Pedagogy is a practice or technique of teaching that reflects the theoretical concept for an academic subject. Several approaches of pedagogy are used by teachers in the classroom which include constructivism, behaviourism, and social constructivism (Giroux 2020). Collaborative learning is an efficient approach that helps individuals to solve a problem, maintain a task, and create activities to promote better opportunities for learners (Zheng, Niiya, and Warschauer 2015). Higher-order thinking skills are promoted by individuals for diverse perspectives in education. This assessment aims at the current teaching challenges faced by the learners at Victoria University to explore effective teaching strategies and assessment tasks to ensure desired learning outcomes. Intended learning outcomes enhance the curriculum approach through aligned teaching efforts. Analytical abilities of the students' can be evaluated through a designed assessment. The learning activity is identified with the new curriculum model to manage the assessment task and required learning outcomes (Kaivanpanah, Alavi and Sepehrinia 2015). The major focus of the learning activities can be derived through collaborative group efforts and interaction with the learners. Engagement in the learning environment increases through peer collaboration and aligned curriculum agenda. Practical implications of the new curriculum approach increase to gather possible solutions with the successful implementation of the new approach. The issue of the implementation can be gathered to analyze possible solutions for effective research (Fry and Craig 2014). New format and expectations for the teachers represent passive lectures which can be adjusted through an effective learning style. Enquiry based learning is proposed through a new curriculum approach that demonstrates effective strategies to teach HFB2216 Clinical Science 2.
Theoretical and practical learning is a major issue for Victoria University. The growing demand for online learning system shifts the face-to-face method of education. The use of online tasks and learning activities affects the formal education system (Mirriahi, Alonzo, McIntyre, Kligyte, and Fox 2015). A combination of online and face to face lectures is provided to the students to achieve intended learning outcomes. To fulfil the needs of the pedagogical practices, it is necessary to follow the latest trends in education by managing new roles of teachers in learning (Gravatt 2015).
The key challenges in pedagogy are discussed in the earlier paper that highlights the study of HFB2216 Clinical Science 2 which was offered by the university in the second semester of the second year. An effective approach is required by the teachers to engage students to fulfil the demands of the students through active learning. Face to face lectures requires a high strength of classrooms while e-learning requires effective control. Active engagement of the student can be identified through summative assessment and MCQ quizzes (Gravatt 2015).
To manage effective assessment and active involvement of students for the online platform, a need to cater to the learning outcomes of the students is necessary. Face to face lectures is proposed to maintain the curriculum approach in the delivery of HFB2216. The level of active participants reduced in the face to face lectures which creates an issue for the traditional classroom approaches (Gravatt 2015). E-learning facilities increase with the effective participation of the students through interactive sessions and individual assessment tasks (Aparicio, Bacao, and Oliveira 2016). I believe that face to face lectures are necessary for HFB2216 to increase the level of participation and analyze the concentration and understanding level of the students.
The new curriculum approach is based on the context of the lectures and their specific model that are used by the teachers for the appropriate purpose. The aim of HFB2216 lectures are:
Unit Learning Outcome 1: Analyze and assess the trauma patients who are available in the hospital and pre-hospital setting by identifying the trauma system in Australia (declarative knowledge).
Unit Learning Outcome 2: To apply the medical and pharmacological treatment for musculoskeletal, abdominal, thoracic, spinal, head and facial, soft tissue, shock and burns, and hemorrhage trauma (functional knowledge).
It is given that a single and discrete unit is not enough for the students to understand the real dilemma and apply this knowledge for operational use. It is unethical to counsel other people without a complete understanding and degree. This phenomenon does not allow "try-out" for the counselling (Truong 2016). Several case studies and discussions are necessary for the students to learn the desired outcomes and enhance their practice. For HFB2216 Clinical Science 2 lectures, an appropriate setting of the objectives is necessary to encourage active learning and provide an effective practice in the student-centred environment.
