Global Health

Medicine is considered to be the first line of the treatment option for the population as it helps to decrease the health-related issue of the individual which eventually improve health status (Cosgrove & Bar-On, 2017). The lack of accessibility of the medicine to the population can increase health-related complication which will directly increase burden over the health care sector (Bansal & Purohit, 2013). The cross border flow of the pharmaceutical goods has improved the health care system resources but still, there is the gap between the resources present in the system and accessibility of the population toward them to improve the health status (Barlow et al., 2017). The briefing note is going to cover different aspects of the accessibility of the medicine and its impact over the population followed by the impact of trade liberalisation over the accessibility of the medicine to the population concerning the global treaty involved in this.

The accessibility of medicine is one of the global concerns as it directly impacts the individual health status and sometimes increases the risk of mortality or morbidity. There is a different issue that directly affects the accessibility of the medicine to the general population and one of the issues is a monopoly in the pharmaceutical that directly increase the cost of the medicine. The increased cost of medicine leads to the decreased accessibility of medicine as every individual is not able to afford the expensive medicine. The pharmaceutical companies have been strictly involved in the patent process which directly leads to the restricted production of the medicine that will raise the price of the medicine (Ahmadiani & Nikfar, 2016). Another issue that directly impacts the accessibility of the medicine is the poor stock management that leads to the decrease amount of medicine in the market which lead to the poor accessibility of the medicine. The stock management has an impact on local, regional and national level thus it has a major impact over the right distribution of the medication to the population in the need for the medicine. Demographic factors also play an important role in affecting the population accessibility toward medication as rural area lack of the proper health care facilities and medicine supply on the other hand urban area are more occupied with health care facilities. The decreased accessibility of the medicine is directly impacted over the population as their medical need are not meet which will negatively impact the health status (Godman et al., 2018). The individual with the major non-communicable disorder is considered to be majorly affected by the decreased accessibility of the medication as they require medicine to stabilize their health by reducing negative event.

Medicines are considered to be an effective tool of the patient encountered with non-communicable disease and they require the right supply of the medication to improve their health status. One of the studies presented by Beran et al. (2019) added that non-communicable disorder is considered to be a major burden over the health care sectors as they increase the mortality and morbidity rate in the population. The lack of accessibility of the medicine for the patient with the non-communicable disorder will decrease the right management of the disorder as body reaction will not be decreased down that will lead to negative health event. On the other hand, the lack of medicine to the population facing health issue due to the non-communicable disease will increase the mortality rate due to the poor health status that occurs due to the negative impact of the unmanaged non-communicable disorder. Moreover study presented by Heller et al. (2019) added that non-communicable disease has not gained much attention when it comes to the health policy or funding which has directly increase its burden. The decrease accessibility of the medication leads to the uncontrolled body function due to the lack of counter effect mechanism which decreases the management of the non-communicable disorder which lead to increase burden over the health care sector.

According to the World Health Organization (2020), globalization has a major impact on the health sector and its associated services that lead to a major impact on the population. The report added that globalization has improved the trade which has directly impacted the economic opening and cross-border flows following the trade rules and regulation. The study presented the flow of good leadership to the effect the national economy and health-related sector which directly impacts the accessibility of the population over the health-related resources. The report discussed that trade liberalization has impacted the health care sector in both aspects it has improved the facilities for the patient but it also raised the prices which decrease the accessibility. Moreover, the study presented by Archana (2020) discussed that liberalization has improved the economic reform and it has also reduced the trade barriers which lead to the increased flow of goods across the border. The researcher added that trade liberalization has also impacted over the pharmaceutical industry as it has increased the competition and it also increase the race for research and development in the industry which lead to new patent over the medicine. The study presented the increased patent related to the medication has raised the prices leading to a negative impact over the population.

One of the global treaties working in improving the coordination between the supply and demand of the medicine to improve the accessibility of the organization is the World Health Organization. The seventy-first world health assembly has addressed the issue of the poor shortage of the medication and poor accessibility and they have planned the sustainable development approach to improve the access to the right, effective and safe medication to the population. They have addressed the health-system approach to deal with the issue by working in coordination with the pharmaceutical industry to improve the investment that helps to increase the accessibility of the medicine to the population (World Health Organization, 2018). The strategies adopted by the organization have helped to improve the approach of the pharmaceutical approach which has directly improved the accessibility of the medicine which has improved the population health status.

