• Internal Code :
  • Subject Code : PUBH6000
  • University : Laureate International Universities
  • Subject Name : Public health

Social, Behavioural and Cultural Factors in Public Health

Introduction

Depression in the younger individual is one of the major health care burdens and they are facing many complications like psychiatric disorder and risk of recurrence. The development phase of the younger individual life leads to many physical and psychological changes that result in increased stress which end up encountering depression (Stikkelbroek et al. 2016). The report is going to discuss the burden over depression over the 12-25-year-old males of the population and how the depression in the chosen population is socially determined. The report is also going to discuss the health promotion intervention to reduce complication associated with depression and improve the quality of life of the individual. The use of the social-ecological model is also done to analyse the effect of the intervention over the chosen population.

Depression

The major group of the population lie between the age of 12-125 year and they are the major section of the society facing the mental disorders (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2020). The increasing complexity of the lifestyle has directly increased the burden over the younger population and this has directly increased the rate of mental disorder in the individual. The mental disorder accounts for the top five most familiar issues that can lead to dismalness, mortality and dysfunctioning in the younger generation.

There are five-stage that is followed by the individual while encountering mental disorder which includes pre-morbid, clinical high risk for psychosis, early fully recover, late/incomplete recovery and chronicity (Fusar-Poli , 2019). According to the World Health Organization (2020), depression is considered to be one of the common illnesses worldwide and a major group of the individual who are getting affected is the 15-29 year old. Depression is a multi-facet medical issue that arises due to complex relationships between the biological, social and psychological factor that directly lead to deteriorated mental health.

Depression is considered to be having major influence over the health status of the younger individual that directly increases the mortality rate. The depression directly decreases the mental wellbeing of the individual which lead to suicide or early death of the individual. Many identification factors are associated with depression in the younger individual like school refusal, offending behaviour, anxiety and musculoskeletal problem. The younger individual encountered with depression also involved in self-harm, sleep disturbance, reduce productivity and change in appetite. The depression in the individual decrease the performance as it leads to decrease concentration and poor motivation toward work that directly lower their performance in academics as well as at the workplace.

The depression leads to compound feelings related to low self-esteem that lead to withdrawal from social interaction and isolation that increase the complication (Roberts, 2013). The prevalence of depression initiated by the altered brain circuit that occurs due to environmental stressors which include danger to life, social stressor, rejection and lack of support. Depressions did not occur due to any misbalance is one reason it is the combined effect of the different part of the brain that leads to increased risk for depression.

A younger individual is at higher risk as they are in the growth phase and this lead to multiple changes in the body that can lead to depression if they encounter any environmental stressors. Depressions did not lead to mental health complication nut it also increases the risk for much metabolic disorder which include diabetes, coronary artery disease that directly increase the complication of the individual. The genetic factor is also responsible for increased risk to encounter depression and psychological stress response also lead to depression in the younger individual (Yang et al. 2015).

Social Determinant

There is a greater influence of the social determinant over the mental health of the younger individual that can directly affect the mental wellbeing of the individual. The factors that directly increase the psychological stress of the individual include academic stress, unemployment; an unhealthy workplace environment has a direct effect on the mental health of the individual. The lower income of the individual or the family is also one of the factors that directly lead to the poor mental health of the individual by increasing the chances of depression and self-harm. The family background is also one of the major factors that directly affect the mental status of the individual which include poor housing condition, insufficient food and lack of transportation.

Discrimination at the workplace or school harms the mental health of the individual that directly increase the chance of the depression in the younger individual (Alegría et al. 2018). The different social determinant that directly influences the mental health of the individual is divided into two types of factor that include proximal factor and distal factor. The proximal factor includes age, ethnicity, gender, income, housing, trauma distress and individual social capital. The distal factors include community diversity, economic recession, infrastructure neighbourhood environment, climate change, social stability. These factors directly influence the mental health of the individual that lead to depression in the younger individual (Lund et al. 2018).

Moreover, according to the World Health Organization (2014), the social determinant is directly involved to affect the mental health of the individual and it is important for two reasons. The first reason includes they directly influence the risk for mental disorder and they help to provide accurate intervention to reduce the risk. Five factors directly influence the mental health of the individual which directly lead to depression. The first factor is the life course that includes multiple aspects like age, working condition, family building year and life course care method.