The major goal of the lecture is to focus on student-centred approach and maintain collaborative learning opportunities to provide a fruitful learning experience. It fulfils the needs of the modern learning approach by providing better learning opportunities to the students and emphasizes on their cognitive development (Kaivanpanah, Alavi and Sepehrinia 2015). Enquiry based learning is also aligned with a student-centred approach that helps to increase student engagement in the classroom. The engagement of students can be increased through:
Collaborative learning activities to promote peer support
Positive learning environment to indulge a positive attitude among students
Self-directed behaviour for lifelong learning
More authentic and interesting learning
“Just in time” delivery to manage active learning of students
Inclusive classroom environment for maintaining student diversity (Aparicio, Bacao and Oliveira 2016; Truong 2016)
An effective curriculum approach is managed by collaborative learning and creative techniques to promote practical application among students. The aligned assessment task is based on collaborative efforts to manage learning activities (Al-Abri, Jamoussi, Kraiem, and Al-Khanjari 2017).
For the effective learning opportunities of students, the assessment tasks need to be aligned with the curriculum objectives. Strategic tasks promote the knowledge of students through collaborative learning design (Kaivanpanah, Alavi and Sepehrinia 2015). Selection of strategic tasks reflects the teacher's involvement in the curriculum approach. For the current assessment HFB2216, a combination of e-learning and face to face lectures is identified as appropriate that encourages students to focus on summative assessment and manage the MCQ quizzes.
The assessment task is represented in Appendix 1 with the focus of the unit. It promotes the use of relevant pathophysiology for the pre-hospital setting and provides the required care to the patient. The new assessment task comprises of 15% of the overall unit marks to manage effective understanding for the annotated bibliography. Appendix 1 presents the possible new task to manage collaborative learning and highlight the key area of the topic. The comparison of current and new assessment tasks can be seen below:
Table 1: Comparison between new and current assessment task
Some positive features of the new assessment task are based on the process and design of the assessment:
With a view of Table 1 above, it can be said that the new assessment task is more consistent for student learning. Aligned learning activities promote the outcome for the effective assessment task.
The design of the assessment fulfils the requirements of the university to learn through professional standards (Victoria University n.d.).
The new assessment task is identified as valid and effective to fit for the knowledge and capabilities that are expected to acquire from the unit.
The assessment process provides both formal and informal feedback to engage them in the learning process.
The performance of students is assessed on specific criteria. For the effective assessment, the marking rubric is available in Appendix 2. The performance of the students can be managed effectively and clarify good performance and its difference. An opportunity for active engagement increases with the process of engagement (Aparicio, Bacao, and Oliveira 2016; Truong 2016).
Redesigning of the assessment is based on an assessment task, appropriate learning outcomes, curriculum model, and learning activity. Based on the new assessment requirements, new learning activities are designed to make the curriculum model as effective. It promotes the accomplishment of the goals through primary learning activity (Agustiningrum 2019). Through psychological principles and theories, the understanding of Annotate Bibliography increases which provides an appropriate solution for the right direction towards a student-centric approach. Formative and summative feedback helps the students to guide towards future learning.
The proposed lecture schedule fulfils the traditional framework which is necessary for the rethinking format and defining the learning outcomes (Jovanović, et al. 2017; Agustiningrum 2019). The frequency and length of the lectures are changed to enhance the engagement of students and help them in active exploration of the environment. The classroom set up is charged with splitting the students into different groups for the e-learning and face to face lectures. Both kinds of lectures are necessary to maintain an interactive classroom. Online lectures help to reduce the number of face to face lectures which will change the order of classroom and help to create interactive learning opportunities through Multiple Choice Questions, regular questions, formative feedback of the teacher, and written support for collaborative learning experiences (Banditvilai 2016). An effective lecture includes a clear structure, increases student participation, and presents the subject as a real-life structure to maintain engagement enabled learning. Collaborative efforts of student’s increase promote self-learning and promote a student-centred learning environment.
I can suggest a student-centred learning environment through online mode and maintain the face to face learning to gain a benefit of blended learning (Agustiningrum 2019). Self-directed learning is promoted by the student which helps them to learn beyond the course content and manage relevant materials such as videos, readings, and websites. Peer collaboration includes blended learning opportunity to create a chat platform and online discussion forum that features student’s learning and maintain feedback to approach a better process. Inclusiveness in the classroom provides additional support to the students and promotes flexibility to align the content and strategies with blended curriculum agenda (Agustiningrum 2019; Gravatt 2015; Jovanović, Gašević, Dawson, Pardo and Mirriahi 2017).
