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The study involved 344 participants in an experimental research design with three specific and independent tasks. The tasks were sentence prediction task, production task, and recognition memory task. These tasks were performed during the experimental tests of this research design to facilitate the results. The results obtained from the experimental tests were well represented and displayed. The results were represented in a tabular manner with three columns and three rows. This experiment's results indicate that perception, cognition, and intelligence are significant determinants of an individual's ability to discriminate among different encoding conditions. Considering the hypotheses of this study and the result's interpretation, they accept the null hypothesis that cognition, intelligence, and perception significantly affect the performances and abilities to discriminate different encoding conditions. Therefore, perception, cognition, and intelligence significantly affect the individual ability and performance to discriminate distinct encoding conditions.
The research project aims to project its contributions to the confederacy of three topics/disciplines. The study concentrated on perception, intelligence, and cognition: the mentality of perception, intelligence, and psychology of cognitive progress. These disciplines were developed in relative independence due to their epistemological grounding and origins (Forrin, 2018). They mostly referred to their research program "genetic epistemology" to emphasize their research's evolutionary progress priorities. Besides, they also wanted to stress the importance of utilizing development research to find solutions about the origin and nature of human brains' knowledge.
Interestingly, the beginning of the most important literature of research topics on cognitive progress was the thinking of comprehension: causality, scientific thought, reasoning, logic, and mathematics, and its rules. Another issue looked at in the philosophy of knowledge is science concepts such as space, time, and matter. Although Piaget's research brought positive results, the field of perception, intelligence, and cognitive development remained in rhythm with numerous other research topics throughout the years. Some legal research on this topic are; science and cognitive development, psychological emergence, focusing on nature, and mental structure transformation (Forrin et al., 2014).
Several elaborative theories have recently emerged on the transition mechanism that drives change through a human being's psychological life-span. An example of the well-known theories is the Piaget state theory describing the stages of the human cognitive development process, which further touches on perception and intelligence as critical elements to the triumphant human cognitive development process (Bormanaki, 2017). The idea of relating psychological intelligence development in understanding individual differences in numerous themes of human behaviors was relevant. Its primary objective here was to map the mental abilities and their relations in measuring distinct individuals' standing on them. The study defines human abilities as latent dimensions or even referring to the characters' fundamental contrasting but connected behaviors.
Hence, the research's priority was to reveal, restrict, and quantify abilities rather than specifying the psychological processes implicated. In the long run, it successfully delivered elaborative theories of the structural design of human intellect and tests of cleverness that might be utilized to compare persons considering the psychology capabilities. Ford (2019) state that this elaborative architectural theory postulates that the human brain is structured in three hierarchical levels: the first level involves several situation-specific capabilities, the second level involves eight comprehensive abilities; where each of these abilities is identified by a fundamental psychological process shared by all first-level specific capabilities (e.g., learning, retrieval ability, available memory, fluid intelligence, and crystallized knowledge.)
These three disciplines failed to show a close interaction throughout the years, although they have a universal concentration on the human mind. As explained earlier in several research papers on this specific issue, many scholars' advocates' calls for the relation are explained earlier in several research papers. So far, no theoretical narrations unite these three disciplines, a clear reflection of their weak interrelation. However, there is a promising construct that could unite the three disciplines. In the previous theories, the psychology age was not integrated into the cognitive progress theories, and eventually, it was abandoned by psychological theory. By definition, psychological age stands for a person's achievement on an experimental test relatively similar to the "exactly growing child" of each age. When this achievement is united with the person's real age, it produces the person's IQ (psychological intelligence). Today, mental intelligence is represented by the standard deviation in the results, which is a pure statistical data representation that might reflect age-linked accomplishments (Moskalev et al., 2017). However, this representation does not consider any development of the mental intelligence of an individual.
Several authors provide an adequate definition of intelligence, stating that it is a phenotype interfacing individuals' development with the world. Their definition primarily offers an excellent inference allowing meaning-making and changing information, which helps problem-solving achieve goal achievement. Therefore, it is connected to fluid intelligence that develops with experience and age. Having experimental tests as a research design helps to measure this phenotype primarily. And here comes the standard agreement on this issue by several papers that mastering control is the significant progress force motivating developmental ascension (Bormanaki, 2017). In addition, it outlines several stages of the experiment to ensure the accuracy of the study. For this study, there are three tasks experiment starting from the first sentence prediction task, production task to recognition memory task. All these steps had the aim to enhance the evaluation of the results and have excellent data representation.
This research applied experimental tests as its research design. The rationale for applying this research design was to construct research that is highly causality (internal) validity. Moreover, it was a randomized experiment test that facilitated the highest level of causal validity. Another purpose of this research was to offer a more explanatory, descriptive, and comprehensive evaluation of the results obtained from the experimental tests on old and new word recognition by the participants (Ford, 2019). Besides, it applied the proper experimental research design type, which desperately depends on statistical evaluation to prove or disprove a hypothesis of the study.
HA: Perception, cognition, and intelligence significantly affect the ability and performances to discriminate different encoding conditions.
H0: Perception, cognition, and intelligence do not significantly affect the ability and performances to discriminate different encoding conditions
The results obtained from the experimental tests were well represented and displayed. The results were represented in a tabular manner with three columns and three rows. There is the column carrying generated and produced words from the sentence. The next column carries the generated and reads words from the sentence provided during the respondents' answers. The last column has not been generated but reads words (Jonker et al., 2014). On the other hand, the first row had the old words, new words on the second row, and finally the "d" that described the average evaluation of the study's results, where "d" represents the average performance for both old and new words for each encoding condition.