The second method includes parents, families and household that includes parenting behaviour, household resources and social support. The third factor that affects the mental health of the individual includes community-based participation, neighborhood trust and violence. The fourth-factor is the local services that include school/ adolescent services, health care and social service that directly affect the mental health of the individual. The last factor that directly affects the mental health of the individual include country-level factor which are discrimination, poverty reduction, human rights, access to health care services and national polices

Health Promotion Intervention

The Health promotion intervention that is used to decrease the rate of depression and improve the mental health of the individual. The multi-level intervention program will lead to addressing the individual at school and the workplace as they are more prone to depression or mental disorder. The school-based aspect of the intervention will address the different aspect that includes school culture, leadership structure, school climate, expert involvement. The school-based intervention will teach the student regarding emotional regulation, anxiety management and problem-solving. The intervention will help the younger individual to deal with the daily routine stress that can reduce the chances of depression. The article proposed by Castillo et al. (2019) also discuss the school-based intervention to improve the mental health of the individual as they are in a transition phase that increases their chances to improve their lifestyle that directly reduce the chances of mental disorder.

The workplace intervention will help the employee to reduce the stress and decrease the chances of depression that can occur due to increased workload. The workplace intervention includes different stress buster activity that can be used to cheer the employee to enjoy the workplace environment. The employee can be provide training to maintain a healthy working environment by reducing discrimination, heavy workload and promotion teamwork to reduce the work relate to stress. The encouraging work environment will directly help to reduce the stress related to the workplace and it will also improve the productivity of the individual that will benefit the organization.

The article presented by Gray et al. (2019) discussed the result of the workplace-based mental health intervention that directly improved the mental health of the individual and reduced the rate of the depression in the younger individual. The workplace intervention is important as a younger individual are not able to manage the work-related stress that directly increases the chances of depression and workplace intervention will help them to manage the work-related stress that reduces chances of depression.

Conclusion

The depression is considered to be one of the burdens over the health status of the younger individual that directly has affected the lifestyle. The depression increases the negative attitude of the individual which include aggressive behaviour, isolation, decrease diet and resultant toward social presence. The depression not only affects the mental health of the individual but it also increases the chances of metabolic disorder that include diabetes, heart disease that harms the health status of the individual. Many social determinants directly affect the depression of the individual which include age, family background, community, local service and country based services.

The health promotion strategy that can be used to decrease the depression rate among 12-25-year-old individual will address two sectors of society. The first will be a school-based intervention that helps to increase understanding of adolescent regarding different technique to reduce chances of depression. The second sector will be the workplace intervention that is going to address the workplace environment and try to reduce the work-related stress to promote a healthy environment to reduce depression.

References

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2020). Mental health services in Australia. Retrieved from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/mental-health-services/mental-health-services-in-australia/report-contents/summary/prevalence-and-policies

Alegría, M., NeMoyer, A., Falgàs Bagué, I., Wang, Y., & Alvarez, K. (2018). Social determinants of mental health: where we are and where we need to go. Current psychiatry reports, 20(11), 95. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-018-0969-9

Castillo, E. G., Ijadi-Maghsoodi, R., Shadravan, S., Moore, E., Mensah, M. O., 3rd, Docherty, M., Aguilera Nunez, M. G., Barcelo, N., Goodsmith, N., Halpin, L. E., Morton, I., Mango, J., Montero, A. E., Rahmanian Koushkaki, S., Bromley, E., Chung, B., Jones, F., Gabrielian, S., Gelberg, L., Greenberg, J. M. & Wells, K. B. (2019). Community interventions to promote mental health and social equity. Current psychiatry reports, 21(5), 35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-019-1017-0

Fusar-Poli P. (2019). Integrated mental health services for the developmental period (0 to 25 years): a critical review of the evidence. Frontiers in psychiatry, 10, 355. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00355

Gray, P., Senabe, S., Naicker, N., Kgalamono, S., Yassi, A., & Spiegel, J. M. (2019). Workplace-based organizational interventions promoting mental health and happiness among healthcare workers: a realist review. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(22), 4396. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224396

Lund, C., Brooke-Sumner, C., Baingana, F., Baron, E. C., Breuer, E., Chandra, P. & Saxena, S. (2018). Social determinants of mental disorders and the Sustainable Development Goals: a systematic review of reviews. The Lancet Psychiatry, 5(4), 357–369. doi:10.1016/s2215-0366(18)30060-9

Roberts, J. (2013). Low mood and depression in adolescence: clinical update. British Journal of General Practice, 63(610), 273–274. doi:10.3399/bjgp13x66736

Stikkelbroek Y, Bodden DHM, Kleinjan M, Reijnders M, van Baar AL (2016). Adolescent depression and negative life events, the mediating role of cognitive emotion regulation. PLoS ONE 11(8): e0161062. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0161062

World Health Organization. (2014). Social determinants of mental health. 

Yang, L., Zhao, Y., Wang, Y., Liu, L., Zhang, X., Li, B., & Cui, R. (2015). The Effects of Psychological Stress on Depression. Current neuropharmacology, 13(4), 494–504. https://doi.org/10.2174/1570159x1304150831150507

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