Planning and Control

Abstract on Project Management

Project Management in the construction business is experiencing a revolution in generating great new ideas. Construction business appreciates the project management methods as a capable tool for turning its organizational strategies into activities and making it essential to support the project.

The case study discusses three major resources that have a positive effect on our project, ‘house renovation’, those recourses are; project schedule, risk assessment, leadership, and motivation. This paper is divided into three parts and covers our case study from a project management perspective and aims to meet the obligation for a successful project.

Part one of this paper discusses the project schedule based on the critical path, explains the uses of the method for having a realistic project. The benefit of this method discussion will allow to prioritize the key tasks of the activities within the limited budget of the project and will provide support in assigning deadlines to the workers by using the network diagram and identifying the critical path.

Part two of the assignment discusses the risk management logic, strategies, opportunities, and describe the way those categories can be monitored to reduce the possibility of the project failure.

Part three discusses the connection between the leadership and motivating the employee, Kevin in our case study, through identifying the motivation theories and how to implement those theories to improve the job performance and achieve the essential goals of the project within the timeline and the limited budget.

Introduction to Project Management in The Construction Business

Project Management in the construction business is experiencing a revolution in generating great new ideas. Construction business appreciates the Project Management methods as a capable tool for turning its organizational strategies in to activities and making it essential to support the complete project. The case study discusses three major resources that have a positive effect on our project, house renovation, those recourses are, project schedule, risk assessment, leadership, and motivation (Marier-Bienvenue, Pellerin and Cassivi 2017). There are 8 elements for a Project success that is planning, team motivation, risk management, critical success factor, business circumstance, being realistic, avoiding scope creep and project closure time. Success elements of a project differ from one project to another. Therefore, it is vital for any business to identify the factors that will have influent the achievement of the development before beginning the project. The aim of this study is to discuss the success or failure of the house renovation project from different perception within limited time and limited Recourses. Three different stages of a project to be discussed in this assignment, project schedule, risk assessment and leadership and motivation, given that this report provides an indication of the nature of the project and explore the factors that would add value to the project success (Li et al. 2018).

1. The Network Diagram and Critical Path

1.1 The Critical Path

The critical path is an important component for a project schedule, by using network diagram and specifying, tracking and knowing the activities assigned to the project. It will give the manager a clear picture to determine the priorities of each task and to control the deadlines required for each action. During the float time, a delay of an action can exist without having a delay in tasks, float time is the latest and the newest start time of an action and between the initial and newest completion time of an action (Taghipour et al. 2020).

1.2 The Network Diagram and Critical Path

The network diagram and the critical path of the project is significant as the duration of the project is planned as well as the commencement and completion date of individual task is clearly defined beside the budget of the project. Before creating the network diagram for our case study, there is a need to determine the dependency of each activity as well as defining the activities that have no immediate predecessors (activity ‘a’ and ‘b’ here). After defining the activities that have no immediate predecessors, there is a need to define all the activities that have the first act as immediate predecessor (‘c’, ‘d’, ‘g’ here), afterword as a project manager it is a must to continue with the same techniques with the rest of the activities (“e”, “f”, “h”, “i”, “j”, “k”, “l” here). After adding all the activities to the diagram, we need to specify the different critical path we have and to calculate the days required to finish the project. By analysis of the different path in our diagram network, our critical path will be the lower path which is path number 2 which requires 23 days to finish the house renovation (Jia et al. 2017).

The four paths in our network diagram below is

  1. a, c, e, f, h, k = 28
  2. b, d, e, f, h, k=26
  3. b, d, e, f, g, h, k=28
  4. b, d, l, j, h, k=28
  5. a, c, j, e, f, h, k = 27

Therefore, our critical path is path number “2nd” (i.e. 26 days).

