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Health Systems and Economics

Executive Summary of Health Systems and Economics

The main purpose of the report was to discuss cardiovascular disease which is deemed as public health problem in Australia. The report also highlighted systems thinking approach which is used for addressing various public health problems. Cardiovascular diseases are the second largest reason for morbidity and mortality in Australia. Cardiovascular diseases consist of various disorders and conditions and public health is art and science by which prevention and promotion of health can be done. In healthcare, there are various stakeholders who are identified in the report and they are government, companies, public and community. These stakeholders have different roles in healthcare, policy formulation and implementation. The strategies for the implementation systems approach are to identify the linking in the systems and mobilize the appropriate stakeholders for the reformation and implantation of policies.

Table of Contents

Executive summary.

Introduction.

Description of the issue.

Role of stakeholders.

Barriers to the implementation of systems thinking approach.

Strategies for the implementation.

Conclusion.

References.

Introduction to Health Systems and Economics

The World Health Organization has defined public health as the art and science for the prevention of disease to prolong the life and promotion of health by the organized efforts of society (World Health Organization, 2020). In recent years, chronic diseases have become more prevalent which has high morbidity and mortality and one such issue is cardiovascular diseases (Roth et al., 2017). For the resolution of the issue, system thinking approach is required and it is not evident in Australia (Feng, Cummings &Tweedie, 2017). The aim of the present report is to describe the public health issue, roles of various stakeholders, barriers to the application of systems thinking approach and suggestions to implement them for the public health issue of cardiovascular disease.

Description of The Issue

According to the World Health Organization, cardiovascular diseases are a wide array of diseases which can consist of various disorders like coronary heart disease, blocked arteries, heart failure, cerebrovascular accidents, arrhythmias, myopathies and others (World Health Organization, 2017). Most of the cardiovascular diseases are the ones which occur due to the formation of blocked arteries due to deposition of fat. The patient suffering from cardiovascular diseases often suffers from pain in the chest which can be chronic or acute which depends on the condition a person suffers from. The most common cause of morbidity and mortality globally is a cardiovascular disease after cancer and it is the second most common cause of death in Australia. In the year 2014-15, 4.2 million people in Australia were suffering from circulatory diseases of which approximately 1.2 million were a result of heart failure and stroke (Australian institute of health and welfare, 2019). The impact of the disease is not limited to the mainlander population but it is also seen in the case of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population(Heart Foundation, n.d.). The effect of the disease is not limited to just the individual but also affect the family and also the society (Kivimäki& Steptoe, 2018). This is a public health issue and it is required to be tackled at the level of public health.

Role of Stakeholders

For the healthcare, there are various stakeholders who are responsible for changes that can be brought upon for the betterment of the health of the individual as well as the society and community (Auvinen, 2017). A stakeholder is a person who can gain or lose by the outcomes for the process of planning, program or project (Axelsson&Granath, 2018). In the case of public health problem or issue, it is required that the stakeholders are engaged so that public health reformation can be seen. The first stakeholder in case of the cardiovascular disease is government. The role of government is to make sure that the policy for the betterment of the public is formulated. The government is also responsible for the allocation of funds for the implementation of policy at all the levels of government and community (van Ooijen, Ubaldi&Welby, 2019). The second stakeholder is people related healthcare system. The role of the healthcare system is to make sure that all the sectors of the society have healthcare personnel to work for the society and community (Vickers et al., 2017). Also, if the public health problem is brought under control, the burden on the healthcare system might reduce and healthcare personnel can concentrate on other pressing healthcare matters (Winter & Winter, 2018). The third stakeholder involved in the public health of cardiovascular diseases is the public itself. This is the most important stakeholder as the major benefit from the healthcare policy and the role of the public is make sure that the needs of the self are to be identified and make it into demand (Ammendolia et al., 2016). The fourth stakeholders are registered nurse who can act as main point of contact and can facilitate advocacy for h care needs of the people suffering from this chronic illness. The last stakeholder that is involved in the public health of cardiovascular disease is the companies who make confectionaries and other products which can cause cardiovascular diseases. The role of this stakeholder is such that they lobby against the public health policies as it can reduce their revenue generation (Clapp &Scrinis, 2017).

