Community Health and Disease Prevention

Introduction to Ottawa Charter Diabetes Management

The condition of diabetes has been recognized as a concerning issue globally. With the rising trend o unhealthy lifestyle and eating habits, the incidences reported for this chronic impairment has been on a rise. The ratio of the condition has also found to be increasing rapidly in young adults as well newborns. The indigenous population of the Australia has also observed to be affected by the condition largely. Due to the remoteness of these residential settings, there is a lack of proper healthcare structure in these community dwellings (Nguyen, 2016). With cultural variations, lack of means, poor transportation and lack of communication, the incidences of diabetes have been reported considerably high in these regions. The general population is also found to be more obese than their non-indigenous counterparts and thus, adding to the underlying risk of developing diabetes. World Health Organization has also recognized it as one the top health issues to be prioritized globally (Harris, 2017). There have been programs initiated to make sure that the underlying health determinants are identified for this condition, irrespective of the region, race and gender of the population. The data collected form the verified resources will be helpful in defining and streamlining the strategic management of this condition in a more universal and schematic approach. The approach is deemed to be multidirectional, enabling care while keeping a close consideration for various elements aligned with the diseased condition. These elements can be based on analyzing multifaced approach through various paradigm shift of political, economic, cultural and environmental, biological and behavioral aspects. This is also the foundational basis of Ottawa Charter, which was also formulated by the World Health Organization. This charter works on five main principles for enabling care to the patients, through the means of structured and methodical approach.

Community and Health

Health promotion can be considered as a process of enabling care for the people by improving their and their community health standards. It also works for recognizing the strengths and weaknesses of the systems in place to develop a strategic planning and intervention management technique for the community (Middleton, 2016). Health promotional activities are to be delivered in sync with the lifestyles and community settings of an individual. Thus, enabling care to the patients in accordance with the key findings acknowledge for them.

Ottawa charter helps in health promotion by the means of three basic strategies to be ensured during the process. The primary concern is to advocate for the patient population. In the given scenario, Ottawa Charter can be useful in enabling a good health status for people suffering from diabetes. This can be delivered by acknowledging all of the major resources in the community targeted. This can be a multidimensional approach of defining quality of care through favoring for social, cultural, environmental and political aspects of the community (Turunen, 2017). Thus, the overall aim of health promotion is to make the health care solutions favorable through advocating for proper health for the patients.

Nurses can play a vital role in enabling defined healthcare solution to the targeted population. This can be done with a purpose of narrowing down the health inequalities and ensuring equal healthcare opportunities to the population. As the resources can be observed to be limited within the indigenous communities, the nurses can help with advocating the rights of these individuals and creating a supportive niche for them. This can be wishfully carried out by the process of working in close collaboration with the people of the community, aiming to identify their individual health related concerns. Nurses can also act a mediator for marginalizing this health gap (Thornton, 2016). They can work in close coordination with the designated authorities including government sectors, non-government sectors and local health authorities that can provide solace to the patients with rendering them with required healthcare facilities.

Recommendation for Community- Based Health Promotion

Ottawa charter has segregated the process of health promotion into five main categories, that are defined and prioritized as per the health areas of concerns. It is well-structured schematic approach to the working of the system and can help with targeting the specific needs of the community. Health promotion can only be practically implied with the help of well-defined approaches. As nurses work in close contact with the patient population, they can help in identifying the healthcare obstacles that are faced in the healthcare system on a daily basis. Nurses can be helpful in developing robust healthcare policies for health promotion of indigenous patients suffering from diabetes, by the means of developing a strong partnership between public and healthcare sectors (Peimani, 2019). Being a vital part of the primary healthcare setting, grass-root amendments can be carried out for the policies to be drafted, providing benefit for the common population. This will also be helpful in improving the overall healthcare outcomes of the patient, through schematic implementation of the same. As nurses are well-aware of the functioning of the system, they can work for providing a strong and supportive working environment for the patients. This can be done mainly by lifestyle modifications and ensuring promotion of a healthy lifestyle. Obesity is one of the main reasons for development of diabetes in general. This factor has been found to be observed on a rising trend in the indigenous community (Titmuss, 2019). The healthcare promotion should be aimed at building dietary changes so lower the rates of obesity. This can be a step forward on reducing the incidences of diabetes in the population. Supportive environment can also be provided with the help of health education activities, aiming to deliver awareness in the local population. Indigenous communities can be deemed as a close-knit circle, which relies upon their own ethics, principles and values. The nurses can work in close collaboration with the community members, trying to actively listen to the specific healthcare needs and requirements. This will be helpful in providing a more targeted solution to the patient (Percival, 2018). This can also serve as a means for strengthening public participation and helping the community on imparting the importance of self-care management. Nurses can help in developing local support groups and social circles, that can enable a flexible care system, in sync with the ethical considerations specific to the community.

