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Obesity

One of the important public health problems arises due to the impaired metabolism that leads to excessive accumulation of the fat which has a negative effect over different metabolic functioning. Worldwide the prevalence of obesity is about 200 million and this rate is increasing due to the unhealthy lifestyle of the individual (Agha & Agha, 2017). The increased prevalence of obesity in the younger individual increase the need to provide accurate intervention to improve the quality of life 

The nurses are expected to actively engage in primary care to improve the quality of life patient by providing accurate assistant (McGowan, 2016). Many methods can be utilized by the nurse to the quality of life of the obesity patient like health promotion method, prevention of complication or improve recovery (Kelly & Wills, 2018). The essay is going to discuss the role of the nurses to reduce the quality of life of the obesity patient by providing accurate care. The different aspects that will be covered in the essay include how the nurse can utilize the strength-based approach during care and how can they support the obesity patient.

According to the World Health Organization (2020), more than 1.9 billion of 18 or more age group is overweight and out of which 650 million adults are obese that increase the health care burden. The prevalence rate indicates that women are more prevalent that is about 40% when compared to the men that are about 39%. The drastic change in the prevalence rate of obesity occurs in the 5-19 age group that increased from 4% to 18% that is the major concern.

The increase complication associated with obesity is due to the accumulation of excessive fat in the body that directly impairs the different metabolic process. The etiology associated with the misbalance of the energy intake and energy expenditure that lead to excessive weight. Many factors lead to increased risk for the obesity that includes genetic, cultural and social and some other factors include a sedentary lifestyle, poor food routine, endocrine disorder and disturbed energy metabolism. Many disorders are directly linked with obesity which includes Prader Willi, fragile X, bardetbeidl syndrome and Alstrom syndrome (Panuganti & Kshirsagar, 2020). There are much health’s associated risk factors that are directly linked with obesity and it increases the prevalence rate of multiple other non-communicable disorders. The different disorder those are associated with the obesity cancer, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, stroke, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, asthma, chronic back pain, osteoarthritis, pulmonary embolism and gallbladder disease. The obesity is directly related to the mental disorder of the individual that lead to decreased self-esteem, mood disorders, impaired body image and eating problem (Djalalinia et al., 2015).

The strength-based approach is considered to be one of the important methods in the nursing profession as it utilizes the patient and family perspective during the care. It promotes the holistic approach of the care that includes collaboration and partnership between the health care professional and client to provide person-centred care. The nurses utilizing a strength based approach are considered to increase the participation of the client with the family that helps to prefer the client choices during the treatment process. The framework for the strength-based approach utilizes three aspects to promote partnership which includes identification of issue followed by decision making and the last step is planning the care (Swartz, 2017). The nurses utilizing a strength-based approach seek the patient perspective and strength that can be partnered with the care process to improve care, recovery and resolution of the issue. It is considered to be one of the best universal accepted models as it can deal with the complex health problem. The strength-based approach aims to promote the person-centric care that is directly associated with the better recovery of the patient (Cross & Cheyne, 2018).

There is an increase in collaboration in primary care when dealing with obesity patient as the care should utilize the holistic approach to improve the health status of the patient. There are many aspects in which the obese patient will require the assistant to reduce the complication associated with health. The care team will include dietician as there is a requirement to manage the diet of the obese individual and it should also include exercise instructor that helps to promote the physical exercise. The pharmacist is also important to increase understanding reading the medicine prescribed and their role to improve the health status. The general practitioner is also important to prescribe accurate medicine concerning the current medical status of the patient. The main role in the care is of the nurse as she has to assist the patient to follow all the necessary interventions that are required to promote the quality of life. Nurses should also collaborate with the team members to understand the accurate method for interventions to increase the benefit of the treatment over patient health status (Bernstein et al., 2016).

