It is widely believed that being mentally active prevents mental deterioration with age. To them it is no less clear to them that mental activity will increase with age. Compared to many training studies involving experts, people of certain professions and levels of mental activity are determined through self-reporting but a positive association among mental activity level and the cognitive skill level has been found. However, a few studies have found cognitive effects. The effect of age interaction and mental activity on active behavior the rate of mental age is moderated by the amount of mental activity (Bherer, 2015).
In the context of the essay “Mental exercise and mental aging: Evaluating the validity of the use it or lose it hypothesis”, Salthouse (2006) found that cognitive functioning is the central behind the mental activity of human health. Cognitive impairment was thought to be some of the secondary symptoms of previously identified mental illness, but the current evidence is that it is an early symptom or main feature of schizophrenia and emotional disorders. There are suggestions that. Consistent with this notion is that the discovery continues the psychological symptoms of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and depressive depression in dementia subjects. Thus, cognitive impairment affects the performance of mental illness activities in both acute and debilitating phases. For example, a systematic review and meta-analysis of cognitive impairment in depression showed that 99% of patients in the study fell into cognitive impairment at the end of depression.
This suggests that cognitive impairment is a key feature of depression that occurs individually in episodes of relaxation and persists in the absence of clinically relevant low mood symptoms. A report from a study on bipolar disorder found that intellectual growth is related to the severity of symptoms, the number of sensitive episodes, and the overall duration of illness. In bipolar disorder, poor performance of executive activity and memory tests may be related to episodes of the disease. Verbal learning and memory impairments affect individuals with bipolar disorder and have been shown to differentiate them from their clinical states such as depression, manic / hypomania, and ethnographic conditions (Rebok, et al., 2014).
One way to distinguish between the two options is to examine the relationship between the age and the amount of mental performance as a function of mental activity. This is because the amount of mental activity that changes the rate of mental growth, the amount of mental exercise, the age and the expectation of relaxation in the system of mental activity. In a longitudinal study involving comparisons of the same person at different ages, the condition is manifested as a young age-related decline (or perhaps even more age-related improvement) in individuals engaged in greater mental activity. Compared to a cross-section based on people of different ages tested at the same time, it is expected that the difference in mental performance between people with different amounts of stimulating activity will increase with increasing age, the effect of different perceptions accumulating over time. Will be done. This prediction can be specified as a differential conservation estimate, as performance during growth may vary depending on the level of mental activity.
With the help of the older adults, surely, the largest cognitive training study was conducted and it is known as “ACTIVE (Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly)” clinical trial. The total amount of 2,832 adults between the ages of sixty-five and ninety-four was engaged in this project and the participants were erratically allocated for one of 4 groups. As soon as the intervention was done, similar type of cognitive assessment was received by all of the Participants. The evaluation comprised the measurement of the untrained and trained cognitive capabilities along with the results that are considered to be related to the ability to survive individually (Salthouse, 2006).
Some of the essential portion of this project is summarized by the below mentioned Figure. Figure values differed from the baseline of the three training groups compared to the baseline of the control group during the three post-training periods. The differences match the performance of the team.
The benefits of training were comparatively restricted, as shown in the figure, because a very little transfer was there to the less trained skills and also a decrease over time. The diminishing effect indicates that the training group experienced age-related changes compared to the control group. Due to its scope, considerable attention has been received by the ACTIVE project, yet a number of interpretations of the results are somewhat confusing. For instances, result is described by one current report as portraying “cognitive decline after cognitive training”. The pattern shown in the below mentioned Figure is more consistent in the training group than in the control group. Since the data were collected at relatively short intervals, this pattern probably reflects a reduced benefit of training rather than a faster rate of mental development, but based on the results obtained, it is safe to argue that the rate of training decreases as knowledge about aging decreases.
There are many reports that there is an important constructive relationship among involving in mentally inspiring actions and the level of cognitive skill. In addition, compelling evidence Is as well there regarding the beneficial effect of cognitive training as well as further interventions, on the level of trained performance in adults of all ages. These results expose the notion that a person who is constantly involved in mindfulness activities can also maintain cognitive abilities and prevent age-related cognitive decline. Before reaching any conclusions about the validity of the mentalexis hypothesis, it is important to consider a few factors that contribute to its lack of strong support. One possibility is that, for example, the hypothesis may first be applied to individuals below a certain level of cognitive ability. In fact, there have been some reports of significant relationships between mental and cognitive activity among the under-educated.
Stimulating mental activity is not only clearly beneficial for individuals with very low baseline levels of cognitive ability, but it also strictly limits the application of mental exercise hypotheses. Lack of mental practice is probably not the main reason for this in terms of age, as many systems of cognitive activity are represented by relatively high-level middle-aged and older specimens (probably higher mental activity). Moreover, one thing that is often overlooked is that the same activity can be more challenging and potentially more stimulating when the cognitive capacity of the same person is reduced. Therefore, the amount of mental challenges increases as a person’s capacity decreases, so it cannot be expected that the capacity will decrease as per the mental practice estimates. This is because a decrease is predicted if this decrease is considered to be the cause of a lower level of psychologically challenging activity, as cognitive decline can increase the level of challenge of the same activity. Of course, people in the state of cognitive impairment may undergo the most demanding activities, but the number of such activities may be limited while maintaining an independent and productive life (McGurk, Mueser & Pascaris, 2005).
Another reason why mental exercise may be responsible for the lack of strong evidence for reasoning is that the effects of mental practice may vary at different times during adolescence. Engaging in emotionally stimulating activities, for example, can have the greatest impact in old age if the tendency is more severe, and lifestyle influences are more likely to be contagious. This possibility was tested by repeating the analysis, including the number of activities seeking data from my lab and the cognitive scores of 256 adults aged 65 to 97 years. However, the interaction of these changes with age was not significant in intellectual analysis, so the results of this study do not support this age-specific interpretation (Kelly, et al., 2014).
Bherer, L. (2015). Cognitive plasticity in older adults: effects of cognitive training and physical exercise. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1337(1), 1-6.
Kelly, M. E., Loughrey, D., Lawlor, B. A., Robertson, I. H., Walsh, C., & Brennan, S. (2014). The impact of cognitive training and mental stimulation on cognitive and everyday functioning of healthy older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ageing research reviews, 15, 28-43.
McGurk, S. R., Mueser, K. T., & Pascaris, A. (2005). Cognitive training and supported employment for persons with severe mental illness: one-year results from a randomized controlled trial. Schizophrenia bulletin, 31(4), 898-909.
Rebok, G. W., Ball, K., Guey, L. T., Jones, R. N., Kim, H. Y., King, J. W., ... & Willis, S. L. (2014). Ten‐year effects of the advanced cognitive training for independent and vital elderly cognitive training trial on cognition and everyday functioning in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 62(1), 16-24.
Salthouse, T. A. (2006). Mental exercise and mental aging: Evaluating the validity of the “use it or lose it” hypothesis. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1(1), 68-87.
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