Peer assessment refers to the types of assessment that helps children to construct critical thinking. This process includes giving feedback to each other on the work, it helps in building a self-assessment in the student that will also help them in the future. It will also develop the lifelong skills to give in providing and assessing the feedback to others and to self so that the student can improve their own work. This also helps the students to create the standards of their work that how their assessments should be done according to the classroom learning. There are various benefits of peer assessment for the students that can help in improving and understanding the given work, it can increase the critical thinking due to extra focus on constructing the feedback (Endendijk et al., 2019).
The peer status can be assessed by two types of approaches that are formative and summative assessment. In both the approaches students are initially introduced with the criteria of the assessment and then students get training for the assessing and how to provide the feedback. After that students complete the assignment and submit it then students are given the assessments of other students to judge and provide the feedback, the grades that are given from the peer feedback will determine the scores of students through median whereas in the formative approach the grades are given through the instructor (Li et al., 2020). In the summative approach the students and instructor reflect on the activity that emphasise the learning from the peer feedback whereas in the formative approach only the instructor will reflect on the activities.
The kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Judgement is concerned and focused on the moral thinking in children. He defined all the three levels of moral development as preconventional, post-conventional and conventional. In each of the levels he has defined the growth of moral development in the childrens by the duration of age. He has demonstrated that children can develop moral development when they grow older. In the Kohlberg's Theory of Moral development, there were various factors that Kohlberg's ignored in the theory and those factors came out to be criticism of the theory. There are factors that were ignored by Kohlberg including the first if the culture, in his theory he explained that every individual reaches all the ideal stages by the time but he ignored the culture that every individual cannot act similarly (Mehta & Wilson, 2020).
He has also ignored the influence of family because the restrictions and family's influence can control an individual for a long time as in his theory he has mentioned to follow the justice irrespective of family and friends, that is not always possible of every individual. The next factor that was ignored by Kohlberg was context, he has mentioned that according to the age it will be decided that what is wrong and what is right but the right and wrong things will not be dependent upon the age. Another major factor that criticized was gender biased, this criticism was given by carol giligan and demonstrated that he has not mentioned any female in his research instead he has focused on only males.
The social influences on gender typing refers to the upbringing that is given to the childrens are based on their sex. The girl child has given dolls to play or maybe some kitchen set whereas the boy child has given the robots or cars to play by their parents at a very early age. This practice by society and the parents influence the gender typing by their actions. The society and parent’s actions and the treatment to the child are generally based upon the sex. If they have a girl child then they will decide the favourite color should be pink and if they have a boy child then his favourite color must be blue. In the future male only have this mentality that girls can only do the women oriented things and they are not strong enough and that is because of the influence of the society and parent’s role (Zlabkova et al., 2020).
There are some career oriented factors as well that are set by society and parents and those who are females can only opt for those careers that can help them in handling their house and kids. Male usually think that females are not born to become doctors, CEOs and any other prestigious career. It also changes the thinking of females as they have a mindset that things that need more power and strength can only be done by the male but the parents should be responsible to give knowledge and such upbringings that provide equality in gender and all the work can be done by males as well as females. The females can become doctors and the male can become a dancer.
Reference List (in APA style)
Endendijk, J. J., Andrews, N. C., England, D. E., & Martin, C. L. (2019). Gender-identity typologies are related to gender-typing, friendships, and social-emotional adjustment in Dutch emerging adults. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 43(4), 322-333.
Li, H., Xiong, Y., Hunter, C. V., Guo, X., & Tywoniw, R. (2020). Does peer assessment promote student learning? A meta-analysis. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 45(2), 193-211.
Mehta, C. M., & Wilson, J. (2020). Gender Segregation and its Correlates in Established Adulthood. Sex Roles, 1-14.
Zlabkova, I., Petr, J., Stuchlikova, I., Rokos, L., & Hospesova, A. (2020). Development of teachers’ perspective on formative peer assessment. International Journal of Science Education, 1-21.
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