nurses are accepted to help the patient to improve the develop the technical skills that are important to improve the individual ability to deal with the blood glucose level with tracking it routinely (Hunt, 2015).

Reorient Health Services is the fifth strategy that is included in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion to improve the perspective of the care. The reorient health services are important to reframing the services from curative to health promotion perspective that is important to improve health at the community level (Thompsone et al., 2017). The lifelong illness requires care to be more oriented toward improving the individual ability to deal with deteriorated or fluctuated health status. The nurses are main caregivers thus they play an important role in reorienting the care services to promote the health status at the community level. The reoriented care services can address the individual need related to the health issue that needs to be addressed to increase the individual ability to improve the health status to sustain a healthy life. The community awareness program is an important step in reorienting the health services at the community level to improve the health status of the population (Yiengprugsawan et al., 2017). Reorientation of the health services is important to increase the ability of the individual to improve the ability of the individual in dealing with the different care aspect by improving personal skills. The diabetic patients are expected to be addressed by right self-management skill intervention that not focuses on curing the issue but promoting the individual ability to deal with the disorder. The health care professionals are main care delivery agent thus they act as the main link for the reorientation of the services at the community level (Bergman et al., 2012).

The essay can be concluded by adding that nurse’s clinical practise playing a major role in health promotion plan as they are the major care providers thus their action plays an important role in empowering the patient-facing issue due to diabetes. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion five strategies for health promotion requires equal participation of the nurses to improve the quality and safety of the practice. Nurses are expected to improve their individual and organizational skills which lead to better health services that easily address the different issue faced by the diabetic patient. The patient direct interaction with the nurse increases their responsibility to improve their self-management skill to deal with diabetes by improving blood glucose monitoring and adherence to the medication. The self-management skills of the patient help to stabilize the health status that can deteriorate in future and health promotion plan are important to improve the promotion of the individual ability to deal with the health-related issue.

References for Primary Health Care Principles

Bergman, M., Buysschaert, M., Schwarz, P. E., Albright, A., Narayan, K. V. & Yach, D. (2012). Diabetes prevention: Global health policy and perspectives from the ground. Diabetes Management (London, England)2(4), 309–321. DOI: 10.2217/dmt.12.34 

Bulotaitė, L., Šorytė, D., Vičaitė, S., Šidagytė, R., Lakiša, S., Vanadziņš, I. & Lerssi-Uskelin, J. (2017). Workplace health promotion in health care settings in Finland, Latvia, and Lithuania. Medicina, 53(5), 348–356. DOI:10.1016/j.medici.2017.10.002 

Egbujie, B. A., Delobelle, P. A., Levitt, N., Puoane, T., Sanders, D. & van Wyk, B. (2018). Role of community health workers in type 2 diabetes mellitus self-management: A scoping review. PloS One13(6). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0198424

Herman, W. H. & Cefalu, W. T. (2015). Health policy and diabetes care: Is it time to put politics aside? Diabetes Care, 38(5), 743–745. doi:10.2337/dc15-0348 

Hunt C. W. (2015). Technology and diabetes self-management: An integrative review. World Journal of Diabetes6(2), 225–233. DOI: 10.4239/wjd.v6.i2.225

Iriarte‐Roteta, A., Lopez‐Dicastillo, O., Mujika, A., Ruiz‐Zaldibar, C., Hernantes, N., Bermejo, E. & Pumar‐Méndez, M. J. (2020). Nurses’ role in health promotion and prevention: A critical interpretive synthesis. Journal of Clinical Nursing. DOI:10.1111/jocn.15441 

Kemppainen, V., Tossavainen, K. & Turunen, H. (2012). Nurses’ roles in health promotion practice: An integrative review. Health Promotion International, 28(4), 490–501. DOI:10.1093/heapro/das034

Kumar, K. M., Raghupathy, P. & Kalra, S. (2015). Diabetes-friendly environments for children with diabetes. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism19(Suppl 1), S1–S3. DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.155324

Maaitah, R. A. & AbuAlRub, R. F. (2017). Exploration of priority actions for strengthening the role of nurses in achieving universal health coverage. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem, 25(0), 1-13. DOI:10.1590/1518-8345.1696.2819 

Pham, L. & Ziegert, K. (2016). Ways of promoting health to patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease from a nursing perspective in Vietnam: A phenomenographic study. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being11, 1-11. DOI: 10.3402/qhw.v11.30722

Shariff, N. J. (2015). Empowerment model for nurse leaders’ participation in health policy development: An east African perspective. BMC Nursing, 14(31), 1-11. DOI: 10.1186/s12912-015-0078-6 

Springer, A. E., Evans, A. E., Ortuño, J., Salvo, D. & Varela Arévalo, M. T. (2017). Health by design: Interweaving health promotion into environments and settings. Frontiers in Public Health5(268), 1-10. DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2017.00268

Thompson, S. R., Watson, M. C. & Tilford, S. (2017). The Ottawa Charter 30 years on: Still an important standard for health promotion. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education, 56(2), 73–84. DOI:10.1080/14635240.2017.1415765 

Yiengprugsawan, V., Healy, J., Kendig, H., Neelamegam, M., Karunapema, P. & Kasemsup, V. (2017). Reorienting health services to people with chronic health conditions: Diabetes and stroke services in Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Thailand. Health Systems & Reform, 3(3), 171–181. DOI:10.1080/23288604.2017.1356428 

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