Table of Contents
Answer: The sampling frame in context to the Whitehall studies subjects the mortality and clinical records of public service employees. Also, records of employment for the British civil service. The frame included 10,308 women and men for Whitehall II and 19,029 men for Whitehall I. British officials who were assessed in seven stages from 1967 to 2004.
Answer: In the paper of Marmot, data were composed using medical and behavioral questionnaires and clinical examination (Marmot et al. 1978). Relative risks have been calculated to assess the risk of illness. In Breeze's article, data were collected using medical and behavioral questionnaires and clinical examination (Breeze et al. 2001). Logical regression was used to calculate the odds rations. In Chandola's article, data were collected using medical and behavioral questionnaires, a questionnaire on work stress and a clinical examination (Chandola et al. 2008). Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the risk ratios and logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios.
Answer: we need to consider in this regard: the gender distribution of the population, ethnic diversity within the population, economic similarity of the population, the type of work done by the people in the population and the class structure of the population.
Answer: Yes, Whitehall's studies laid the groundwork for exploring large-scale cohorts such as the 45 and over age group in Australia. The methods used in Whitehall's studies could be useful for exploration of 45 years and over in Australia, since they aim to determine the fertility of the Australian population over a extensive choice of exposures and results of importance for health. in the context of an aging population 45 and over give priority to the following fields of study:
Essentially, 45 years and older study in Australia uses the basic questionnaire which seeks information on the demographic and social characteristics of the participants, general data on health and personal health behaviors. This makes Whitehall's approach very important to the cohort of research studies of this type, as it provides researchers with reliable and timely information. In addition, the study targets a sample of 250,000 women and men aged 45 and over in the common populace. These are some of the few reasons that make the Whitehall studies applicable to the existing Australian study cohort, such as 45 and over, and to other studies of a similar approach.
Answer: The very suitable study design to discover the causal relationship among lung cancer and smoking is Case-control study.
The researcher's objective in such a study is to establish the link among smoking and lung cancer. The suitable study design is one that allows researchers to find hospitalized patients with lung cancer and a comparison group of patients in a hospital who suffer from diseases other than cancer (Checkoway et al. 2007). The next step is to compare the history of exposure against smoking and many other factors. If the results indicate that prior exposure to smoking is very common in patients with lung cancer, the researchers may conclude that there is an association. The advantage of the case-control study is that it allows researchers to collect the necessary data relatively quickly and inexpensively. The disadvantages of this approach are that researchers cannot measure the incidence of lung cancer in non-smokers and smokers. Therefore, the ethical consideration is that the absolute risk of smoking cannot be measured.
Answer: The very suitable study design to discover the connection among binge eating and depression in a population of obese adults and adolescents is the Cohort study.
This approach is advantageous because the results may reveal that depression is correlated with binge eating in a population of obese adults and adolescents. The disadvantage of this approach is that it takes a very long time, which increases the cost of research (Checkoway et al. 2007). Ethical consideration is very crucial since study involves human beings as subject.
Answer: The very suitable study design to discover the effects which are long-term of incarceration on the physical and mental health in context to asylum seekers is cross-sectional study.
This approach is suitable as it allows researchers to compare the correlation of mental disorders and the physical health of asylum seekers. The advantages of cross-sectional studies are that they are useful for exploring a relatively persistent condition as opposed to the transient or reversible effect of the exposure (Belbasis & Bellou, 2018). The study is also easy and less expensive. However, the study is not effective when researchers try to consider the effect and cause of a correlation. In cases where researchers have a conflict of interest, the results may be biased and imperfect.
Answer: The very suitable study design to discover the relationship among folate supplementation throughout pregnancy and advance of autism in offspring is Cross-sectional study.
This study design is suitable for studying the prevalence of a particular disease or event; it establishes the relationship or association among the two variables. The benefit of this study design is that it is inexpensive and easy (Halfon et al. 2018). However, researchers using this model are more likely to encounter problems with the constitution of the sampling pool based on the variables of the pregnant women studied.
Answer: The most suitable study design to test a drug for use in elderly populace diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease is Randomized controlled trial.
This study plan is suitable as it allows researchers to randomly select an appropriate sample and divide it in half where one is witnessed. The drug will be administered to a group and a group is left for control. It is beneficial to use this study design because the researchers will be able to determine if the drug is not effective as well as the side effects of the drug. The study is also good since the participants are known (Halfon et al. 2018). However, the design of the study is subject to bias on the part of the volunteers, and it also consumes money and time.
Belbasis, L., &Bellou, V. (2018). Introduction to epidemiological studies. In Genetic Epidemiology (pp. 1-6). Humana Press, New York, NY.
Breeze, E., Fletcher, A. E., Leon, D. A., Marmot, M. G., Clarke, R. J., & Shipley, M. J. (2001). Do socioeconomic disadvantages persist into old age? Self-reported morbidity in a 29-year follow-up of the Whitehall Study. American journal of public health, 91(2), 277.
Chandola, T., Britton, A., Brunner, E., Hemingway, H., Malik, M., Kumari, M., ... & Marmot, M. (2008). Work stress and coronary heart disease: what are the mechanism?. European heart journal, 29(5), 640-648.
Checkoway, H., Pearce, N. & Kriebel, D. (2007). Selecting Suitable Study Designs to Address Specific Research Questions in Occupational Epidemiology. Occupational Environmental Medicine, 64: 633-638.
Halfon, N., Forrest, C. B., Lerner, R. M., &Faustman, E. M. (2018). Epidemiological Study Designs: Traditional and Novel Approaches to Advance Life Course Health Development Research--Handbook of Life Course Health Development.
Marmot, M. G., Adelstein, A. M., Robinson, N., & Rose, G. A. (1978). Changing social-class distribution of heart disease. Br Med J, 2(6145), 1109-1112.
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