1 A) There are five characteristics of the goal these include the following: -
The goals of the organization must be specific and should not be general. Because if the employees would not know what the end goal of their project is they will not be able to score good marks.
The goals of the organization must be such that they can be measured. A measurable goal is likely to be achieved faster than the goals which cannot be measured as it gives the current report stating that the first step of the goal is achieved and so on(Linder et al. 2018).
There are any goals which cannot be achieved like startup organization state that it will earn billions of money within 3 months. This type of goals is unrealistic and cannot be achieved. Thus the organization while defining goal for the employees must set a goal which can be achieved by the organization.
It is often seen that arbitrary goals do not help anyone thus the organization must define goals which are aligned with the mission and vision of the company.
Timed for success.
While setting the goal another important task is to set a deadline for reviewing because a goal would not be achieved on the mentioned target if it is not review. The time associated with the goal must justify the task so that company accomplishes the goal within the time frame provided.
C) Structure of an attitude is composed of three components which are: -
This component displays the feeling for the object. A person feels positive and negative emotions for the object. For example - I am scared of insects. A person feels happiness, love, hatred and dislikes for the object.
It tells about the person's behavioural tendency towards the object (Kotliar 2017). In other words, it can be said that the behavioural component is a way by which a person act or react to seeing an object. For example - I will avoid insects and scream once I see any of them.
This component tells about the person’s belief and knowledge about the object. For instance, the statement I believe insects are dangerous. This statement will tell about the particular beliefs whether they are true or false as in this case, it is true.
2 A) Emotional intelligence is the ability by which a person manages his or her emotion in situations where required. People possessing high emotional intelligence can easily make out the other person’s emotion through their facial expressions. It is said that an emotionally intelligent leader must take the decisions without letting their emotions influence in the decision-making process.
B) Here are some obstacles found ineffective time management are too many tasks on schedule, constant interruptions from teammates or manager, lack of priority in the task, having a fear of failure, lack of organization, procrastination, unable to say no and lack in the strategic direction(Dabell 2018).
C) Interpersonal communication is a process by which people share useful information through verbal and no verbal methods (Novak 2017). It is a form of face to face communication between two or more persons.
D) Goals play a significant role in a person’s life as it helps the individual to focus on the task and promote a sense of self –mastery (Linder et al. 2018).A person cannot achieve success without setting a goal because without a goal a person cannot manage the things and cannot even measure it and things which are never measured cannot be improved.
E) Some time management tools and techniques that can be used by the organization to manage the task are Asana, Scoro, Trello, Clarizen, Proofhub, Timecamp, Replicon, Toggl and so on(Dabell 2018).
1 A) A successful manager is the one who has mastered the interpersonal skills and has a good listening ability so that he can get the crux of the situation and then handle it most appropriately. The manager should have the ability to communicate with the employees. They have the confidence to handle difficult conversations with ease(Novak 2017). The manager besides must have collective, process, leadership and comprehensive skills. If the manager did not learn any of these skills it will have a direct impact on the growth of the company.
For example: - If the leader does not have the listening skill, he or she will never understand the cause of the conflict and will not be able to resolve it.
If he or she does not have the collective skill, then the manager will not be able to manage the team members.
If he does not have the process skill, he or she will fail in the technicalities of the project.
If he does not possess the comprehensive skill, he will never able to understand the people with whom he works and will not be able to communicate with them properly.
B) Advantages of oral communication are the following: -
Disadvantages of oral communication are: -
The biggest difference between oral and written communication is that oral communication can be referred sharing of important information through spoken words while the written communication is a method by which a person shares information to the other through the written word.
2 A) Strength of an attitude can be defined as an extent to which an attitude of a person is consequential (Howe and Krosnick 2017). In comparison to the weak attitudes, the strong attitude of a person is more likely to remain stable. It even has a strong influence on the behaviour of others.
B) There are a large number of techniques to manage the stress like yoga, tai chi, healing programs, progressive muscle relaxation, biofeedback, meditation, exercise, qigong and so on.
C) Conflict management is the process by which managers of the organization try to create an environment where there are fewer changes in conflicts getting arise between the employees. It is a method of increasing the positive effect of the conflict instead of negative ones.
D) A person can measure his or her stress level by using a perceived stress scale. It is a psychological instrument for measuring the stress level by oneself (Siu 2017). Another way to measure the stress level of a person is by measuring the stress level hormones present in the body.
E) Here are some benefits of listening: -
Bourdeaud'hui, H., Aesaert, K., Van Keer, H. and van Braak, J. 2018. Identifying student and classroom characteristics related to primary school students’ listening skills: A systematic review. Educational Research Review, 25, pp.86-99.
Dabell, J. 2018. Effective time-management. Seced, 2018(19), pp.13-13.
Dannels, D.P., Dannels, D.P., Palmerton, P.R. and Housely, A.L. 2017. Oral communication in the disciplines: A resource for teacher development and training.
Howe, L.C. and Krosnick, J.A. 2017. Attitude strength. Annual review of psychology, 68, pp.327-351.
Kotliar, I.A. 2017. Study of the structure of the attitude to children in Russian-speaking and German-speaking parents living in Germany. Journal of Modern Foreign Psychology, 6(2), pp.63-71.
Linder, S. and Foss, N.J. 2018. Microfoundations of organizational goals: a review and new directions for future research. International Journal of Management Reviews, 20, pp.S39-S62.
Novak, D. 2017. Interpersonal communication skills of a manager.
Siu, O.L. 2017. Stress management techniques in the workplace. In The Routledge Companion to Wellbeing at Work (pp. 284-297). Routledge.
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