Table of Contents
a) Provide an overview of evidence relating to depression within your chosen population and its determinants
b) Propose intervention to prevent depression and promote mental health for chosen population group.
Depression is the mental health based issue which has become second most leading cause of disease burden. According to the world health organization (WHO), depression is the common mental disorder having impact on more than 264 million people worldwide. In this current mean time, depression has got tag of public health problem affecting every age group person. Apart from this, depression currently is being faced by every age group with no gender discrimination among men, women or both (WHO in context of depression, 2020). In context of this assignment, population group of young Australian aged group from 20 to 30 years (men and women) will be taken as potential focus category in regards with increasing public health problem of depression in them. With this assessment, reader will get evidence based discussion on level of depression on selected population and social determinants causes it. After this, reader will receive proposed intervention with association of the necessary approaches to prevent depression and promote mental health for selected population group.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), depression is declared as the global public health problem based on mental disorder. In every age group, depression has been found due to various factors such as social burden, social co-operation, peer pressure etc (Guntuku and Eichstaedt, 2017). It is necessary to focus on depression within youth aged from 20 - 30 years with support of full proof evidence gather with 10 years. National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (NSMHWB) has been begun in Australia in 2012, to conduct survey target age population after 20 year to 35 years. This survey has diagnosed increase ratio of depression and other mental health problem with young people of the Australia, mainly above 20 years. In this survey, analysis has been done on level of depression with men and women as target population between ages of 20 - 30 year.
Also, reference of information has been taken from (Housing Income and Labor Dynamics (HILDA) survey shows that diagnosis of the depression has raised dramatically over last 8 years.
Let discuss outcomes on level of depression with help of given diagram:
Figure 1: Data regarding depression with women age group (20-30)
In this given graph, red color bar constitutes of the women aged population. The percentage of young women from age group 20-34 year has been diagnosed with depression increased from 12.8% in 2009, to in 2017. Over the last eight year, level of depression is higher to Australian young women.
Figure 2: Data regarding depression with men age group (20-30)
In this graph, yellow color bar constitutes men population shows that level of depression have raised from 12.09% in 2013 to 16.65% in 2017.
Given two solid evidences are appreciable and enough to show level of depression with young men and women of the Australia. Though, it is necessary to analyze factors based on social and gender which are root cause of the depression.
Health outcomes: In the given data figure, women are more suffering with depression than men within age (20-30) years.
Depression has led to increase in negative health outcomes which are environmental risk, behavioral risk, biological risk and chronic non-communicable diseases.
Figure 3: Contribution of depression issue to increase in non-communicable diseases
The given health outcomes are root cause of the human misbehavior and creating trouble for their life. There are various determinants of depression to the Australian youth and responsible for negative health outcomes such as social and gendered (Swartz, and Williamson, 2017). Such determinants are necessary to put into knowledge to find out solution plan. Determinants are as follows:
Social factors: In the current mean time, social pressure and burden has increased on the youth, especially in the Australia and this is responsible for their abnormal behavior (Cruwys and Gunaseelan, 2016). Social pressure such as following culture standards, sense of humor, impress by the employment, higher education in comparison with neighbor or known one. Family violence & unnecessary load to co-operate are the biggest cause of depression for Australian youth aged mainly 20 – 30. According to the World Health Organization, basic rights of the youth are being violated such as freedom to enjoy, right to speak, right to choose, discrimination by equality among others (Gender, equity and human rights, 2020). Also, peer pressure such as employment, higher education, classic social status is main root cause of depression in the current time.
Gender factors: World Health Organization has focused on discrimination to the person by gender such as giving priority to men rather than women in specific task. Gender has implication for health of a person life in terms of norms, rules and responsibilities (Gender, right and health, 2020). Women are facing barrier to health information and services with absorption of cultural gender norms such as dependency, domestic roles & responsibilities.
In the current time, when youth is facing serious issue of the depression and has become disease burden, necessary for community and health institution to develop development intervention to reduce depression for youth and promote effective mental health care (Svensson and Hansson, 2016) In this report, chosen population group is 20 – 30 years covering both men and women. Hence, promotion of effective mental health is likely to save their life and serves them prosperous living environment. Various health organizations are claimed use of social ecological approach to ease down impact of this serious health and prevent it, before harming life of the people.
Physiological intervention is useful here to prevent depression and promote mental health care. In this intervention, there are several therapies and other treatments such as family therapy, supportive therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy.
Intervention of supportive psychotherapy should be utilized to treat depression by improvement in the self esteem, psychological functioning and adaptive skills. This proposed intervention helps to do treatment of the people suffers with Unipolar depression. Also, supportive psychotherapy is used to treat psychiatric illness along with depression, anxiety disorder and personal irritation (Unipolar depression, 2020). This intervention will be utilized to treat youth of the Australia and promote effective mental health care.
Let connect these intervention with recommended social ecological approach.
Figure 4: Social Ecological approach
Social Ecological Approach: The main goal of this approach is to stop any kind of violence before it begins. Prevention requires clear understanding of the factor that influences violence. To promote mental health care for the youth of the Australia, four level social ecological models is better to understand critical violence and affect of its potential prevention strategies. These are the primary interventions.
