Mental Health and Individual Differences

Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the most used technique for treating disorders which are anxiety-related. The basis of this therapy is Beck’s tri-part model of emotion which talks about feelings, behaviors and thoughts being interconnected with each other (Kaczkurkin & Foa, 2015). This theory mentions that changes made in thoughts which are maladapted alter the behavior of the patient which is maladaptive. The therapy usually aims at disturbed or distorted thoughts with the help of various techniques like identification of thinking which is inaccurate, checking the proof against and for thoughts which are automatic, challenging and altering the thoughts which are maladaptive and changing behavior which is problematic. Patients are given homework so that they can practice the skills in their everyday life which will allow them to acquire mastery of the techniques. Cognitive therapy here is used with the association of behavioural techniques. The therapy is conducted in sessions and is focused on problems and issues which are faced by the patient (Kaczkurkin & Foa, 2015).

In the case of phobias, the best therapy which is considered is exposure therapy. However, exposure could be added with cognitive strategies to provide more benefits to the patients. For example, treatment procedure for phobia may include aiding the patient to recognize expectations which are unrealistic and with the help of therapy, those expectations are replaced by more correct interpretations and predictions (Kaczkurkin & Foa, 2015). Many therapies also pay attention to change the arousal of fear in patients and initiation pathways of phobias. Psychotherapy that is particularly cognitive behavioral therapy is one of the best interventions linked to having positive outcomes after treatment. The therapy can be used for multiple phobias such as emetophobia, aerophobia, kinesiophobia, dental anxiety, fear of needles, fear of childbirth or the phobia of spider (Thng et al., 2020). In studies conducted it was also found out that cognitive-behavioral therapy also influences the functioning of the brain and thus have good efficacy in treating phobias (Almeida et al., 2013).

References for Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

Almeida, A., AraujoFilho, G., Berberian, A., Trezsniak, C., Nery-Fernandes, F., Araujo Neto, C. A. & Oliveira, I. (2013). The impacts of cognitive-behavioral therapy on the treatment of phobic disorders measured by functional neuroimaging techniques: A systematic review. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry35(3), 279-283.

Kaczkurkin, A., & Foa, E. (2015). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders: An update on the empirical evidence. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience17(3), 337–346.

Thng, C., Lim-Ashworth, N., Poh, B., & Lim, C. (2020). Recent developments in the intervention of specific phobia among adults: a rapid review. F1000Research9, F1000 Faculty Rev-195. https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.20082.1

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