• Internal Code :
  • Subject Code : PVVAL306A
  • University :
  • Subject Name : property valuation

IT infrastructure hardware, software and networking

Table of contents

table of content


IT, a very well know key of 21st century. In this era of the technological stack, we are moving towards the digitization. And this count is getting increased every day and every night.  This is just because Information Technology not just enable the business platform but it helps any organization in a bulk package. IT can make management easier than expected. We can use this IT to take our business online. IT can enable the ability to reach a huge amount of audience or communities.  To comply with this and discuss in detailed I have chosen a  very well know and popular organization name "Whispir.com, inc". Whispir, deals in the information technology services. This organization is not just limited to Australia but it also has branches abroad, like in USA and Singapore.

Here is the list of services provided by this organizations:

  1. Web Design Development

  2. Application Development

  3. CMS Development

  4. LMS Development

  5. Cloud Services

  6. Enterprise System (Organization TASK Management)

  7. SEO and Digital Marketing

  8. IT Consultant

Above mentioned services are not just for their clients, but also they are using most of the services for their internal employee as well. Let's pick the Enterprise System (Organization TASK Management). This organization has various departments, teams, and members. The moment an employee or staff entered this organization they start their daily routine with a biometric system. This system uses to track the time in, time-out, working hours in the office of the employees. Each department uses information technology to track its assign task on a daily basis. This organization is build using the PHP, MySQL, HTML, JavaScript, jQuery etc. This application is hosted on the cloud. As we all know the cloud-based application come up with various advantages with it. There is a universal system for the organization staff. The staff can take the task from this system on the basis of the priority to start processing with. They pick the task from that system on a daily basis.  Change the task status from Open to in-progress, in-progress to resolved and resolved to verified. They enter the time taken for any particular task again its id. In this system, all the employee data is already there with their team, department, project details, manager details, etc. This is how an employee of this organization uses a system to manage their daily routine task. The moment any employee change the status or do any activity on the system it automatically sends an email to the reporter of that task or ticket. Manger can see all the report of their department members as well to track the work progress report.

Network devices identification and functions

Whispir organization is an IT organization. It comes up with the various IT services to its customer as mentioned in the above section. Since this is an IT enable organization, there must have been the network or the internet to this organization to deal with their services. Every organization needs to have a good set up a strong network. A network must be secure and powerful enough. The network is a set of protocol to connect a device in such a way so that they can share the data, send a packet , etc.

There are various network devices an organization uses in their network. 

organised network devices in a network

List is below with its functionality:

list of functionalities

list of functionalities

list of functionalities

Type of application software with justification

In this era of the technological advancement there are various application software are in the market to fulfill the customer need. The application system can be developed to fulfill a specific purpose. Now, there are various types of application software. We can categorize this application software into two categories, one which runs online (hosted online) and others which run offline (installed on the local system). The online hosted application can be access from anywhere in the world having the credentials to access the same.

There have been a lot of application which is being used by a client of the Whispir. Everyone connecting to the internet to take their business to a new height. Moving ahead of the discussion made in the introduction section. Each department uses information technology to track its assign task on a daily basis. The staff can take the task from this system on the basis of the priority to start processing with. They pick the task from that system on a daily basis.  Change the task status from Open to in-progress, in-progress to resolved and resolved to verified. Now, let's see what the employee of this works and the client will be informed for the same meantime. Every employee is working on the specified task that is assigned to them. Every task is associated with some client. The moment work gets done the manager/team leader of that project is responsible to share the status with the client on the same. After resolving the issue by the developer QA test for the same in approved then inform to the client to check-in client confirm on the UAT version is working fine then team lead can move the same to the production. After having the same changes or the task on the production the client can check the same and now this will be available for its user. The system will be cloud-hosted. There will be PHP, MySQL, JavaScript, etc in developing that application. This can be easily accessible from anywhere in the word having the internet connection to its users.

The user of the system inside or the outside of the organization can use the task reporting system. This will be accessible to everybody using a valid pair of the username and the password. This is how the client-server application works. A client can ask any report and they will receive the report as well. There is an associated website with this organization. And every staff will be able to log in via that website as well. "Maintenance and enhancement of application software consume a major portion of the total life cycle cost of a system", Lientz, B.P., Swanson, E.B. and Tompkins, G.E., 1978. Characteristics of application software maintenance. Communications of the ACM, 21(6), pp.466-471.

