• Internal Code :
  • Subject Code : MAN6302
  • University :
  • Subject Name : Product Management

Product Quality - Quality Management System

Table of Contents

Question 1

Question 2

Question 3

Question 4

Question 5


Question 1

Air France Flight 4590 was loaded up from Paris to New York on the morning of 25 July 2000, setting off for what was supposed to be a long journey on a supersonic airplane. Their flight lasted less than two minutes of tragically (Yoshida & Honda, 2016). Soon after the lift, the high altitude stream struck a lodge in Gonesse, France, killing all 109 people on board and another four on the ground(Yoshida & Honda, 2016).

A Continental flight, taking identical lane routes to Newark, lost a titanium compound strip five minutes before taking Flight 4590. The standard Concorde convention requires the full pre-departure runway inquiry, which is not completed (perhaps given that the flight was delayed by 60 minutes at this stage) (Smith, 2016). On departure for flight 4590, one of Concorde's left pneus was cut and burst, a bit of that floaty and jetsam from Continental flight. When the aircraft was pushed downstream 26R, the fuel tank 5 leaked and some of it reached the bottom of the aircraft's wing (Smith, 2016). An inside tank weight wave caused the tire strike to break out. Fuel flowed and struck down from the tank (Guruswamy, 2018). The Concorde had just reached the velocity that could not stop safely before the runway was finally completed so that it took off the road with flashes from the left-wing (Guruswamy, 2018). Some pixel images show this incredible second, a second, costing 113 lives, 125 million dollars, and to this point a genuinely great carrier's celestial reputation (Orlebar, 2017).

The historical context of business aviation in the supersonics was founded during the 1950s and 1960s, a similar era when the US and the Soviet Cold War contention propelled a man into space (Olivier, 2018). While the Cold War superpowers were moving to overtake stars, England and France centered the skies faster than ever on business flights with the dream of aviation – a reality (Olivier, 2018).

The USA, France, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union played the option of supersonic flights at the end of the fifties. In an enormous amount supported by their legislatures, English and Francophone bodies established plans all designed to be developed by the mid-'60s, but the cost of such an aspiring task was irrelevantly restrictive, either alone. In 1961 British Aerospace and the France Aerospatiale met to create and build up this task, the progress of which was not arranged to be an understanding of the companies but to be a global settlement amongst the countries. This understanding is based on the Concorde 's name (the word concord in French means "understanding, agreement or association") (Johnstone-Bryden, 2018).

The main issues may be related to 3 root causes:

  • Ruptured fuel cell.
  • Tire disintegration.
  • The additional weight of the flight.

In 1965 two models began their development and in 1969, a year similar to their first investigational exercise in Paris, they were introduced to society in general. On its first commercial flight in January 1976, Concorde praised (Johnstone-Bryden, 2018). As significant as all this accomplishment was, it still had a more prominent position for the French and the British. The Concorde embodied the national pride of the post-Imperial nations, a system that is comparable to two superpowers that arose after the Second World War in both countries, that arose from that conflict in a furious search of new personalities in the world that produced their most impressive miracles (Banerjee, 2019). Both countries, but France in particular, needed a source of national pride. The "best hour" of audacity in England during the war had blurred into history and its dominance had disappeared (Banerjee, 2019). France was mortified and involved in the war as far as its concerns were concerned. Around that point in time, when flight F-4590 reached near Paris, the company as well as the countries that sponsored it was tremendously reached (Veltmeyer & Mohamed, 2017).

Most building disasters, especially those with complicated frameworks, occur for only one important explanation. In general, elements that lead to a combined cataclysmic occurrence are progressed. That was the case with Concorde Fluke 4590 from Paris' Charles de Gaulle airport (CDG) to New York's JFK, on 25 July 2000 (Dubey, 2018). Flight 4590 was a sanctioned flight that brought together 100 German flights to New York to transport the Caribbean and South American ports. Their trip was to be completed. Christian Marty was one of the most competent pilots in Air France with an immaculate safety record. Whatever the case, the skipper took the luxury of taking the current flight just an hour late and finding that his passengers wanted travel transport (Yusr, 2017). A large amount of luggage will be conveyed to travelers on a penalty-fly that recommends going on an inclusive voyage (Yusr, 2017). The analysis report later indicated that the Concorde was slightly overweight after the suggested lowest basic flight load of 408.009 pounds. Christian Marty decided to siphon fuel towards the back and shift the center of gravity so that the airplane could be pulled away to soak up the extra weight rather than consuming additional fuel (Yusr, 2017).