Activity

Time needed to complete

Substantial repairs to the roof (a)

6 days

Internal structural work (b)

7 days

Electrical work (c)

6 days

Plumbing (d)

3 days

Plastering (e)

4 days

Installing a new kitchen (f)

4 days

Installing a new bathroom (g)

2 days

Internal decoration(h)

6 days

Garden (i)

4 days

Change windows (j)

1 day

Fitting carpets (k)

1 day

Outside paintwork (l)

7 days

1.3 Advantages to The Property Developer in Using Critical Path Analysis

Project management has developed different processes used to better control the techniques. These techniques are important in managing different complexities of project complexities such as managing data, ensuring that tights deadline is such as in highly competitive industries. One of the key techniques that are assisting in project management is scheduling techniques. It used in sequencing activity process. The major output of sequencing, in other words “project time management” is network diagram. Network diagram can be explained as visualization of the individual project activities having activity identity as well as interrelationship of the activities by use of arrows. Network diagrams tell the project manager key information about projects such when the activity will start before, which can run in the same time, as well as which tasks cannot start before other starts. There are various advantages of implementing network diagrams. Network diagrams facilitate in justifying the approximation of the planning development. The network diagram critical purpose is showing the relationship between the activities.

They indicate how the activities are interrelated from the beginning to the competition of the planning development. This helps in the evaluation of project period which is reliable to the project manager (Yin, Gao and Fang 2016). Using the critical path analysis, the critical path will give the project manager ability to calculate the period of the project, longest estimation time and latest estimate time. The network diagrams facilitate one in preparation, establishing, and supervising. The network figures display the key interrelationships and thus the project manager will be able to manage the team by planning and organizing. It is the tool that is used during the project execution since the project’s tasks are tied with their key dependencies. It is possible to show which activity will proceed after the current task is done with the use of network diagram.

Again, the project network analysis helps in showing the interdependencies of the activities. All the relationships of the project tasks are usually evident in the network diagrams. Therefore, the project manager is capable to perceive the activities commencement and what are their dependency with each other, and the primary and secondary of each task. The network diagrams also help in showing the work flow of the task actions. Thus, the project head will be able to identify the order of each and every activity. Using the network diagram, it is possible to identify the accomplishments along with the continuing events and what should be done for them to be accomplished. Besides, using the diagrams will help in identifying the key opportunities used to compress the schedule. There are different opportunities that may need to be crushed or shortened to be completed earlier (Divine, Ebiloma and Bumaa 2017).

1.4 Realistic Idea of This Project

After using the critical path method and reviewing activities as mentioned above, using two workers is realistic for our project and the work can be done in less than 30 days which is the time limit of the project (5 days X 6 weeks =30 days) if there is no delay from any of the workers.

The 2 workers (Worker A and B) will commence the work at same time. The worker A will do task “a” and worker B will do task “b”, after that worker a will complete his task one day before B and can start doing task “j”. When worker B has finished his first task, the worker A also have finished both of his task. The worker A will move on to task “c” and B on “d”, the A will do it in 6 days while B will do it in 3 days. Consequently, B will commence “e”, in the meantime A will do “f” after “c”. Then, “A” will move to task “i” and B will do task “g”, B would have done its task 3 days before A and moved on to task “h”, meanwhile A has switched to task “l” and B finishes task “k” after “h” and 3 days before A. Therefore, the tasks will be completed in 26 days i.e. 4 days before deadline (Yap, Shavarebi and Skitmore 2020).

2. Risk Management

2.1 Description of Risk Management

Risk Management is challenging, and significant aspects used to identify, analyze and treat the risks of any project, yet, disregarding the risk of a project can cause failure of the project in the future. Risks may be readily obvious to the project manager, while others can take more rigor to discover, but are still expected and predictable. Risk Control is a type of risk management that involves implementing policies, procedures, and mechanizations to reduce risk, risk control is used by Risk management as one method of treating the identified risks (Zhang et al. 2019).

2.2 Risks Relevant to This Project and Risk Table Showing how To Manage These Risks with Appropriate Risk Controls

In our case study, there are few risks related to the project that needs to be identified, monitored, controlled and handled. Negligence of those risks can cause the failure for our project by not meeting the deadline, recruiting unqualified employees, unsatisfactory of the stakeholder etc.

Below is a simple risk table identifying the risks management and the outcome of those risks on the project as well as categorizing how risk control can be implemented to mitigate risk (Afolabi, Fagbenle and Mosaku 2017).