The new curriculum approach ensures the practical implementation of the possible solutions. Enquiry based learning approaches are promoted for possible solutions that enhance the consideration of new learning activities and assessment tasks (Priestley, Biesta, and Robinson 2015). To address the curriculum approach, a teacher must maintain the professional standards as provided by the Australian Government to manage effective teaching procedures. The involvement of possible features and management of effective knowledge skills includes an active learning approach that is based on a positive learning environment to cater to the developmental needs of learners. Different learning strategies, to maintain the balance of online and face to face learning, deals with the ongoing development opportunities of a learner (Johnson, Veitch and Dewiyanti 2015). Possible solutions to the identified implementation issues in the new curriculum approach are as follows:
It can be concluded that new curriculum design is based on the approach of teacher and facilitation strategies including the learning activities and assessment tasks. The given curriculum approach promotes the use of both Faces to face and online learning to manage effective outcomes through blended learning opportunities. This portfolio provides an understanding of the enquiry based learning which is aligned with a student-centred approach. For the overall development of learners and maintain exclusive practices in the environment, the effective engagement of the learners is mandatory. Consistency in the learning outcomes is approached with the systematic procedure to manage the proposed assessment task and the learning activities. This portfolio has provided an effective curriculum design to manage the pedagogical challenge in HFB2216 to improve class attendance and ensure a better understanding of the students. Learning activity and new assessment tasks are based on the MCQ quizzes and Annotated Bibliography that can help the students to explore the pre-hospital settings and its related content. This proposed curriculum design provides an effective understanding to develop consistent knowledge and assess the strategies to maintain effective outcomes. Learning Artifacts are available in the Appendix to provide an understanding of the Assessment Task, Marking Rubric, Learning Activity, and Constructive Alignment. I will look forward to the feedback on my proposed curriculum design of HFB2216 Clinical Science 2.
Agustiningrum, A., 2019. The Implementation of Flipped Classroom and Course Review Horay to Increase Learning Activity and Outcomes. Classroom Action Research Journal (CARJO), 2(1), pp.30-37.
Al-Abri, A., Jamoussi, Y., Kraiem, N. and Al-Khanjari, Z., 2017. A comprehensive classification of collaboration approaches in E-learning. Telematics and Informatics, 34(6), pp.878-893.
Aparicio, M., Bacao, F. and Oliveira, T., 2016. An e-learning theoretical framework. An e-Learning Theoretical Framework, (1), pp.292-307.
Banditvilai, C., 2016. Enhancing Students' Language Skills through Blended Learning. Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 14(3), pp.220-229.
Fry, M. and Craig, L 2014. Victoria University College of Health and Biomedicine Unit of Study Guide, unit of the study guide, HFB2216 Paramedic Clinical Science 2 Victoria University. Viewed 7 May 2020. <https://www.vu.edu.au/about-vu/publications/course-guides>
Giroux, H.A., 2020. On critical pedagogy. Bloomsbury Publishing: New York.
Gravatt, S 2015. Paramedic Students and the use of Online Multiple Choice Question Quizzes as an Assessment: Identification of a Key Pedagogical Challenge and Barrier to Engaging with Content, unpublished discussion paper, Victoria University, Melbourne.
Johnson, S., Veitch, S. and Dewiyanti, S., 2015. A framework to embed communication skills across the curriculum: A design-based research approach. Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice, 12(4), pp.6.
Jovanović, J., Gašević, D., Dawson, S., Pardo, A. and Mirriahi, N., 2017. Learning analytics to unveil learning strategies in a flipped classroom. The Internet and Higher Education, 33(4), pp.74-85.
Kaivanpanah, S., Alavi, S.M. and Sepehrinia, S., 2015. Preferences for interactional feedback: differences between learners and teachers. The Language Learning Journal, 43(1), pp.74-93.
Mirriahi, N., Alonzo, D., McIntyre, S., Kligyte, G. and Fox, B., 2015. Blended learning innovations: Leadership and change in one Australian institution. International Journal of Education and Development using ICT, 11(1).
Priestley, M., Biesta, G. and Robinson, S., 2015. Teacher agency: An ecological approach. Bloomsbury Publishing: New York.
Truong, H.M., 2016. Integrating learning styles and adaptive e-learning system: Current developments, problems and opportunities. Computers in Human Behaviour, 55, pp.1185-1193.
Victoria University n.d. Assessment for learning policy, viewed 7 May 2020, <https://policy.vu.edu.au/document/view.php?id=260>
Zheng, B., Niiya, M. and Warschauer, M., 2015. Wikis and collaborative learning in higher education. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 24(3), pp.357-374.
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