The largest pull section, about 4 feet long and more than 10 pounds long, hit the bottom of the 5th wing, filled fuel tank. The tank was struck by such a roughened blow, and the air in the tank was not filled to help the struck (Yusr, 2017). The pneumatic part did not break through the tank, yet the overloaded fuel tank was subject to a hydrodynamic weight flood. Without space to go, an aluminum board forecasting about one and a half feet square of the underground from the inside of the tank 5 extinguished. When the fuel began to flow out of the broken wing, it was hit by flickering electric wires that were hanging from the wheel. As Concorde went down at such a high pace that was entirely connected with an aircraft, the air passage was impeded, and the slower the air atomized the fuel. Further fuel and the flashes were sent to the engines (Sila, 2018).

Question 2

In construction projects and projects involving many other areas, the success is often measured by the quality that is provided by the project owner to the client per dollar. The quality management is a wholesome procedure that requires various perspectives and various tasks. A quality management system or QMS is a large-scale procedure that contains numerous elements. Out of those two, quality assurance and quality control are the most important. Both are systematic approaches followed by the owner, manager, supervisor, and other people who are stakeholders in the wholesome project. Both have different functionalities and as a result, both are operated by separate teams within the large-scale project management team. They are both evaluated continuously and serve the purpose of dealing with the clients. The success of a construction project is highly dependent on both of these wholesome parameters. For both of them, if one fails to live up to the standards required in a construction project, QMS is not a success (Dodson et al, 2017). However, to make a critical judgment about the two, one has to study them in detail. The external stakeholder of a housing project would have to continuously be updated about the progress on both of these fronts. The idea to make sure that both of them work together to produce a result that is satisfactory to the stakeholders and the clients.

 For a project like the construction of a new house, numerous tasks are needed to be performed. The project manager or the project manager meets the quality when the performance is as per the expectations of the client. Then, the quality management system of the project becomes a success (Assefa, 2017). It is under general circumstances presumed that the idea of the client who has to buy the house is much less in comparison to the professionals. However, since the buying of a house is a large decision conducted and executed by the buyer, there are various researches conducted by the person on an individual level to make sure that the person gets the house that is needed for a safe and secure place to live for a long period (Forte & Russo, 2017). Therefore, many people make themselves capable of communicating with the project manager and the project owners on professional terms. It is a fact that many of these people are not short of knowledge or capability to be knowledgeable.

            This makes both quality assurance and quality control essential parts of the project and the internal stakeholders would need to be constantly communicative to the external stakeholders in this case. The job of the quality control team is to make sure that the project is on the way. They are responsible for making the client know that the requirements as specified by the client are on their way to be met (Shepherd, Xin, Stinn, Hayes, Zhao & Li, 2017). They carry out the task required to meet the requirements. For example, if the clients demand that they want a curved staircase that leads their drawing-room upstairs, then the quality control personnel must make sure that the stairs are made of a material that has the strength and flexibility required by the surface. The quality control team would also have to make sure that the material does not degenerate in a quick time. Otherwise, the owner of the property would have to make efforts to continue with the process again and again. Through negotiations, the quality control team would have to make sure that they are using materials and tools that would make for a staircase that is safe and has a high standard of quality for the buyers of the new house.

In the same process, what the quality assurance team would have to do is use data to evaluate the performance of the task done by the project team. Through data, the QA team would be able to communicate with the client statistically and definitively about the performance of the task. The data would indicate the life of the material considering the circumstances of the surroundings. The data would indicate the strength of the material and thereby its effectiveness. The strength has to be tested through objects that are heavier than the general objects that would be moving up and down the stairs. The data would also indicate how the continuous movement of weight along the stairs will affect the stairs in future processes.

