Table of Contents
Full Reference: Kellow, J. M. (2018). Digital Technologies in the New Zealand Curriculum. Waikato Journal of Education, 23(2).
Full Reference: Reinsfield, E. (2016). A Future-Focus for Teaching and Learning: Technology Education in Two New Zealand Secondary Schools. Teachers and Curriculum, 16(1), 67-76.
Full Reference: Forbes, S., Chapman, J., Harraway, J., Stirling, D., & Wild, C. (2014). Use of Data Visualisation in the Teaching of Statistics: A New Zealand Perspective. Statistics Education Research Journal, 13(2).
Literature review refers to the evaluation of the existing literature on the specific subject or topic. The essential things in literature review are that it surveys the literature in chosen area of study, it synthesizes the information into the summary, it critically analyses the information collected, and it presents the literature in organized way. This report entails the literature critique of three scholarly articles on the research question that “What is the relevance of technology in the New Zealand curriculum”.
The article discusses the introduction of two digital technologies areas in the New Zealand Curriculum for 1-13 years students. The areas are named as computational thinking for the digital technologies, and developing digital outcomes. Moreover, it entails the challenges in implementing these newer areas like professional development, teacher willingness and resourcing, and more. The key aim of this paper is to study these challenges and the way of alleviating the same. The initial form of technology component of the New Zealand Curriculum has three unified components namely technological practice, technological knowledge, and the nature of technology that all are related with seven areas. These areas are information & communication technology, and more. However, in the contemporary times, this has reduced to cover six areas namely programming, digital applications, data representation, algorithms, digital applications, humans & computers, digital devices & infrastructure. It has been suggested in this article that the three components from the technology education areas stated above are embedded in five new parts of which digital technology content is suitable in the two parts that are as follows:
This component allows students to improve and appreciate the principles of computer science that inspire all the digital technologies. In addition, students will also learn essential programming theories so that they become inventors rather than operators of digital technology.
This component enables students to learn how to design excellence, suitable for purpose arithmetical solutions. This will further entail digital strategies, infrastructure, humans, computers, and digital applications.
Moreover, this article identified one more change that is usage of progress results rather than attainment goals for these two novel regions. Progress results signify important learning stages and are not definitely related to a syllabus as other education areas are organized. These areas are included in the curriculum as the government of New Zealand consider that all scholars will require digital technology abilities and competences to entirely contribute in the society in the present day scenario and in the future in every career they opt. This article discussed the main purpose behind the introduction of these areas that is to make students to be flexible, contribute in, generate and prosper in the world that is changing with quick pace of modification.
This research signified the linkage of new areas with the other learning areas of the curriculum. It stated that all the learning areas in the New Zealand curriculum includes the numeracy and in literacy in one or other way. In the reviewed prospectus, computational rational is defined as thinking that allows scholars to express complications and frame resolutions in means that computer can be utilized to resolve them. This learning further helps them in identifying and rectification of the inaccuracies and use rational thinking to forecast how databases they create will act. In this procedure, they will use and establish a wide variety of expertise, approaches, and understanding from other set of courses in the curriculum. With the computational thinking, they will familiar with the scientific thinking and mathematical thinking. There is an example in digital technology areas like teaching robots to dance; it is linked with the course of health & physical education and the expansion of expertise for collaboration. Another example in DDDO area of digital technology is digital debate in which scholars argument that robotics will be the defeat of manhood. This example can be linked to literary expertise of discussion in the literary courses of curriculum.
The key challenges were identified in this paper namely workload, teacher capability, PLD, and resourcing. The teachers were concerned about the limited time for the employment of newer areas of digital technology in the NZ Curriculum. Therefore, they have less time for developing skills and capabilities to teach that course.
This paper signified the importance of resourcing in order to support the newer arrears. There were exemplars given for the new course outcomes 1-5 in case of computational thinking, and 1-3 in case of digital outcomes. Since there was the biggest challenge of low capability of teachers, hence these exemplars will be helpful for applying the content successfully. An enormous amount of efforts were done by the ministry of education for supporting the teachers with new contents. Many PLD, scholarships, digital contest and curriculum resources were there for supporting them in delivering the content to the students. There were basically three PLS events namely digital confidences, custom-made digital technologies, and digital willingness programmes. It has been recommended in this paper that teachers can learn and support each other through virtual learning networks and the social media platforms like Google+, Facebook groups, twitter, and more. In order to support the coding practices and computational thinking, the resources are hour of code, code avengers, tynker, and more that aids teachers in linking these with their authentic practices.