Barriers to The Implementation of Systems Thinking Approach

Systems thinking approach in public health is a holistic approach in which all the parts of the systems is taken care of and engaged such that the public health issue is tackled (Knai et al., 2018). System thinking at its core is the one which aims to see things in such a way that they are interconnected with each other to form a complete single entity (Riley et al., 2017). Cardiovascular diseases are a multifactorial disease and the barriers to implementation of systems approach are also multifactorial (Carvalho et al., 2015). Obesity is one of the major factors related to cardiovascular diseases. One of the main barriers is to mobilize the public such that they work for their betterment (Bagnall et al., 2019). The other barrier that can be seen in tackling this public health issue is lobbying activities by the companies that make products which cause the issues (van Rinsum et al., 2017). Another issue which can be seen is to get the government to make policies which are required for the betterment of the public and allocation of resources including manpower and money (Dror, 2017).

Strategies/Recommendations for The Implementation

For the implementation of a system thinking approach, it has to be explored that what the systems of the healthcare are interlinked within the system (Bai et al., 2016). Once the interlinking of the system is identified, the systems that are overlapping are to be accessed separately. The government involved should be shown the statistics regarding the healthcare impact of disease and how is that a public health issue (Holt-Lunstad, Robles&Sbarra, 2017). Next, when the policy is made and implemented, all the stakeholders should be involved in the decision-making such that all the stakeholders can weigh in on the policy made (Moberg et al., 2018). The stakeholders like public and healthcare system should work closely so that the requirements can be understood and work can be done accordingly to achieve it (Cairney, 2019). Similarly, the governments at all the levels should be motivated in such a way that the allocation of resources can be done.

Conclusion on Health Systems and Economics

Cardiovascular diseases are a wide array of diseases which can consist of various disorders like coronary heart disease, blocked arteries, heart failure, cerebrovascular accidents, arrhythmias, myopathies and others. Public health is the art and science for the prevention of disease to prolong the life and promotion of health by the organized efforts of society. The stakeholders in case of cardiovascular diseases are government at various levels, public, community and companies. The strategies suggested are such that systems interlinking are identified and appropriate stakeholders are identified and mobilized to get the public health policy are formulated and implemented.

References for Health Systems and Economics

Ammendolia, C., Côté, P., Cancelliere, C., Cassidy, J. D., Hartvigsen, J., Boyle, E., ...&Amick, B. (2016). Healthy and productive workers: Using intervention mapping to design a workplace health promotion and wellness program to improve presenteeism. BMC Public Health16(1), 1190. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-3843-x.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2019).Cardiovascular disease.Retrieved from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/heart-stroke-vascular-disease/cardiovascular-health-compendium/contents/how-many-australians-have-cardiovascular-disease.

Auvinen, A. M. (2017). Understanding stakeholders as a success factor for effective occupational health care. Occupational Health, 25-43. DOI: 10.5772/66479.

Axelsson, K., &Granath, M. (2018). Stakeholders' stake and relation to smartness in smart city development: Insights from a Swedish city planning project. Government Information Quarterly35(4), 693-702.DOI: 10.1016/j.giq.2018.09.001.

Bagnall, A. M., Radley, D., Jones, R., Gately, P., Nobles, J., Van Dijk, M., ...&Sahota, P. (2019). Whole systems approaches to obesity and other complex public health challenges: A systematic review. BMC Public Health19(1), 8. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-018-6274-z.

Bai, X., Surveyer, A., Elmqvist, T., Gatzweiler, F. W., Güneralp, B., Parnell, S., ...& Toussaint, J. P. (2016). Defining and advancing a systems approach for sustainable cities. Current opinion in environmental sustainability23, 69-78. DOI: 10.1016/j.cosust.2016.11.010.

Cairney, P. (2019). Understanding public policy. Red Globe Press, London.