This applies to any other thing concerning the newly built house. Many of the customers want a house made of wood. At the same time, many prefer it to be built with cement. Sometimes the quality control team would also have to perform the work of the quality assurance team. It is the QC team that has to interact with the clients in the first place. During many of these interactions, the client or the customer can be apprehensive about the circumstances surrounding the making of the house (Hajj, Graham, Heitzman, Hand, Weitzel & Tran, 2018). In these situations, it is highly recommendable that the QC team shows the data regarding the handling of the specific matters in the construction of the house. One area that can continuously be a factor of worry is the suitability of the house in a damp place. If the surroundings of the house cause the house to increase in dampness, the materials used in the construction would deteriorate quicker than the expectation of most of the people (Stapp, 2018). So, the QC team has to show the data about the effects of dampness and the quality of the material and its ability to withstand the surroundings and the negative effects that can arise due to it. A numeric impression can have a much better effect on the psyche of the person about to spend a long time in the place in the future.

Quality Control and Quality Assurance are both essential requirements of a project. They both determine the quality of the project and are involved in making sure that the client of the project of construction of a home is satisfied with the results.

Question 3

The Juran Trilogy

Fig. 1 The Juran Trilogy

 (Source: Tejaningrum, 2019)

The figure represents the Juran trilogy principle where it is cyclic to show the sporadic spoke in semblance with r chronic waste which leads to improvement of the product and once again enters into the phase of quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement.

Dr. Joseph M Juran (Quality Guru) gave his architect of quality which defines the three tenets of management of the quality process. Juran was an engineer and management consultant. He followed the ingenious Japanese way of compensation of money value through the management of quality. Any organization taking quality management has to undergo the following management process- quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement. This management of quality may sound similar but have different philosophies of thought in the management principles. There are different objectives and these principles have their purposes as Quality Management. It provides Quality Assurance and Quality maintenance. It is also commonly known as Juran's trilogy (Dou, 2020).

Quality planning- Quality planning mostly deals with products and the parties who are concerned with the raw materials and their products through the market estimates. It follows the principle of concurrent exercise which involves the parties that are affected and the products with their services. It also manages the inputs and provides warning signs about the total planning procedures (Sonnenschein, & Kenett, 2020)

Characteristics of quality planning:

  1. Defining the project and it is important to define the project limits and benefits and have an insight into the manufactured raw materials and input strategy.
  2. Customer identification and their needs according to their expectations and their satisfaction- it implies to the psychology of the customers what kind of products satisfy them. if a product does not have a long-lasting effect on the customers then the product is not essentially valuable to hold the market for a long time and it gets replaced with newer products or a version of it. Impact analysis of the customer to complete the knowledge of the product is essential to establish the product and customer knowledge gap.
  3. To discover the needs of customers-  it is important to understand the needs and expectations of the customers.
  4. Development of products as the needs of the customers- Suppose customers need garbage bags but those must be sturdier and tear-resistant if there are other garbage bags that will not be able to satisfy the customer requirements. The product should be made with the expectations of the demand of the customer so that it earns more profit and has attracted a lot of brand loyalty from the customers and this approach becomes sustainable for both the product and customer end.
  5. To establish quality objectives-  a product should have a particular objective to enter the market and produce an enormous or profound effect on the buying strategy to establish the quality of objectives.
  6. Development and strategizing of plans to meet the needs of the customers and their community.

