Health Systems and Economics

Executive Summary of Health Systems and Economics

The present report has discussed a public health issue that is cardiovascular diseases. This public health issue is chosen because there is less evidence that there is use of systems thinking approach. The morbidity of the cardiovascular diseases are profound in Australia. From the report it is evident that the role of stakeholders is major and it needs to be identified so that it can be used in the systems thinking approach. the stakeholders are public, healthcare professionals and system, companies and government. There are barriers involved in the implementation of the approach. The strategies are also recommended for the implementation of systems thinking approach. the recommendations are to identify the linking of the system such that the stakeholders can be mobilized and engaged such that the policy reformation can be done.

Introduction to Health Systems and Economics

Public health can be defined as the science and art which can be used for preventing diseases, prolonging life and promotion of good health and this can be achieved by the combined efforts of people and society (Hubley & Copeman, 2018). Earlier mortality and morbidity was due to communicable diseases but now the trend has shifted towards non-communicable diseases (Bennett et al., 2018). Diseases like cardiovascular diseases are considered as public health issues and for tackling these issues it is required that a systems thinking approach to be used (Morton et al., 2017). In Australia, it is not evidenced for the said issue there is use of system thinking approach. The present report aims to describe the issue, role of stakeholders, barriers present and strategies to overcome those.

Description of Public Health Issue

Cardiovascular diseases can be classified as group of disorders which affect the heart and blood vessels (Hajar, 2016). There are various disorders which are included in this group and they are cerebrovascular diseases, coronary heart disease, arterial diseases of peripheries, rheumatic heart disease, arthritis and heart attacks and others (Podolec et al., 2018). One of the main causes for the cardiovascular diseases is sedentary lifestyle and eating habit which causes building up of fat in the arteries (Sokoła-Wysoczańska et al., 2018). The main symptom of cardiovascular diseases is that there is chest pain and the pain depending on the condition of the patient can be either acute or chronic. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the top five causes for mortality across the globe and in Australia it is the second leading cause of mortality and morbidity (Balakumar et al., 2016).

According to the statistics provided by the Australian institute of health and welfare, in the year of 2014-15 it was seen that around 4.2 million people suffered from diseases which were heart and blood vessels related disorders (Bishop et al., 2018). Among these around 1.2 million people suffered from either stroke or heart attack (Bishop et al., 2018). This class of disease is not limited to a specific a particular part of the society but in Australia it is seen to be prevalent in all the aspects of the communities (Bishop et al., 2018). The impact of the disease is not limited to just the affected individual but it also affects the family as well as the community in which a person resides. It is the reason that cardiovascular disease can be classified as public health issue and it is required to be tackled at the level of public health.

Stakeholder’s Role

In any field there are stakeholders who are required and responsible for the changes that occur in the respective field. Similarly, in the field of healthcare depending on the area of work the stakeholders vary and there is not just one stakeholder when it comes to the healthcare of individual or for a person (Franco-Trigo et al., 2017). In case of public health there are various stakeholders and they have specific roles to play in the healthcare of public as well as individuals. When cardiovascular diseases are considered as public health issue that are stakeholders who need to be engaged so that better health can be obtained for the public. The first stakeholder is the public as they are the ones who have the maximum to gain when policy and procedures are made (Franco-Trigo et al., 2017). Their role is to make sure the people who are policy makers be known about the needs and demands in case of cardiovascular diseases (Trenaman et al., 2019).

The second stakeholders are the companies which make the confectionaries and other things which are harmful and are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (Sacks et al., 2019). The role of this stakeholder is that they are known to lobby against the reformation as it would affect the revenue generation. The third stakeholder is the healthcare system as tackling one of chronic diseases might help in reducing the disease burden (Alkhouli et al., 2018). The role of healthcare system is work with the policy makers and public to make sure adequate professionals are available for fulfilling the role. Lastly government at all the levels is the stakeholders. The role of government is to ensure that the policy is made for the public along with there is allocation of funds and other resources (Mozaffarian et al., 2018).

Barrier to Systems Thinking Approach

In public health, systems thinking approach is the one which is a holistic approach in which the system is the complete embodiment so that all the parts should work as one and engage for tackling of public health issue (Morton et al., 2017). In the report the public health issue selected is cardiovascular diseases. Since the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases is a multifactorial the tackling of the disease should also be multifactorial and systems thinking approach is the best approach for the same. There are few barriers that can be seen for the employment of the approach. Firstly, the companies who lobby against the policy change might have upper hand which makes the policy change challenging. Second, the public who are likely to benefit are the not motivated enough. Third, the allocation of resources might not be appropriate and is a barrier for the implementation of systems thinking approach (Mozaffarian et al., 2018).