Use of OSI model to explain accessing organization website

To access anything in a network there is a setup of process internally, this process can be express as an OSI model. OSI is a short form of the Open System Interconnect. 

OSI 7 layer model

This OSI model has 7 layers with it. The moment we open the home page of the organization website we are on the top 3 layers as mentioned in the above diagram that is called the Software Layer. First of all we need to understand it is not always possible for OSI layer to run in a linear manner to get the job done.

Home Page: - Application layer and presentation, we are seeing the home page of the website

  1. Whatever we are able to see on that page is a part of presentation layer. We are seeing something on the page, HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, SFTP are being used that is application layer.  We are receiving this home page with some data just because we have made some request. 

  1. We request for home page, our request goes in encrypted form to the network, network sends back the data in the encrypted form and the presentation layer is responsible to show the data after decrypting the same. 

  1. Whenever we request that is a session. This recognizes from where the request coming and send the data packet back to the client as per the request made by the client. This is what is responsible for establish, maintain and the end the connection session as per the need.

  2. Transport Layer, this receives the data from the session and segment it. It identified the page URL and the port number of the page. It is responsible for requesting the right segment or the port. It performs the error checking. This layer plays the role of mediator of the above 3 layers of the OSI model and the 3 other remaining layers.

  3. Network Layer-  this is responsible for the data packet between the network. Whenever we open this home from any system, that system will be designated with a unique system id that is called IP address. Network layer uses the IP address to transmit the data as per the request made.

  4. Data Link Layer - It takes the data from the network layer.  This layer performs physical addressing. This enables data transmission via the various medium of data transfer.

  5. Physical Layer - This is the layer where data is actually stored. If the website content is a database-driven or static page, It will be stored on a physical device.  The above layer is responsible for taking the data from the physical stored devices.


There have been thousands of new tools and the technologies have been invented in the last decade in the information technology. This technology can take the world to a new height. Here is the list of advancement has been made with respect to the time.

  1.  Reliability is getting increase with respect to the time.

  2. Security, newly invited technologies are getting more secure comparatively.

  3. Time and cost-saving.

  4. More optimized

With this advancement in technology, there are negative energy are getting increased also day by day. The attacker is being technology ready to crack all the possible application or the devices. So, it's time for us to work on the security part in deep, so that we can prevent any possible attack. We must not open any malicious emails in the working system, messages. Various games are there in the market who interact our attention, these also come up with some viruses or malicious stuff with it. So, we must be ready with the updated anti-virus on the system as well to avoid any such attack or malicious attack. It is time for us to be aware of these security threats. Backups of or working files and folders, powerful Firewall setting, email sanitization, and filtering can save us or our organization. 


1. Lientz, B.P., Swanson, E.B. and Tompkins, G.E., 1978. Characteristics of application software maintenance. Communications of the ACM, 21(6), pp.466-471.

2. Klein, J. and Herrod, A., Symbol Technologies LLC, 2004. Mobile terminal with integrated host application software. U.S. Patent 6,714,969.

3. Zuo, J.M. and Mabon, J.C., 2004. Web-based electron microscopy application software: Web-EMAPS. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 10(S02), pp.1000-1001.

4. Briscoe, N., 2000. Understanding the OSI 7-layer model. PC Network Advisor, 120(2).

Day, J.D. and Zimmermann, H., 1983. The OSI reference model. Proceedings of the IEEE, 71(12), pp.1334-1340.

5. Handel, T.G. and Sandford, M.T., 1996, May. Hiding data in the OSI network model. In International Workshop on Information Hiding (pp. 23-38). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Reichmeyer, F.X., Luciani, J.V. and Squire, M.B., Nortel Networks Ltd, 2001. Method and apparatus for remotely configuring a network device. U.S. Patent 6,286,038.

6. Fuh, T.F., Fan, S.H. and Qu, D., Cisco Technology Inc, 2002. Local authentication of a client at a network device. U.S. Patent 6,463,474. 

7. Borella, M.S., Schuster, G.M., Mahler, J.J. and Sidhu, I., 3Com Corp, 2001. Protocol and method for peer network device discovery. U.S. Patent 6,269,099.

8. Alienor & Howarth, A., 2018. Network Layers Explained: OSI & TCP/IP Models [with examples]. Plixer. Available at: https://www.plixer.com/blog/network-layers-explained/ [Accessed August 10, 2019].

9. Anon, Cloud Communications Platform & Messaging Workflows. Whispir. Available at: https://www.whispir.com/ [Accessed August 10, 2019].

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