Quality control- As per the Juran's trilogy, quality control helps in the operational maintenance of products to assure its control and targeted approach to their performance index. Methods of product making are so assured that the work design is impacted and target levels of the performance of the raw materials are achieved through the procedure. It does not necessarily improve the product but helps in the execution of the plans that are required to improve the plans in regards to the working principle of control quality. It takes control of the occasional spike in the process which leads to errors and more impacted on the mentality of the customers to avoid buying those products from an angle that is regressive of the product value. Quality control is the shorthand or short term process that looks down to check the spike (Mukhopadhyay, 2020). Quality control consists of the following characteristics -

  • It clearly defines the structures and modifications of quality in the context of products and its operational services.
  • It requires knowledge of expected and actual performance rates along with the operational motive to access the product which is to be made targets as approachable.
  • Evaluation of actual performance rates depends on the customers and the products which are in the markets. The market value hugely affects the actual performance of the product and its liability. The assessment process is dependent on the market value and product reliability and purchasing capability of the customer which also depends on their choice and requirements.
  • Comparison of the performances- also depends on the customers and the products are produced keeping in mind the expectation of the consumers who can clearly associate themselves to the requirement that is to be seen in the customer service and product its development and price and its implementation whether it is elastic or inelastic nature on its demand and supply chain management.
  • Denotation is the difference between actions of performance in the quality control

Quality improvement- On the market analysis and customer care analysis of the product quality is defined and its quality improvement is done as per the requirement. It is justified with the marketing essence. It is a disciplined approach and it engrossed in the vivid explanation of product efficacy and its improvement through analyzing. It defines the level of performance of the process. It is always achieved the breakthrough improvement in the product through the actual assessment of the product and its accessibility to the customer and their sense of purchase and their sense of loyalty (Pius et al., 2020). Innovative new ideas on product improvement also provide access to newer quality improvement and gas to satisfy the requirements of the customers who are the top-notch part of the system. There is always a requirement for newer ideas to improve the quality of the product. Here episodic memory of the customer's works but there has to be a differentiating product to recognize the purposeful utility of the product so that the customers can buy it and proceed with the new approach of product quality. Quality Improvement is an art of tactfulness so to ensure the market value and fulfillment if the customer's needs(Djordjevic et al., 2020). The trilogy is the sum up of the product from the producer's end to meet the needs of the customer who is the aim of achieving the product( Mubin & Arfeinia, 2020).

Question 4

Project quality management is a process of evaluation of the quality of a project to ensure that the expected quality is matched by the product.  The main focus of project quality management is to understand, access, maintain, and attain quality. Here the term 'quality' indicates 'perfection' and 'consistency' in the product (Baker, 2018). For modern business management, it is necessary to perform a 'quality management program' to ensure customer satisfaction. It has an underlying belief that the quality of a product creates customer satisfaction and enriches market performance. In a project, quality management ensures that the project reaches its vision. At the beginning of a project, the quality is determined by the idea and demand of stakeholders, and then it is fixed by the demand of the market and the value of the product among consumers. Quality Is not about providing something more but it's all about providing the exact.

The history of quality management is very lengthy. It started its journey from middle age. Work submitted by journeyman and co-workers is evaluated by experienced and efficient workers to ensure that considering every aspect the demand for quality is met (Javad& Liu, 2017). From then to now, it has traveled a long journey but the vision and inner idea of the quality management remain the same. In 1920, the project quality management started to work in the frontline. While the main target remains on the final product. With the help of statistical theory, the product quality is determined. Through several inspections, the quality is determined. Measuring and testing services and products as per demand and ensuring that each factor has desired standards to attain the quality. This algorithm remains famous for a long time. With time, the aspects and areas of business remained fixed and then began to grow and expand. So, the manufacturing sector faces hurdle to perform this process of management. So, a great revolution came to management in 1940. Changes were made by famous business leaders like Deming, Dodge, and Roming. This is the beginning of quality management as we know it today. Inspections are made after specific production intervals. Instead of focusing on end products, the focus is given to problems that affect the quality of end products (Kennealy, Anderson & Peterson, 2019). As the problem is detected very early, it makes growth in the solution period and product line.  During this time, Japanese products have more quality limitations than western products. To develop their product quality, the Japanese employ famous product quality managers from all over the world. Japan set up a new form of quality management and invented the term TQM, Total quality management. In 1969, Feigenbaum first used the term TQM in international quality management conferences. But he was unable to reach the depth of Ishikawa's words as he said, 'TQM should be applicable to all of the employees' (Androniceanu, 2017). Somehow the western culture of product management became very famous in the market and in 1980, west understood the importance and guideline of TQM and then started to utilize it. The Japanese market was strong with quality applying TQM in quality management (Neyestani, 2017). After that, the US government fixed a rule for quality management and set an award for excellence in this field. This award, 'Malcolm Bridge' could be won by the companies with excellence. Europe and some other countries also followed this step and developed a new model of award for this field. Now, hundreds of awards are given for business excellence all over the globe.