There were also concerns about the teaching of these newer areas of digital technology to the primary students. Moreover, the issues were there in respect of funding requirements for the hardware and software for the implementation of new courses. To overcome these issues, this paper suggested the use of unplugged resources that can be defined as the resources that supports the education of computer science and computational intelligent without using the digital tools. These entail games, physical events, and puzzles for the students.
This paper has been taken for the chosen area of research because this is based on the implementation of areas pertaining to digital technologies into the curriculum of New Zealand. In addition, this paper discussed the importance of these courses both for the students and teachers. Moreover, it highlighted the challenges facing the teachers of schools of New Zealand with introducing these courses. This paper has not discussed resolution for the concerned challenges. There were gaps in this research in this respect and more researches must be conducted to study the same topic.
This article discussed how the insights and the earlier practices of the teachers affect their understanding of the nature of technology in the schools. This paper suggested that technology teaching remained a portion of the New Zealand curriculum in numerous practices since its commencement as a craft theme. The methodology used in this research paper is case study methods that mean a qualitative research. It was conducted to define the considerations and practices of teacher so that real situation and examples could be created. The chosen population for the research was two schools with six participants. This case study research was completed in five phase’s namely semi-structured interviews with the teachers, observation methods, attending the meetings with departments, and at last the teachers were asked to reflect on the undergone changes. The participants in the data collection method were volunteers. Three participants has a native status for advanced practice in respect of technology teaching and the rest members were educators from abroad with variable practices.
Moreover, this paper suggested that technology teaching enables exclusive and pioneering prospects for educators to improve scholar’s understanding of the present scientific subjects that relate to culture both nationwide and worldwide. New Zealand curriculum, in the year 2007, was future focused and concentrated that education must reproduce the varying diversity of culture, in respect of international, societal, and scientific changes. In New Zealand, curriculum procedure means that it is authentic for coaches to be authorized as decision makers in order to understand the policy file and create the knowledge suitable for their institute setting. There are varied choices of insights about the nature and persistence of the technology education since technology has grown from a theme that has practical and professional commencements to be more theoretical in nature.
The technology education in the New Zealand curriculum is included to engage the students in the activities concentrated on imaginative, critical problem solving and informed. This education can be taught through wide range of varied areas, namely ICT (information & communication technology), food technology, biotechnology, control, and structure technology. There are three strands in this curriculum. First is technological knowledge that concentrates on procedures and possessions that update the expansion of product. Second is technological practice that entails the content of the preceding prospectus document. The third strand is nature of technology that inspires the professor to enable education where students can analyze the influence of technology on people and the atmosphere and to discover how expansions and consequences are appreciated by diverse people in diverse periods.
The objective of the technology education in the New Zealand curriculum is to establish a comprehensive scientific literateness that will provide the scholars to contribute in a society as well-versed inhabitants and give them access to expertise associated professions. In the school setting, it means that technology educators are probable to appeal a variety of frameworks or disciplines to offer knowledge prospects for their students. The main objective of this paper is to explore the perceptions of teachers for the technology education. It was found in this research that some of the teachers faced difficulty by the introduction of this newer curriculum due to necessity for them to review their principles for the purpose of the theme. This paper highlighted four perspectives for explaining the practices of teachers. These are scholar academic, social re-constructionist, learner centered, and social efficiency.
The scholar academic ideology is information driven in which educator may be positioned in a school where studentships and scholar academic consequences are highlighted. In socially driven social efficient ideology, teacher bring into line with the opinion that the aim of subject is to train scholars to be working members of society though technology learning. The student driven learner centered ideology enables the technology teacher to focus on the requirements of the individual, guiding the learning to the development of students in respect of social and academic attributes. The philosophy driven social re-constructionist ideology enables teacher to outlook the purpose of education as a means with which to enable the structure of a more equivalent society.
