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  • Subject Name : General Management

Exploring the Role of Physical Prototypes

Introduction to Product-Service System Development

Through the development of any application, the phase is referred to as a test phase, which implies a user co-creation. In this phase, the developer aims to test the developed app, and for this, the prototype of the application is released for stakeholders by involving them in it. The potential customers and users analyse the prototype, and thus, the feedback is gained by the development team, and they make the changes accordingly. For the event application as per the case, the user co-creation will be researched below in the form of a business model in which potential stakeholders will participate.

Body of Product-Service System Development

User co-creation is particularly a collaborative approach which tends to bring the UX team near to their users (Issa & Liem, 2020). These users may vary as they may be the investors, the companies, or the real end-users. This approach is a useful option in the test phase of application development as it assures the direct involvement of the users, where the development team designs their concepts through collaborating with their end-users. This part aims to communicate the design concept approach of the event app to potential customers, clients, and businesses. After the development of the event application, the prototype of it will be communicated to the users. The users will have the chance to use that. Now, as the event app mainly targets people who want eco-friendly weddings and other gatherings. The application would serve them in arranging the best functions for them. Interested customers will be given access to this application to share their valuable feedback on its usability, interface, efficiency, portability, scalability, and functionality. Here it is clear that the aim of user co-creation is not only to focus on the functional requirements of the application, but non-functional requirements are essential too (Oh et al., 2018).

After this process, through the methods of observations and conversation, the feedback will be gathered from the potential users of the event application. This feedback will then help the development and testing team to understand the room for improvement in the application. This feedback will be used to refine the prototype as per the user's needs and requirements. The developer of the application always seeks the satisfaction of customers, and this is the reason behind emphasizing the user co-creation phase. In the feedback, such requirements may also exist, which are unmet, and those will be considered by the team after negotiating them with stakeholders. However, while performing user co-creation, it is vital to realize that change is not that easy. It may need time and funding too. Thus, after communicating all the new requirements extracted from the feedback, another prototype will be released for the customers ( Boukhris, Fritzsche & Moslein, 2017). The primary reason behind this step is to deliver the best product in the market in the end.

Conclusion on Product-Service System Development

It is concluded that user co-creation is particularly a collaborative approach which tends to bring the UX team near to their users. These users may vary as they may be the investors, the companies, or the real end-users. This part aims to communicate the design concept approach of the event app to potential customers, clients, and businesses.

References for Product-Service System Development

Boukhris, A., Fritzsche, A., & Möslein, K. (2017). Co-creation in the early stage of product-service system development. Procedia CIRP, 63, 27-32.

Isa, S. S., & Liem, A. (2020). Exploring the role of physical prototypes during co-creation activities at LEGO company using case study validation. CoDesign, 1-25.

Oh, C., Song, J., Choi, J., Kim, S., Lee, S., & Suh, B. (2018, April). I lead, you help but only with enough details: Understanding user experience of co-creation with artificial intelligence. In Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1-13).

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