Phil Crosby was a business quality manager and writer. His 'quality is free' was published during the North American business crisis. He had thought that the company that works hard to maintain their quality they will see more savings line. The cost of quality management will be less if they look into quality management from the very first time, as the expense of rework is more than a fair work with one attempt.

It is a psychological fact that every company demands that they have superior quality products. They have a high level of perfection. But the reason behind the struggle of quality management is that they advertise a fact that good quality is free, which is hard to believe. No one said they have poor quality, but the fact is that good quality is very less. So, the word good quality is very diplomatic. So, it is easy to claim but hard to attain (Nakato&Shirahige, 2017). The main thought that I have over Crosby's comment is that 'claiming good quality is free.'  That is the problem of managing good quality. Quality professionals make their words vulnerable to customers without keeping the promises they claimed.  This is meaningless for quality management. Still, there are benchmarks set for quality determination, still, some drawbacks are there. Instead of credibility, the external audit determines this benchmark.  So, quality always gets compromised to make more profits.

Consumers have an issue that they sometimes compromise with quality to resist the expenses. Even they are peculiar with their aspects, as sometimes they claim for quality and sometimes, they become budget-friendly. They changed their demand with time.  But it is also a fact to the customers that the products have high prices and maintain high quality. If we consider the smartphone market, we can see Apple is famous for its quality and its price range makes the consumers aware of the quality fact. But it is very problematic to the comparatively new companies. If they maintain true high quality, the value will be truly very high. They have to make high-value customers as their target (Agrawal, 2019). So, it is impossible to compete with competitors who are with comparatively low-quality products in a reasonable price range and claim to have equal quality. But when a company absolutely focuses on quality and invests to improve it, consumers can differentiate it from others. They will pay for true quality. So, 'Quality is free' is absolutely true and has great importance over long term business. But for short term investment, it is very hard to define. As for short term business, the profit line is more important than consumer satisfaction. But properly educating consumers with the quality and description, it is easy to make them aware of good and bad. Still, it is impossible overnight, it takes time to improve the quality as well as to be a product with true quality in the eyes of the consumer (Plewa, Kaiser & Hartmann, 2016). So, quality is really free, if you wish to improve.

Question 5

Total Quality Management (TQM) is handled in different ways. Those every business on a flow location, with consumers managing the quality of the flow and candidates and the process skills (Sila, 2018). These are the following ways of managing TQM: timely, statistical process control, total preventive maintenance, quantifiable and governance tools, automation creation, improved quality, quality circles, total quality monitoring, strong scheme, high technology circuits, new technology development, the transmission of policies, process architectural design, customer-support structures. And all for these have been implemented in the project as per the need of the context for proper planning (Sila, 2018).