Risks

 Outcome

Proposed Risk control and Action to migrate Risk

Target Date

Planning Risk

Be unsuccessful in meeting the necessities of the development and be rejected by the stakeholder

Manager to have back up plan

6 weeks

Schedule Risk

Project or task to take longer than scheduled

Identify the appropriate critical path of the project

6 weeks

Recourse Risk

Failure of secure sufficient resources such as workers, budget

Recruiting qualified and specialized workers to finish work on time and with the limited budget

6 weeks

Maintenance Risk

Equipment failure on a structure line

Regular Maintenance for the equipment and maintaining backup

6 weeks

Supply Risk

Lack of material during the project

To obtain goods for project and buy them in bulk in advance before starting the project 

6 weeks

2.3 Risk Scope, Impact and Probability

Risk scope at a project level is considered construction method based on certain contributing factors (“categorical”). The risks effect and likelihood are the main 2 mechanisms of the risk analysis. Recognizing effect against likelihood is standard to classify and order threats. However, risks impact level on the project objective defers from one to another, some risks may have a high impact on the project while others may have a moderate impact on the project, as well as some risks can occur on occasional and other arise more frequently (Hamzeh, El Samad and Emdanat 2019).

3.3.1 Qualitative Analysis

Qualitative procedures for risks valuation is easy method and relatively quick in practice and cost effective and performed without analyzing the project schedule. The Qualitative analysis is not an exact and accurate estimate of risk; however, it provides an expressive result and frequently with sufficient information for planning responses.

There is a need to define the risks with their property and impact, afterward to calculate exposure of each risk by multiplying probability with impact (Risk Score= Impact x Probability). The maximum stimulating feature of executing qualitative risks analyses is describing the score measures to manage the project risk effectively and in timely manner, since risk categories may have higher weight than others, depend on the importance of the risk in our project, for example, planning risk has high effect on the House Renovation, while maintenance risk has lower impact and affect in our project (Yu et al. 2018).

Below is Qualitative Risk Analysis for our case study, approximating that the probability of planning risk is the highest as well as its impact on the project and taking into consideration that organization defines its risk edges, low, moderate and high. These thresholds can differ between projects.

Table 3.3.1 Effects and calculations implemented in risks recording evaluation

Risks Category

Probability

Impact

Risk Score

( Probability*Impact)

Planning Risk

0.9

0.9

0.81

Schedule Risk

0.7

0.9

0.63

Recourse Risk

0.5

0.5

0.25

Supply Risk

0.3

0.9

0.27

Maintenance Risk

0.1

0.5

0.05

Table 3.3.2 Probability and Impact Analysis

Probabilities

Probability*Impact

0.9

0.09

0.27

0.45

0.63

0.81

0.7

0.07

0.21

0.35

0.49

0.63

0.5

0.05

0.15

0.25

0.35

0.45

0.3

0.03

0.09

0.15

0.21

0.27

0.1

0.01

0.03

0.05

0.07

0.09

Impact

0.1

0.3

0.5

0.7

0.9

From the analysis above, first two probabilities highlighted in green (planning risk and schedule risk) has the highest impact and highest risk score. Probability * max effect, is a risk recording evaluation qualitatively in that the maximum impact score in all the scores is used to calculate the risk’s score (Ogundari and Otuyemi 2019).

3.4 Opportunities Available and Ways Categories the Strategies

After identifying the risks of the project as mentioned above, it's critical to identify the opportunities of a project, as its related to risks. Opportunities are indefinite, but a promising event that could have an optimistic impression on the assignment goals, saving cost and other resources of the project, it’s the ability to identify and manage risks that others cannot, as well as taking action, its recognized as positive risk response strategy.

There are 4 strategies that deal with opportunities; however, only three of them are applicable to our project (exploit, accept and enhance strategy).

Exploit Strategy: it’s about exploring new technology, certainly to achieve a project opportunities and by accepting this strategy, the project opportunities are understood.

Share Strategy: it’s about Project manager sharing cost, resources, and knowledge with an external organization to benefit the Opportunity. There is no need to implement share strategy in identifying opportunities in our project since and there is no other company involved in our case study and we are dealing only with two employees as the project is relatively small business (Dallasega and Rauch 2017).