Such model takes into consideration complex interplay of individual, relationship, community and societal factors. The main purpose of this approach is to avoid violence caused by depression.
Individual: This first level of an approach identifies personal history factors that raise likelihood of becoming a victim or violence. Some of the common factors are age, education, income, interest and available history of abuse. Prevention strategies on this phase promote positive attitudes, beliefs and interactive behavior to reduce depression. Such approach involves conflict resolution and life training.
Relationship: This phase examines relationship that is close to one and may increase risk of experiencing violence. In this, person closest peer, social and family influences their behavior and enables their experiences. Prevention strategies includes family awareness and wellness program, mentoring and develops problem solving skills to prevent depression and enables the healthy life.
Community: This third level of social ecological approach takes into consideration settings such as workplace, neighborhood and favorite places, where social relationship occurs and motivates youth to conduct violence. Prevention strategies on this phase impacts social and physical kind of environment. Training must be given to youth on ability to understanding situation, idea generation and mutual understanding among peer and family circle to empower effective mental health.
Societal: This last level deals with broad societal factors which encourages climate in which violence is encouraged. Such factors involve norms or regulation which promotes violence as the acceptable to reduce conflicts. Here, prevention strategies such as social awareness, positive peer influences, support of the family, motivation from loves ones are prolonged efforts to prevent depression and promote mental health.
From the above assignment, it is concluded that depression has turned out serious mental health problem cause. In the Australian context, youth has suffered a lot, mainly age group of 20 - 30 year. In this population group, Unipolar depression has seen and affected by the social & gender based determinants. To prevent depression, supportive psychotherapy was proposed to promote mental health. Along with this, reader will get knowledge of steps and action taken by international health community to utilize approach like social ecological to avoid violence and enables supportive system for youth to recover depression. Moreover, reader will able to understand from given evidences.
Guntuku, S. C., Yaden, D. B., and Eichstaedt, J. C. (2017). Detecting depression and mental illness on social media: an integrative review. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 18, 43-49.
Cruwys, T., and Gunaseelan, S. (2016). “Depression is who I am”: Mental illness identity, stigma and wellbeing. Journal of Affective Disorders, 189, 36-42.
Coles, M. E., Ravid, A., and McLeod, S. (2016). Adolescent mental health literacy: Young people's knowledge of depression and social anxiety disorder. Journal of Adolescent Health, 58(1), 57-62.
Svensson, B., and Hansson, L. (2016). How mental health literacy and experience of mental illness relate to stigmatizing attitudes and social distance towards people with depression or psychosis: A cross-sectional study. Nordic journal of psychiatry, 70(4), 309-313.
Swartz, J. R., and Williamson, D. E. (2017). An epigenetic mechanism links socioeconomic status to changes in depression-related brain function in high-risk adolescents. Molecular psychiatry, 22(2), 209-214.
Østergaard, M. L., and Hjorthøj, C. (2017). Associations between substance use disorders and suicide or suicide attempts in people with mental illness: a Danish nation‐wide, prospective, register‐based study of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, unipolar depression or personality disorder. Addiction, 112(7), 1250-1259.
Subica, A. M., and Fowler, J. C. (2016). Disentangling depression and anxiety in relation to neuroticism, extraversion, suicide, and self‐harm among adult psychiatric inpatients with serious mental illness. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55(4), 349-370.
Evans, T. M., and Vanderford, N. L. (2018). Evidence for a mental health crisis in graduate education. Nature biotechnology, 36(3), 282.
Chancellor, S., and De Choudhury, M. (2016, February). Quantifying and predicting mental illness severity in online pro-eating disorder communities. In Proceedings of the 19th
ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing (pp. 1171-1184).
Grant, J. B., and & Batterham, P. J. (2016). Predictors of personal, perceived and self-stigma towards anxiety and depression. Epidemiology and psychiatric sciences, 25(3), 247-254.
Siu, A. L., and Krist, A. H. (2016). Screening for depression in adults: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Jama, 315(4), 380-387.
Duggan, M. C., and Jackson, J. C. (2017). The relationship between executive dysfunction, depression, and mental health-related quality of life in survivors of critical illness: Results from the BRAIN-ICU investigation. Journal of critical care, 37, 72-79.
Campbell, R. D., and Mowbray, O. (2016). The stigma of depression: Black American experiences. Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work, 25(4), 253-269.
Unipolar depression in adults, 2020. [Online]. Available through: < https://www.uptodate.com/contents/unipolar-depression-in-adults-supportive-psychotherapy> World Health Organization, 2020. [Online]. Available through: <https://www.who.int/health-topics/depression#tab=tab_1> Gender, equality & health, 2020. [Online]. Available through: <https://www.who.int/health-topics/gender> HILDA survey, 2020. [Online]. Available through: < https://theconversation.com/more-australians-are-diagnosed-with-depression-and-anxiety-but-it-doesnt-mean-mental-illness-is-rising-120824>
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2020. [Online]. Available through: < https://www.aihw.gov.au/>
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