There are various types of reflection. These remember the reflection-for activity and reflection-on-activity. Appearance in real life is a procedure whereby people enjoy carefully, in-the-second reflection to manage difficulties and ambiguities happening right now. It includes people pondering what they are doing while they are doing it. Reflection-on-activity, the focal point of this paper, is very much depicted by specialists as 'the act of occasionally venturing back to consider the importance what has as of late happened' (Sila, 2018). This regularly happens after an occasion as a review demonstration and is intentionally embraced. This type of reflection isn't without analysis. Master proposes that this type of disconnected reflection can make auxiliary illustrative practices, while a specialist is worried about the static and separate nature of the procedure. These worries can be counterbalanced through the advancement of twofold circle learning (Sila, 2018). Twofold circle learning includes considering our activities, examining such information, and investigating our suppositions, what's more, speculations being used. This type of learning brings about new bits of knowledge and a move in qualities and suspicions. Numerous legitimate specialists advocate twofold circle learning for postgraduate understudies. Inside the administration instruction setting, this type of learning would empower understudies to have a progressively basic point of view in regards to their jobs in the working environment and would elevate the capacity to gain new data, to scrutinize and, over the long haul, to conceivably lessen any broken practices (Sila, 2018). A few creators have recommended that reflection happens along a profundity continuum, going from genuinely shallow portrayal to more nuanced levels. For sure, as commended specialists contend, the way toward finishing an intelligent assignment doesn't in itself guarantee that reflection expands past the spellbinding or that it does to sure occur (Dubey, 2018). Different reactions note that the profundity of understudy commitment with the undertaking influences the degrees of multifaceted nature, profundity, and criticality. These announcements demonstrate that the capacity for self-reflection is probably not going to be natural for some and in this manner understudies should be helped to build up this limit (Dubey, 2018). Expert accepts that, if the intelligent assignment is deliberate and expects understudies to show proof of learning or social shifts, at that point it is bound to draw in understudies. This raises the job of the instructor all the while (Dubey, 2018). For intelligent practice inside the executive's instruction circle to be powerful, some type of platform of the procedure is required to create fitting intellectual limits and to empower a move in responses and practices (Yusr, 2017).

The expectation of the intelligent exercise was to fundamentally brief understudies to consider their encounters in finishing a task with an accomplice. The exploration discoveries indicated that understudies had the option to reflect in changing degrees on various relevant issues identified with their activities, authoritative real factors, their administrative and positions of authority, and the way toward working with an arbitrarily chosen accomplice (Yusr, 2017). In spite of the fact that the references were very summed up in certain occurrences, understudies referred to future practice and the purpose to move toward circumstances diversely in what's to come. The same number of creators have recommended, reflection has the limit to fortify learning; it tends to be contended for that by itself it has the potential to be a helpful instructive procedure (Yusr, 2017). For understudies in the investigation, it considered self-awareness, change furthermore, improvement particularly as far as their current and future administration jobs. The capacity to self-oversee is the thing that specialists portray as 'the intelligent outlook', which is the capacity to see the two different ways: through their own conduct and past the prompt condition. Finishing the combined task permitted understudies an open door for the revelation of new information and abilities that changed their minds about the manner in which they expected to behave later on, especially in their administrative jobs. The project understudies increased recharged points of view on rehearses inside their own and different associations (Yusr, 2017). Past helping supervisors with understanding their own encounters, this introduction manufactures new information and initiative competency that can just profit the two administrators and their associations. Numerous understudies talked about the new gander at current authoritative practices through both the information assortment process and in inspecting how writing depicted the ideas (Yusr, 2017). This empowered understudies to see things in an alternate and watch their associations' weaknesses also as the territories wherein they exceeded expectations (Dubey, 2018). The emotive parts of reflection likewise surfaced through understudy portrayals where drive, ability, energy, inclusion, and inspiration were completely referenced. A more profound understanding and improved lucidity of the subject matter being found out over the program was communicated by an enormous level of the understudies. In spite of the fact that this sort of reflection has been depicted by specialists as an essential sort of learning, it can launch the intelligent procedure and is along these lines basic. At last, the dynamic application is fundamental to both learning and maintenance of key ideas, instruments, and strategies (Dubey, 2018). What turns out to be clear is that project understudies in this examination were ready to apply strategies instructed in the study hall in a real-world setting, in this manner upgrading their comprehension and utilization of these abilities. So the research method and the entire quality of the project have been maintained with the help of essential techniques and reflection techniques that has been paired up with the hard work and determination of the project participants (Dubey, 2018). The backbone of this paper, hence, rests on the framework of authentic planning and project management improvised with total management quality processes (Dubey, 2018).


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