Enhance Strategy: used to upsurge the likelihood and decrease the ambiguity or the effect or even both related by an optimistic risk events. This approach could be implemented in our project by training the staff to improve their work quality which is very essential in the house renovation project.

Accept Strategy: is about doing nothing, for now, just to keep it in the risk register and evaluate the risks and review it occasionally. This strategy is useful for our project as by using it the project plan will not be changed and no changes will affect the likelihood or effect of the optimistic risk events (Velayudhan and Thomas 2018).

4. The Case of Kevin

4.1 Leadership

Leadership is an action to lead, inspire and motivate a group to perform and involve in achieving the goals of the project. Leaders usually step in time of crises and act creatively in the difficult situations (Gyulai, Pfeiffer and Monostori 2017).

4.1.1 Leadership Theories

Leadership reveals different leadership theories such as;

1.Great Man theory: leaders are born in talent.

2.Trait theory: leads to identifying the important appearances of a successful leader, mostly implemented in the military (Naeem et al. 2018).

4.2 Motivation

The motivation of employees is an important key in our project and has a big influent in achieving the project goals. Communication with the employees has an unlimited consequence on the employee and plays a dynamic role in their motivation (Menard, Bott and Crossler 2017).

4.2.1 Motivation Theories

The case study of Kevin presented identifies a demotivated staff, his demotivated level could be exaggerated by different needs. Motivation is a necessary aspect and there is a need to work on motivation of the employee to achieve a successful project.

There are a few different theories and basic categories of needs that are generally accepted to motivate employee and to be implemented in practice, such as;

  1. Hertzberg’s Two-Factor Theory: the two-factor theory, also known as Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory and dual-factor theory, highlights that there are some drivers which could result in job gratification and some in its unhappiness (Alshmemri, Shahwan-Akl and Maude 2017).
  2. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: according to the psychologist, Abraham Maslow, Humans are driven to fulfill 5 rudimentary requirements, those requirements are organized in a grading level. Maslow’s technique proposes seeking to initially fulfill the lowermost level of requirements, and after that, there is a need to pursue in order to deliver individual upper level of the essentials awaiting to reach to the maximum level of requirements. However, this theory has some limitations such as lack of sensible sign for practical for some conclusion (Velmurugan and Sankar 2017).
  3. Vrooms expectancy: this concept parts work (that ascends from enthusiasm), enactment, and results. Vroom's expectancy is entirely consistent with management by objectives. Motivating Kevin is essential and can be done by notifying him that the more energy he puts into work, it will increase his performance and likely be awarded (Lloyd and Mertens 2018).

4.3 Conclusion on ways to Motivate Kevin

Effective Communication is a very important key in Kevin’s case. He need to understand his needs, and to set clear objectives that help him to schedule his priorities and work towards his deadlines as well as having a good relationship with the team. He must accept the teamwork and be able to work with them. There is a strong need to understand the cause of Kevin’s demotivation which can be due to his short-term contract, salary, abuse by the team etc. Idealistically, the best theory to be implemented on Kevin is Vroom’s expectancy theory as it focuses on influencing his motivation towards duties to increase his performance within the team which is likely to be awarded.

Therefore, it is obvious that as a project manager, there is a need to practice all the project management leadership, skills and motivation theories in general as well and critically evaluating the use of project management techniques learned in leading, planning, controlling and process management to ensuring a successful project (Chua and Ayoko 2019).

Conclusion on Planning and Control

The critical path is an important component for a project schedule, by using network diagram and specifying, tracking and knowing the activities assigned to the project. The network diagram and critical path are used to identify the duration of any project. The given project in completed by 2 workers in 26 days with deadline of 6 weeks. Risks may be readily obvious to the project manager, while others can take more rigor to discover, but are still expected and predictable.

References for Planning and Control

Afolabi, A. Fagbenle, O. and Mosaku, T. 2017. Characteristics of a web-based integrated material planning and control system for construction project delivery. London: Springer.