Recommendations on Health Systems and Economics

There are various links when systems thinking approach is considered. For the proper implementation of the systems thinking approach it is required that the links are explored and identified. The stakeholders involved should be adequately motivated and engaged (Mozaffarian et al., 2018). The governments at federal, state and community level should be shown the facts related to the public health issue. This is done so that adequate policy change can be made. System thinking approach can be successful if all the levels and links of the systems are adequately included (Mozaffarian et al., 2018).

Conclusion on Health Systems and Economics

Diseases like cardiovascular diseases are considered as public health issues and for tackling these issues it is required that a systems thinking approach to be used. There is less evidence that systems thinking approach is used for tackling the cardiovascular diseases as public health issues. From the present report, the stakeholders identified are government, public, healthcare systems and companies. Their role varies in public health. The barriers explored are multifold like lobbying effect, motivation of stakeholders and allocation of resources. It is required that these barriers are overcome so that systems thinking approach can be implemented.

References for Health Systems and Economics

Alkhouli, M., Noseworthy, P. A., Rihal, C. S., & Holmes, D. R. (2018). Stroke Prevention in NonvalvularáAtrialáFibrillation: A Stakeholder Perspective. Journal of the American College of Cardiology71(24), 2790-2801. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.04.013.

Balakumar, P., Maung-U, K., & Jagadeesh, G. (2016). Prevalence and prevention of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Pharmacological Research113, 600-609. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2016.09.040.

Bennett, J. E., Stevens, G. A., Mathers, C. D., Bonita, R., Rehm, J., Kruk, M. E., ... & Beagley, J. (2018). NCD Countdown 2030: Worldwide trends in non-communicable disease mortality and progress towards Sustainable Development Goal target 3.4. The Lancet392(10152), 1072-1088. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31992-5.

Bishop, L., Ransom, A., & Laverty, M. (2018). Cardiovascular health in remote and rural communities. Canberra: Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia. https://apo.org.au/sites/default/files/resource-files/2018-03/apo-nid140106.pdf.

Franco-Trigo, L., Hossain, L. N., Durks, D., Fam, D., Inglis, S. C., Benrimoj, S. I., & Sabater-Hernández, D. (2017). Stakeholder analysis for the development of a community pharmacy service aimed at preventing cardiovascular disease. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy13(3), 539-552. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2016.06.009.

Hajar, R. (2016). Framingham contribution to cardiovascular disease. Heart views: The official journal of the Gulf Heart Association17(2), 78. https://doi.org/10.4103/1995-705X.185130.

Hubley, J., & Copeman, J. (2018). Practical health promotion. John Wiley & Sons.

Morton, S., Pencheon, D., & Squires, N. (2017). Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and their implementation: A national global framework for health, development and equity needs a systems approach at every level. British Medical Bulletin, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldx031.

Mozaffarian, D., Angell, S. Y., Lang, T., & Rivera, J. A. (2018). Role of government policy in nutrition—barriers to and opportunities for healthier eating. Bmj361. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k2426.

Podolec, P., Kopeć, G., Rubiś, P., Stępniewski, J., Podolec, J., Komar, M., ... & Matusik, P. T. (2018). Clinical classification of rare cardiovascular diseases and disorders: 2018 update. Journal of Rare Cardiovascular Diseases3(7), 230. http://dx.doi.org/10.20418%2Fjrcd.vol3no7.330.

Sacks, G., Vanderlee, L., Robinson, E., Vandevijvere, S., Cameron, A. J., Ni Mhurchu, C., ... & L'Abbé, M. (2019). BIA‐Obesity (Business Impact Assessment—Obesity and population‐level nutrition): A tool and process to assess food company policies and commitments related to obesity prevention and population nutrition at the national level. Obesity Reviews20, 78-89. https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12878.

Sokoła-Wysoczańska, E., Wysoczański, T., Wagner, J., Czyż, K., Bodkowski, R., Lochyński, S., & Patkowska-Sokoła, B. (2018). Polyunsaturated fatty acids and their potential therapeutic role in cardiovascular system disorders—A review. Nutrients10(10), 1561. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101561.

Trenaman, S., Willison, M., Robinson, B., & Andrew, M. (2019). A collaborative intervention for deprescribing: The role of stakeholder and patient engagement. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2019.07.004.

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