The three encoding conditions provided a reliable stage of the experiments, the performance of different participants in predicting the next word/sentence utilizing perception, cognition, and intelligence. There was a need to calculate the average proportion of the correct responses made either given to old or new items in the experiment (Moskalev et al., 2017). There was a notable significant impact of encoding condition, recording F (2, 408) =2.11, p = .12 np2 =.010, which indicated no significant difference in the classification of old words across the three encoding conditions. In contrast, the parallel ANOVA performed on the responses to new words produced a highly significant impact of words encoding condition, recording F (2, 408) =208.10, p <.0000, np2 =.506.
A pairwise test was conducted to determine the origin of this significant difference, where the results showed that the fraction of right answers to original vocabulary was relatively and appreciably inferior for vocabulary from the third column (unproduced but interpret) condition than for words from the other two columns as described earlier. Conversely, the difference between the other two produced conditions was not relatively significant, recording t(204)= 1.80, p = .07. "d" prime was calculated and presented to offer a comprehensive summary appraise of participants' recognition memory performances, considering performances for both new and old words. It was an index measure of the participants' capability to differentiate amid new and old words in standard deviation units. The index later reveals that older responses to legitimately older vocabulary are advanced than for original vocabulary. It meant that the participants were unable to categorize amid them (MacLeod, 2017).
This experiment's results indicate that perception, cognition, and intelligence are significant determinants of an individual's ability to discriminate among different encoding conditions. Moreover, the significant differences in the performances from each of the encoding condition tests on new and old words affirm the significance of the difference in cognition, intelligence, and perception of the experiment's participants. However, there was also a significant similarity in the generated and read results for both new and old words (MacLeod, 2017). This similarity or slight difference implies that these three elements can have a rhyming pattern to some individuals in the universe.
The results reveal that encoding conditions vary from one individual to another for both new and old words. The ability to discriminate several encoding conditions depends on cognition, intelligence, and perception as psychological concepts affecting human behavioral actions (Bodner et al., 2014). As explained earlier in several studies under these disciplines, human behaviors highly depend on the different abilities in handling and performing to different encoding situations. The previous studies also affirm that cognitive development and intelligence, and perceptions result from the difference in their capacity and development processes.
This study's results also agree that for an individual to have an excellent performance in different encoding situations, the individual has to involve all the three disciplines as they complement each despite their weak relationship to uniting them as the prior research indicates. The pairwise test indicates that the average performances significantly differ from all encoding situations, stating that cognition, intelligence, and perception are the main determinants of their abilities (Bodner et al., 2014). Considering the hypotheses of this study and the result's interpretation, they accept the null hypothesis that cognition, intelligence, and perception significantly affect the performances and abilities to discriminate different encoding conditions.
The theories of memory retrieval explain the reasons for not able to recall long-term memory. It has several implications on discriminating the difference in encoding conditions considering cognition, intelligence, and perception. The theories indicate that the reason to fail to remember long memory is the lack of memory access rather than availability (Jonker et al., 2014). The implication relates to the results as every individual participant had memory, but their performances differed due to the different memory access levels. Besides, every person has cognition, intelligence, and perception but the difference in the performance in discriminating different encoding situations is the level of access.
These theories pertain to a variety of investigational approaches. The implication of reminiscence admission is explained in terms of a signature image. When encoding an item, the search word request the probe situate based on search-reminiscence word relatedness. In word appreciation, the resolution procedure is self-terminating when corresponding to the predicted word and other matching comparisons (Pritchard et al., 2017). The theory is applied in item recognition as the experiment in this study. The word prediction in different sentences to individual participants implied the ability to recall the old words and encode new words in different encoding conditions. The ability to encode new words was relatively higher than in old words. It indicates that the ability to access memory is lower than encoding new things. Like the retrieval memory theories, a person's failure to recall memory depends on the level of accessing their memory.
The study's conclusion to accept the null hypothesis relates to the implication of memory retrieval theories. When recalling and retrieving long memory, moods, experience, and knowledge also affect encoding the memory recalled (MacLeod, 2017). Therefore, the results accurately match the previous research outcomes and the implication of memory retrieval theories. Thus, it indicates that the experimental test research designs contributed to the results and correct the study's conclusions. The participants in this study provided their responses based on their ability to access their memory about perception, cognition, and intelligence. Moreover, the result's interpretation that most similar responses and performances went hand in hand with the participants' age brings us back to Piaget's research that psychological age closely relates to an individual's actual age (Bjorklund, 2017).
It can be concluded that perception, cognition, and intelligence significantly affect the individual ability and performance to discriminate distinct encoding conditions. The three disciplines complement each despite their weak relationship in terms of unity. The implication of memory retrieval is essential to studies under psychologically related topics. It outlines different memory retrieval levels and the reasons to fail to recall long memory and encode new staff. The results reveal that encoding items varies from one person to another for both new and old words. The ability to discriminate several encoding conditions depends on cognition, intelligence, and perception as psychological concepts affecting human behavioral actions.
Bjorklund, D. F., & Causey, K. B. (2017). Children's thinking: Cognitive development and individual differences. New York:Sage Publications.
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Bormanaki, H. B., & Khoshhal, Y. (2017). The equilibration role in Piaget's theory of cognitive development and its implication for receptive skills: A theoretical study. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 8(5), 996-1005.
Ford, D. H. (2019). Humans as self-constructing living systems: A developmental perspective on behavior and personality. London:Routledge.
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Forrin, N. D., Jonker, T. R., & MacLeod, C. M. (2014). Production improves memory equivalently following elaborative vs. non-elaborative processing. Memory, 22(5), 470-480.
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