Community Health and Disease Prevention

Introduction to Community Health and Disease Prevention

Promotion of health is the procedure of empowering people to enhance the sway over their health and its antecedents through health learning efforts and cross-sectional action to enhance healthy behaviours. This procedure includes certain activities for the community at a larger level that enhanced the chance of negative health results. At a conceptual level, having involved within the health care sector it is convenient to specify disease prevention services and health promotion services. To ease the initial recovery of the health sector world health organization (WHO) is set on to the over-elaborated countries to target no more cases of the "Ebola virus" in West Africa. Ebola Virus is an infrequent and fatal disease in people. Mainly the viruses of Ebola are located in Saharan Africa. The up-surge of the disease named Ebola Virus in West Africa is out of the ordinary in its severity and complication (Olu, 2016). Still the Liberia, Guinea, and Sierra Leone are overblown by the epidemic and are fighting to prevent the outbreaks against a scenery of the utmost impoverishment level, poor system of health, and communal practices that make splitting person-to-person channelling tough.

An essential element in strengthening the trust of the community is to impart the high standard of care for all those who are infected with the Ebola virus and to keep informed the family members about the improvement in the heath of their loved ones. It has been a good practice to set up community liaison officers at the health centers. Case management activity and supervising the infection are required to be developed to enhance the survival period of a person as well as to minimize the cases of health care practitioners becoming exposed to the virus. It is also essential to look after the topographical administering of Ebola Virus health care centers as the epidemiological situation varies. Communities' engagement has been always the most condemnatory part of functional response. Within the delivery of services community engagement lies in the mainstream. Mobile Strategy also play an important role to deliver various health safety care equipment to the community. Various steps has been taken by World Health Organization to control the outbreak of Ebola Virus such as: consultation, participation, organization, capacity building, action and possibly empowerment. Epidemiological modelling helps to combat with Ebola Virus by examine number of cases in a country. Dealing with the patients suffering from Ebola Virus Bottom-to-Top approach is found to be useful.

The Outbreak of Ebola Virus

World health organization (WHO) is set on to the pompous countries to target to no more cases of the "Ebola virus" in West Africa ("Ebola virus disease", 2020). Ebola Virus is an infrequent and fatal disease in people. Mainly the viruses of Ebola are come-across in Saharan region of Africa. Community can get infected with this virus via face to face contact with an infected non-human primate animal-example bat or an ill or a person who died with an infected virus of Ebola. (Acuna, 2016)

The strategic goal for WHO (World Health Organization):

  1. Halt the channelling of the Ebola virus in pompous countries.
  2. Control present up-surge of the Ebola virus in latest areas of the country
  3. Carefully open important services of health and enhance the flexibility
  4. Quicken research on Ebola and its development
  5. Correlate national and international Ebola report.

Community Engagement and Mobile Strategy for an Emergency Response Plan for an Emergency Outbreaks

World Health Organization has worked in collaboration to build up community engagement and Mobile Strategy to strengthen and preserve trust between frontline workers and local communities.

Community Engagement

This has consisted of enlighten the selection, acquiring of required anticipation, and control strategies via the communication between the technical teams and the local peoples. World Health Organization has interrelated the loads of exclusive regulation and networks of professionals to build a model of community engagement, deploy on excellent execution, for the careful and fast rise of the cure for Ebola virus as well as meanwhile advice on the engagement of community especially for blood donors. In association with UNICEF and other professional workers, working systems are being put in the workplace to make sure that the various techniques of community engagement are being put in to effectively manage communication with local communities (Bhatnagar et al., 2016).

Mobile Strategy

World Health Organization in association with other partners has the expertise to teach IPC (Infection Prevention and Control) policy and clinical training through the guidelines of the emergency situation and immediate help for health workers in dealing with the patients infected with Ebola virus, on laboratory procedures, personal protective equipment (PPE), tracing the social contact, safe burials, management of clinical and other wastes (Den Boon et al., 2018). Such public health advice is important to inform the workforce of the health department and other international reports about the community transfer risks and safety plan. Besides, in association with major organizations such as, WFP, UNICEF, World Health Organization has provided more than one million kit of personal protective equipment.

Overall Strategy

An analytical step will be a restriction on the transmission of the Ebola to the marshy areas of the highly pompous countries before the arrival of the monsoon season in the month of April/May (2015). The preference is given to investigate and separate all the latest cases by the last of May and to corroborate that they arrived from a well-known chain of transmission.

Consultation with Districts

To accomplish the ideas it is important to additionally reinforce the surveillance of district, estimation of risk and feedback result, and to make sure that every district has a workable strategies particular to their situation of epidemic and in terms of community. World Health Organization (WHO) will regularly play an essential role at the district level for the togetherness of health feedback with the coordinators set up in all over the 63 districts of three majorly infected countries with the virus (Rhymer & Speare, 2016).

Participation

  • World Health Organization mobilized its collaborating laboratory in France together with the laboratories of western region of Africa to prepare themselves to detect more number of cases (Kamradt-Scott, 2016)
  • On 28th March, First team who partner with World Health Organization is Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network in short called as GOARN.
  • On 8th of April, Geneva press conference were held where World Health Organization reported officially that Ebola as one of the most challenging outbreak.
  • On 16th of April a jointly meeting of African Union and World Health Organization were held for discussing the epidemic situation.