This paper selected two schools and six teachers in which four teachers were selected A to D from school A and two teachers were selected E and F from school B. The school A was considered for data collection purpose as it was recognized within the technology education community. The second school B was established recently. After all the data collection and its analysis, it can be concluded that the values and beliefs are the two essential things that are responsible for the perceptions of teachers about technology education. The technology teachers are finding expressive techniques for their scholars to study about the topic and some are prominent thinking about how present technical matters can be reacted to a native level. Some professors will need to discover ways to discuss the challenges that they are facing in schools.
Rationale: This paper has been taken for the concerned topic because it has concentrated on the future aspects of the technology education in the New Zealand curriculum by studying the two schools. It was chosen as it has considered the perceptions of teachers in the schools about the technology education, their belief system, and their interest for the newer areas. In this research, most of teacher perceives that technology teaching is must for the students’ growth and expansion in their career. Moreover, this paper has been chosen for the selected research topic as it highlighted the reliable results obtained from the semi structures interviews with the schools’ teachers.
This paper explored the ways of teaching students of statistics using the contemporary visualization tools using technological advancements. New Zealand classrooms use the simulation tools and software that are particularly designed for the schools’ teaching. This paper highlighted the use of four tools namely visual inference tools for teaching bootstrapping and randomization in class, use of GenStat for teaching and learning schools, & undergraduates, use of data visualization tools, and CAST e-books. All these tools have the benefits like they are easy to access, present difficult information, and they are free. This has completely changed the statistics education in the schools and universities.
New Zealand curriculum includes a newer mathematics and statistics course that was integrated in the year 2008. It is described by its data handling and data visualization approach recently. The bootstrapping and randomization were brought in the curriculum attainment purposes for the senior secondary schools in the year 2013. The NCEA (national certificate of educational achievement) were readjusted increasingly with the prospectus as students relocated though schools. These morals can be educated and evaluated efficiently only with the aid of statistical software for examining and graphing the statistics. The GenStat for teaching and learning schools & undergraduates (GTL) has been used in the New Zealand classrooms since 2010. It was found that the accessibility of the unrestricted software to examine large or big data could improve gratitude of statistics in the schoolroom and help knowledge in the subject. The benefits of this software have been identified by the mathematics teachers of New Zealand schools that are as follows:
INZGHT software was described in this paper that has been integrated into the New Zealand curriculum. It is data analysis software that enables the fast examination of multivariate statistics by simple procedures of visuals without the interruptions of driving difficult software and reducing the necessity for the operator to recall the term of things. The research found that it is currently extensively used in the schools of New Zealand. The biggest disadvantage of this software is that R does not work on tablets and smart mobiles.
VIT software is the one that offers lecturers and scholars with a combined collection of vibrant conception of traits of statistical implication entailing sampling variation, randomization, confidence intervals, means, quartiles, regression, and more. Furthermore, CAST is software that is based on coaching traditional arithmetical concepts. It is assessable freely under creative commons license. Interior scholars have usually been optimistic about how the collaborating figures in CAST help to clarify the statistical theories. The essential feature of this software is that it has formed the tailored e-books easily available to meet the desires of specific courses of operators.
This paper concluded that the graphic illustrations are well remembered than mathematical synopses but there is slight investigation assessing which collections of users understand or use these new demonstrations properly. Furthermore, this was inferred that all the software discussed above has benefitted the teachers and students of the New Zealand schools in one or another way. Moreover, the author suggested that the New Zealand has engaged completely in both its school prospectus and the incorporation of technical resources for education. However, all the resources utilized are easily accessible to the rest of the world.
This paper has been selected for the concerned research as this has shown the variety of software that are created with the modern technologies to make the statistics education easy in the New Zealand curriculum. This paper showcased the relevance of these technically advanced statistics software for the students of New Zealand schools. However, this paper has some gaps in research that it has not identified who will be actually benefitted with this software and who all are using the same in a proper manner.
From the above literature review, it can be concluded that overall all the three papers selected for the concerned research question of relevance of technology in New Zealand Curriculum, it can be concluded that technology education has been extensively using in the New Zealand schools in a proper manner. The teachers are well equipped with all the resources needed for its implementation in the classroom.
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