The nurses are expected to promote patient care by utilizing the best clinical skills during patient care. Interprofessional collaboration is considered to be one of the methods that help to promote teamwork and improve the quality of care. The nurses are expected to promote interprofessional collaboration skills by utilizing different aspect that helps to improve their understanding of reading the teamwork. The first aspect that will promote interprofessional collaboration is removing the barriers that can be stress, interpersonal issue or bad experience. The second aspect that promotes collaboration is transforming learning which includes an improved method for education that promotes lifelong learning. Better leadership that will promote the partnership and collaboration in the team by assigning work collectively. Cultural competency is also one of the major aspects that help to understand the different aspect of the team member concerning different cultural practise (Moss et al., 2016).

The increase prevalence for the chronic health issue and deteriorated community health is one of the major issues and obesity is considered to be one of the communities due to increased sedentary lifestyle with poor eating habits. Nurses are considered to be the connecting linking between the community care and better health that directly increased the need to collaborate with the community group to improve complication associated with an individual (Melo & Alves, 2019). The nurse is expected to identify the actual issue in the patient concerning the disorder at the community level that can be utilized to plan a health promotion plan that aims to reduce the improve the lifestyle of the patient. Many aspects are needed to be considered during the care process of the obese individual as it increased the risk for multiple disorders. The nurses are expected to analyse the patient perspective regarding different intervention that can be utilized to tailor the care accordingly. The second aspect includes understanding the patient health care need to prioritize the major health issue concerning complication associated with obesity (Braga et al., 2017).

Many interventions can be utilized to decrease the complication associated with an obese individual. One of the methods that can be utilized by nurses to improve the quality of life is dietary management intervention to improve nutrition intake. The dietary intervention is considered to be one of the methods that help to magician the nutrition intake by following the set plan in daily routine. The diet that should be preferred by the obese individual includes vegetable, fruits, grains, dairy products, protein and oil in the set amount to balance the nutrition intake (Smethers & Rolls, 2018). The diet of the obese include should contain low calories and low fat to improve the metabolism of the individual. Nutritional therapy is considered to be one of the approaches that can be utilized by the nurses to improve the dietary intake of the individual. The nutritional approach is considered to be beneficial to improve diet quality, glycemic control and maintain weight. Different factors are included in the nutritional therapy that includes feeding behaviour, adequate consumption of food and following diet plan. The nutritional intervention is framed as per the patient preference to increase the chances of individual participation in the intervention (Alves & Duarte, 2019). The nurse can collaborate with the dietician to frame the diet plan as per the client preference and assisting the patient to follow the diet plan to reduce the chances of complication.

Another intervention that can be utilized by nurses to improve the health status of the obese individual includes physical activity method. Physical activity method is considered to be an important component for the obese individual that should be included in the daily routine of the individual. The physical activity help to improve the metabolism of the individual that leads to the better health status of the obese patient. The physical acidity includes a different set of exercise as preferred by the client to improve the intervention according to the person-centred approach and then slowly increasing the time interval of the exercise. A different set of exercise that can be included in the training includes resistant training, aerobic exercise, walking and strength exercise that aims to improve the metabolism followed by weight loss (Chin et al., 2016).

The relation of the physical activity with the reduce risk for the non-communicable disease increase the utility to reduce complication associated with obesity. The physical activity is directly related to better metabolic rate, increase bone density, improved strength of cardiac muscle and a better elasticity of the artery. The physical activity improves the health of the obese as per the holistic approach that includes better cardio metabolic health, improved physiological adaptation, better body regulation and decrease body weight (Stoner et al., 2016). Nurses can improve understanding of reading the right time interval and procedure for exercise by partnering with the instructor. Then nurses can assist the patient to provide an accurate set of exercise on a daily bases to improve health status.

Cognitive behavioural therapy is considered to be one of the aspects that can be utilized to assist the patient in reducing the weight that is one of the major requirement of the care procedure. The cognitive behavioural therapy follows a set framework with the obese individual to decrease the dependency over the other individual concerning weight loss approach. The different aspects that are addressed by the intervention include self-monitoring ability, goal setting, stimulus control, behavioural substitute and cognitive restructuring. The program will be conducted a different set of method to improve the health of the obese patient and the first method includes psych education intervention that promotes understanding regarding the importance of exercise and dietary routine. The second set exercise includes self-monitoring ability of the individual concerning food intake and continuous monitoring in the duration of the intervention. The third aspect includes mindful exercise like raisin exercises and mindful breathing to improve coping strength and the last method include relearning adaptive eating habits (Ogata et al., 2018). The nurse can collaborate with the therapist to assist the patient during the intervention that helps to improve the understating.