Carvalho, M. S., Coeli, C. M., Chor, D., Pinheiro, R. S., Fonseca, M. D. J. M. D., &SáCarvalho, L. C. D. (2015). The challenge of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes to public health: a study based on qualitative systemic approach. PLoS One10(7), e0132216. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132216.

Clapp, J., &Scrinis, G. (2017).Big food, nutritionism, and corporate power. Globalizations14(4), 578-595. DOI: 10.1080/14747731.2016.1239806.

Dror, Y. (2017). Public policy making reexamined. Routledge, Abingdon, United Kingdom.

Feng, T., Cummings, L., &Tweedie, D. (2017). Exploring integrated thinking in integrated reporting–an exploratory study in Australia. Journal of Intellectual Capital. DOI: 10.1108/JIC-06-2016-0068.

Heart Foundation (n.d.).Cardiovascular risk profile of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Retrieved from:https://www.heartfoundation.org.au/about-us/what-we-do/heart-disease-in-australia/cardiovascular-risk-profile-of-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-peoples

Holt-Lunstad, J., Robles, T. F., &Sbarra, D. A. (2017).Advancing social connection as a public health priority in the United States. American Psychologist72(6), 517.Retrieved from: https://psycnet.apa.org/buy/2017-36583-002.

Kivimäki, M., & Steptoe, A. (2018).Effects of stress on the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Nature Reviews Cardiology15(4), 215.DOI: 10.1038/nrcardio.2017.189

Knai, C., Petticrew, M., Mays, N., Capewell, S., Cassidy, R., Cummins, S., ...&Katikireddi, S. V. (2018). Systems thinking as a framework for analyzing commercial determinants of health. The Milbank Quarterly96(3), 472-498. DOI: 10.1111/1468-0009.12339.

Moberg, J., Oxman, A. D., Rosenbaum, S., Schünemann, H. J., Guyatt, G., Flottorp, S., ...& Alonso-Coello, P. (2018). The GRADE Evidence to Decision (EtD) framework for health system and public health decisions. Health Research Policy and Systems16(1), 45. DOI: 10.1186/s12961-018-0320-2.

Riley, B., Willis, C., Holmes, B., Finegood, D. I. A. N. E. T., Best, A. L. L. A. N., &McIsaac, J. (2017). Systems thinking and dissemination and implementation research. Dissemination and implementation research in health: Translating science to practice, 143.

Roth, G. A., Johnson, C., Abajobir, A., Abd-Allah, F., Abera, S. F., Abyu, G., ...&Alla, F. (2017). Global, regional, and national burden of cardiovascular diseases for 10 causes, 1990 to 2015. Journal of the American College of Cardiology70(1), 1-25. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.04.052.

vanOoijen, C., Ubaldi, B., &Welby, B. (2019). A data-driven public sector: Enabling the strategic use of data for productive, inclusive and trustworthy governance. OECD instance. DOI: 10.1787/09ab162c-en.

vanRinsum, C. E., Gerards, S. M., Rutten, G. M., van de Goor, I. A., &Kremers, S. P. (2017). Health brokers: How can they help deal with the wickedness of public health problems?. BioMed Research International2017. DOI: 10.1155/2017/1979153.

Vickers, I., Lyon, F., Sepulveda, L., &McMullin, C. (2017). Public service innovation and multiple institutional logics: The case of hybrid social enterprise providers of health and wellbeing. Research Policy46(10), 1755-1768.DOI: 10.1016/j.respol.2017.08.003.

Winter, S. F., &Winter, S. F. (2018). Human dignity as leading principle in public health ethics: a multi-case analysis of 21st century German health policy decisions. International Journal of Health Policy and Management7(3), 210. DOI: 10.15171/ijhpm.2017.67.

World Health Organization (2017).Cardiovascular diseases. Retrieved from:https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cardiovascular-diseases-(cvds)

World Health Organization.(2020). Public health services.Retrieved from: https://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/Health-systems/public-health-services.

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