Success and Sustainability of The Program

Diabetes is one of the chronic illness that can have a major impact on the overall well-being of the person. It is imperative to diagnose the underlying factors as diabetes have implication on the activity of daily routine. It can also lower the clinical health status of the person. Nurses can work with the people in the community, helping them to develop coping strategies to battle with such chronic conditions like diabetes (Canuto, 2017). Spreading awareness in the community and providing them with the enabled care plan through primary care settings, can be one step forward in managing diabetes in indigenous communities. The role of healthcare sector should be mainly focused in health promotion based on specification of the community targeted. Nurses can be a connecting link between the target population and the designated authorities responsible for these action plans. Nurses can be an integral part of the community with helping to observe pattern of the disease in the community (Fogarty, 2018). This can also be carried out by means of appropriate professional training and educative measures, ensuring delivery of proper care to the patient. Health promotion plays a bigger part on the overall impact on the individual’s life. Nurses can help with closely monitoring the overall health status of the community in respect with prevalence and impact of diabetes on them. This continuity of care is vital for enabling a longitivety and improving the overall lifespan of the patient. this will directly help in improving the quality of life of the patients in these indigenous communities. Regular monitoring can also be helpful in planning and execution of healthcare promotion targeted specific to reduce the overall negative impact of the diabetes in these community dwellings (Conte, 2020). This can also be carried out by the means of shared decision-making with the community members, providing them a means to regulate their own health and support in health promotion directly.

Conclusion on Ottawa Charter Diabetes Management

Health promotion can be defined as an ultimate right of each and every individual. It is also deemed as a process to ensure continuity of care to help and support the individuals suffering from chronic illness. Ottawa Charter can be observed as a well-crafted approach for health promotion, which provides a platform for equal participation for individuals as well as healthcare professionals. It can also be deemed as an effective framework, that can be observed to be working as per patient’s healthcare specification and enabling them a holistic care support model. With the main aim to promote the overall health status of an individual, Ottawa Charter can be a sound tool for nurses to improve the overall healthcare outcomes and thus, quality of life of individuals. This can also provide with a methodical and structural framework support, that can enable care to the patients, aiming to deliver benefit for their health.

References for Ottawa Charter Diabetes Management

Canuto, K., Aromataris, E., Lockwood, C., Tufanaru, C., & Brown, A. (2017). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health promotion programs for the prevention and management of chronic diseases: A scoping review protocol. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports15(1), 10-14. https://doi.org/10.11124/JBISRIR-2016-003021

Conte, K. P., Gwynn, J., Turner, N., Koller, C., & Gillham, K. E. (2020). Making space for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community health workers in health promotion. Health Promotion International35(3), 562-574. DOI https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daz035

Fogarty, M., Coalter, N., Gordon, A., & Breen, H. (2018). Proposing a health promotion framework to address gambling problems in Australian Indigenous communities. Health Promotion International33(1), 115-122. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daw060

Harris, S. B., Tompkins, J. W., & TeHiwi, B. (2017). Call to action: A new path for improving diabetes care for indigenous peoples, a global review. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice123, 120-133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2016.11.022

Middleton, R., Moxham, L., & Parrish, D. (2016). The value of health promotion programs for older people with chronic conditions in the community. Australian Nursing and Midwifery Journal24(2), 30. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dax001

Nguyen, H. D., Chitturi, S., & Maple‐Brown, L. J. (2016). Management of diabetes in Indigenous communities: Lessons from the Australian Aboriginal population. Internal Medicine Journal46(11), 1252-1259. https://doi.org/10.1111/imj.13123

Peimani, M., Nasli-Esfahani, E., & Shakibazadeh, E. (2019). Ottawa charter framework as a guide for type 2 diabetes prevention and control in Iran. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40200-018-0381-3

Percival, N. A., McCalman, J., Armit, C., O’Donoghue, L., Bainbridge, R., Rowley, K., ... & Tsey, K. (2018). Implementing health promotion tools in Australian Indigenous primary health care. Health Promotion International33(1), 92-106. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daw049

Thornton, R. L., Glover, C. M., Cené, C. W., Glik, D. C., Henderson, J. A., & Williams, D. R. (2016). Evaluating strategies for reducing health disparities by addressing the social determinants of health. Health Affairs35(8), 1416-1423. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2015.1357

Titmuss, A., Davis, E. A., Brown, A., & Maple‐Brown, L. J. (2019). Emerging diabetes and metabolic conditions among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander young people. Medical Journal of Australia210(3), 111-113. https://doi.org/10.5694/mja2.13002

Turunen, H., Sormunen, M., Jourdan, D., Von Seelen, J., & Buijs, G. (2017). Health promoting schools—a complex approach and a major means to health improvement. Health Promotion International32(2), 177-184. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dax001

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