Alshmemri, M. Shahwan-Akl, L. and Maude, P. 2017. Herzberg’s two-factor theory. Life Science Journal14(5), pp. 12-16.

Chua, J. and Ayoko, O. B. 2019. Employees’ self-determined motivation, transformational leadership and work engagement. Journal of Management & Organization, 14(10), pp. 1-21.

Dallasega, P. and Rauch, E. 2017. Sustainable construction supply chains through synchronized production planning and control in engineer-to-order enterprises. Sustainability, 9(10), pp. 18-88.

Divine, D. O. Ebiloma, D. and Bumaa, F. 2017. The need for sustainability in the planning and control stages of construction projects in Nigeria. International Journal of Innovation and Sustainability, 1(10), pp. 1-9.

Gyulai, D. Pfeiffer, A. and Monostori, L. 2017. Robust production planning and control for multi-stage systems with flexible final assembly lines. International Journal of Production Research55(13), pp. 3657-3673.

Hamzeh, F. R. El Samad, G. and Emdanat, S. 2019. Advanced metrics for construction planning. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 145(11), pp. 401-906.

Jia, G. 2017. Research on planning and control of project quality management in logistics implementation system. Jiangsu Science & Technology Information, 13(22), pp. 9-15.

Li, L. Li, Z. Wu, G. and Li, X. 2018. Critical success factors for project planning and control in prefabrication housing production: A China study. Sustainability, 10(3), pp. 836-898.

Lloyd, R. and Mertens, D. 2018. Expecting more out of Expectancy Theory: History urges inclusion of the social context. International Management Review14(1), pp. 28-43.

Marier-Bienvenue, T. Pellerin, R. and Cassivi, L. 2017. Project planning and control in social and solidarity economy organizations: a literature review. Procedia computer science, 121(11), pp. 692-698.

Menard, P. Bott, G. J. and Crossler, R. E. 2017. User motivations in protecting information security: Protection motivation theory versus self-determination theory. Journal of Management Information Systems34(4), pp. 1203-1230.

Naeem, S. Khanzada, B. Mubashir, T. and Sohail, H. 2018. Impact of project planning on project success with mediating role of risk management and moderating role of organizational culture. International Journal of Business and Social Science9(1), pp. 88-98.

Ogundari, I. O. and Otuyemi, F. A. 2019. Project planning and monitoring analysis for sustainable environment and power infrastructure project development in Lagos State, Nigeria. International Journal of Critical Infrastructures, 15(1), pp. 24-45.

Rodrigues, J. S. Costa, A. R. and Gestoso, C. G. 2016. National Culture and Planning and Control of Projects in Portugal. London: Springer.

Taghipour, M. Shamami, N. Lotfi, A. and Parvaei, M. S. 2020. Evaluating project planning and control system in multi-project organizations under fuzzy data approach considering resource constraints. Management, 3(1), pp. 29-46.

Velayudhan, D. P. and Thomas, S. 2018. Role of technological uncertainty, technical complexity, intuition and reflexivity in project planning–a study on software development projects. International Journal of Project Organization and Management10(1), pp. 82-92.

Velmurugan, T. A. and Sankar, J. G. 2017. A comparative study on motivation theory with Maslow’s hierarchy theory and two factor theory in organization. IIJSR1(1), pp. 204-856.

Yap, J. B. H. Shavarebi, K. and Skitmore, M. 2020. Capturing and reusing knowledge: analyzing the what, how and why for construction planning and control. Production Planning & Control, 9(9) pp. 1-14.

Yin, F. P. Gao, Q. and Fang, D. 2016. Hierarchical Planning and Control Method for Multiple Product Development Projects. Paris: Atlantis Press.

Yu, M. Zhu, F. Yang, X. Wang, L. and Sun, X. 2018. Integrating sustainability into construction engineering projects: Perspective of sustainable project planning. Sustainability, 10(3), pp. 784-898.

Zhang, J. Xie, H. Schmidt, K. Xia, B. Li, H. and Skitmore, M. 2019. Integrated experiential learning–based framework to facilitate project planning in civil engineering and construction management courses. Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, 145(4), pp. 50-57.

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Project Management Assignment Help

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