Organization

World Health Organization work in association with the US Centres for Disease Control, has guided the surveillance, tracing of social contact, finding cases, managing the data, and the analysis of epidemiological survey with the government of the three most-affected countries in the world. WHO has to get together with GOARN partners who assign their staffs to help those countries who are dealing with this kind of epidemic to implement over 600 health experts during the action to help in surveillance, epidemiology surveys, finding cases, tracing contacts, and management of information. This has provided a remarkable enhancement in the number of new cases coming from lists of contact (Kieny et al., 2014).

Capacity Building

  • The capacity building for human to deal with Ebola Virus were done at four level-district, services, country and the community level. (Owada et al., 2016)
  • To build IPC capacity in country by providing proper training, mentorship program for the betterment in health facility.
  • Training consisted of lectures regarding hand washing techniques and how to use personal protective equipment.

Action

Tracing contact with active surveillance will carry on with the "zero weekly reports" of Ebola situation via desegregated surveillance at community health services. Well-grounded management of sociocultural and epidemiological data to construct and execute the targeted procedure, as well as 24 hours availability of laboratory centres for checking Ebola, will be important. World Health Organization is also regularly active in the formation and development of intensifying surveillance and wariness frameworks in consent with International Health Regulations and Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response recommendations (Wadman, 2019).

Possibly Empowerment

  • Due to outbreak of Ebola the country especially Liberians have faced decline rate in the income generating Activities.
  • As per the Study shown that about 81% of males and Females employment has fallen to just an average of 43.7% after this epidemic
  • The Unemployment rate for both male and female has tripled after the outbreaks of Ebola Virus.
  • Findings concluded that many people who were already struggling for food and with the other issues related to livelihood make their situation more critical.

Modelling the Outbreaks of Ebola Virus Diseases

Epidemiological model is used to examine the transmission of diseases with the help of stability Analysis about the number of cases of Ebola Victims. This Model can help to determine the mortality rate, infected people rate and the outbreaks seen among other people.

Treatment of Ebola Victims Through a Bottom-To-Top Approach

As earlier research on Ebola epidemic shows that the community has acknowledged the spread of Ebola Virus in the western region of Africa with a Top-to-Bottom approach. This has led to control the outspread, but has shown much less effect to minimize the high death rate in particular patients so that Ebola Victims deal with severe failure of endothelial barrier integrity which results into excessive loss of fluid and collapses their vascular tissues. So that with the help of Bottom-to-Top Approach for treatment indicates a scientific shift by simply targeting the host. This Approach helps to bring back the normal condition of endothelial barrier integrity and to control endothelial barrier integrity Statins and Angiotensin receptors blockers are used (Maxmen, 2019).

Conclusion on Community Health and Disease Prevention

The Approach to get no more cases or zero cases via ultra-careful surveillance and on larger level in-depth case finding, case management and investigation, and tracing the contact exposure can only be accomplished with the help of surveillance and the direct association of our major organizations and the governments of the most-pompous nations. Most essentially, at the social levels, we required to expect and prevent impending, challenging latest approach of working and behavioral adjustment of various health care facility providers. The feedback response must continue seriously as, without the eradication of Ebola, the organized reactivation of requisites facility derange by the outbreak and the subsequent improvement of the countries' weak economies and service framework cannot start fortunately. World Health Organization is working within association with its organization partnership to ensure a useful endowment that left behind after this economy and health crisis; a settlement that encloses to build up strong health systems and flexibility and alertness to face the future consequences for public health that might bring.

References for Community Health and Disease Prevention

Acuna, D. (2016). Dilemmas Faced by the World Health Organization in the Response to the Ebola Emergency. MOJ Public Health4(1). https://doi.org/10.15406/mojph.2016.04.00064

Bhatnagar, N., Grover, M., Kotwal, A., & Chauhan, H. (2016). Study of recent Ebola virus outbreak and lessons learned: A scoping study. Annals Of Tropical Medicine And Public Health9(3), 145. https://doi.org/10.4103/1755-6783.181658.

Den Boon, S., Vallenas, C., Ferri, M., & Norris, S. (2018). Incorporating health workers’ perspectives into a WHO guideline on personal protective equipment developed during an Ebola virus disease outbreak. F1000research7, 45. https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.12922.2

Kamradt-Scott, A. (2016). WHO’s to blame? The World Health Organization and the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa. Third World Quarterly37(3), 401-418. https://doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2015.1112232

Kieny, M., Evans, D., Schmets, G., & Kadandale, S. (2014). Health-system resilience: reflections on the Ebola crisis in western Africa. Bulletin Of The World Health Organization92(12), 850-850. https://doi.org/10.2471/blt.14.149278

Maxmen, A. (2019). World Health Organization decides against declaring Ebola emergency as outbreak worsens. Nature. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-019-01201-x

Olu, O. (2016). The Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in West Africa: A Wake-up Call to Revitalize Implementation of the International Health Regulations. Frontiers In Public Health4. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2016.00120

Owada, K., Eckmanns, T., Kamara, K., & Olu, O. (2016). Epidemiological Data Management during an Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease: Key Issues and Observations from Sierra Leone. Frontiers In Public Health4. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2016.00163

Rhymer, W., & Speare, R. (2016). Countries’ response to WHO’s travel recommendations during the 2013–2016 Ebola outbreak. Bulletin Of The World Health Organization95(1), 10-17. https://doi.org/10.2471/blt.16.171579

Wadman, M. (2019). World Health Organization declares Ebola outbreak an international emergency. Science. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aay7850

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