The essay can be concluded by describing that nurse play a major role in patient care patient and they can assist the patient to utilize accurate intervention during the care. Obesity is one of the most common metabolic disorders in the patient and especially the young generation of the society. The strength-based approach should be utilized in the care to improve the person centre approach in the care to improve the health outcome. The growing health care as increased participation of the nurse not in primary care but they also collaborate with the community group to address the community issue. Multiple methods can be utilized to decrease the complication of the obese individual but most important approach includes dietary intervention, physical activity and cognitive behavioural therapy. The nurse can collaborate with the different specialist to improve the care process as they can assist the patient during the intervention process to improve the health status.

References for Obesity

World Health Organization. (2020). Obesity and overweight. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight

Agha, M., & Agha, R. (2017). The rising prevalence of obesity. International Journal of Surgery Oncology, 2(7), 1-6. DOI:10.1097/ij9.0000000000000017

Alves, A. P. M. C. & Duarte, F. (2019). Effects of food intervention in adults with overweight or obesity. Advances in ObesityWeight Management & Control, 9(5), 122-125. DOI: 10.15406/aowmc.2019.09.00286

Bernstein, K. M., Manning, D. A., & Julian, R. M. (2016). Multidisciplinary teams and obesity. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice, 43(1), 53–59.

Braga, V. A. S., Jesus, M. C. P., Conz, C. A, Tavares, R. E., Silva, M. H. & Merighi, M. A. B. (2017). Nursing interventions with people with obesity in Primary Health Care: an integrative review. Rev Esc Enferm USP, 51, 1-10. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1980-220X2017019203293

Chin, S. H., Kahathuduwa, C. N., & Binks, M. (2016). Physical activity and obesity: what we know and what we need to know. Obesity Reviews, 17(12), 1226–1244.

Cross, B. & Cheyne, H. (2018). Strength-based approaches: a realist evaluation of implementation in maternity services in Scotland. Journal of Public Health (Berl.) 26, 425–436. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10389-017-0882-4

Djalalinia, S., Qorbani, M., Peykari, N., & Kelishadi, R. (2015). Health impacts of Obesity. Pakistan journal of medical sciences, 31(1), 239–242. https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.311.7033

 Kelly, M. & Wills, J. (2018). Systematic review: What works to address obesity in nurses?, Occupational Medicine,68(4), 228–238, https://doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqy038

McGowan B. M. (2016). A Practical Guide to Engaging Individuals with Obesity. Obesity Facts, 9(3), 182–192. https://doi.org/10.1159/000445193

Melo, P., & Alves, O. (2019). Community empowerment and community partnerships in nursing decision-making. Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 7(76), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare7020076

Moss, E., Seifert, C.P., O’Sullivan, A. (2016). Registered nurses as interprofessional collaborative partners: creating value-based outcomes. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 21(3), 1-9.

Ogata, K., Koyama, K. I., Amitani, M., Amitani, H., Asakawa, A., & Inui, A. (2018). The effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy with mindfulness and an internet intervention for obesity: a case series. Frontiers in Nutrition, 5, 1-10. DOI:10.3389/fnut.2018.00056

Panuganti, K. K. & Kshirsagar, R. K. (2020). Obesity. Treasure Island, United Kingdom: StatPearls Publishing.

Smethers, A. D., & Rolls, B. J. (2018). Dietary management of obesity: cornerstones of healthy eating patterns. The Medical clinics of North America, 102(1), 107–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcna.2017.08.009

Stoner, L., Rowlands, D., Morrison, A., Credeur, D., Hamlin, M., Gaffney, K., Lambrick, D & Matheson, A. (2016). Efficacy of exercise intervention for weight loss in overweight and obese adolescents: meta-analysis and implications. Sports Medicine. 46, 1-6. 10.1007/s40279-016-0537-6.

Swartz, M. K. (2017). A strength-based approach to care. Journal of Paediatric Health Care, 31, 1-1.

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