The increasing issue in Australia regarding the functionality of the health care sector increases the need for the change in the practice to improve the population accessibility toward health care resources. The framework that has been framed to improve the accessibility of the health care resources for the population follows two models which are state welfare model and market welfare model. These models evaluate the market and state aspect of the resources distribution to the population and identify the gap that needs to be improved to increase the accessibility of the resources by the population. In the state model of welfare, the government take the responsibility of the healthcare services by funding the different aspect of the health care system. One other hand in the market model gap is reduced by the government but the choices and payment need to be done by the individual using the health care services. These two approaches helped to improve the distribution of the resources in the population that is required to increase patient satisfaction and reduce the health care burden of the individual (Dixit & Sambasivan, 2018). The state and market approach is used by the Australian government to understand the issue in the accessibility of medication that can be improved to decrease the negative impact over the population.

The further action that can be used to improve the accessibility at the global level is framing the right policy that will help to improve the production, distribution and accessibility of the medication. The medication policy will help to increase the involvement of the stakeholder, government and non-government organization to improve the perceptive of the policy. The policy should aim to lower down the price of the medication, improve the accessibility of rural population and increase the stock of the different medication in the market. The policy will help the government to use a holistic approach to improve the accessibility of the medication which will directly decrease the burden over majorly affected including individuals with non-communicable disorders. The policy will help the population to get equity in the health care resources distribution which is important to improve the health status of the population.
The briefing note can be concluded by adding that there is a need to improve the strategy used in the distribution of the medication to increase the accessibility of the population. The poor accessibility of the medicine has increase complication for the individual suffering from the non-communicable disorder as due to poor management they face negative health episode. The trade has impacted the accessibility of medication in bother and negative aspect but there has been a great gap in the right distribution of the proper medicine to the different section of the population. One of the organizations working to address the WHO has been working with the different initiative to improve the pipeline linked with the medicine distribution that is necessary to improve the medicine accessibility of the population. Australia has been working to improve the evaluation of the different aspect to identify the gap that is important to increase the accessibility of medicine but there is need to reframe the policy to increase the distribution of the medication appropriately.

References for Issue with Medicine Accessibility

Ahmadiani, S. & Nikfar, S. (2016). Challenges of access to medicine and the responsibility of pharmaceutical companies: A legal perspective. Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences24(1), 9-13. DOI: 10.1186/s40199-016-0151-z

Archana, V. (2020). Does trade liberalization improve public health? The effect of free trade agreements and multilateralism in pharmaceutical sector in India. International Journal of Health Services, 1-10. DOI: 10.1177/0020731419896693 

Bansal, D. & Purohit, V. K. (2013). Accessibility and use of essential medicines in health care: Current progress and challenges in India. Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics4(1), 13–18. DOI: 10.4103/0976-500X.107642

Barlow, P., McKee, M., Basu, S. & Stuckler, D. (2017). The health impact of trade and investment agreements: A quantitative systematic review and network co-citation analysis. Globalization and Health, 13(1). DOI: 10.1186/s12992-017-0240-x

Beran, D., Pedersen, H. B. & Robertson, J. (2019). Noncommunicable diseases, access to essential medicines and universal health coverage. Global Health Action12(1), 1670014. DOI: 10.1080/16549716.2019.1670014

Cosgrove, E. M. & Bar-On, M. E. (2017). The path to success in medicine: The importance of meaningful patient care experiences in medical school. Journal of Graduate Medical Education9(1), 64–65. DOI: 10.4300/JGME-D-16-00695.1

Dixit, S. K. & Sambasivan, M. (2018). A review of the Australian healthcare system: A policy perspective. SAGE Open Medicine6. DOI: 10.1177/2050312118769211

Godman, B., Bucsics, A., Vella Bonanno, P., Oortwijn, W., Rothe, C. C., Ferrario, A. & Simoens, S. (2018). Barriers for access to new medicines: Searching for the balance between rising costs and limited budgets. Frontiers in Public Health,6. DOI:10.3389/fpubh.2018.00328

Heller, O., Somerville, C., Suggs, L. S., Lachat, S., Piper, J., Aya Pastrana, N. & Beran, D. (2019). The process of prioritization of non-communicable diseases in the global health policy arena. Health Policy and Planning, 34(5), 370–383. DOI:10.1093/heapol/czz043 

World Health Organization. (2018). Addressing the global shortage of, and access to, medicines and vaccines. Retrieved from: https://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA71/A71_12-en.pdf?ua=1

World Health Organization. (2020). Trade and health.

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