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  • Subject Name : Research methodology

Table of Contents

Chapter Three: Research Methodology.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Research design.

3.2.1 Exploratory research.

3.2.2 Explanatory or causal research.

3.2.3 Descriptive research.

3.2.4 Correlation research.

3.3 Research philosophy.

3.4 Research strategy.

3.4.1 The positivist approach.

3.4.2 The Phenomenological approach.

3.5 Target population.

3.6 Sampling and sampling strategy.

3.6.1 Non-Probability Sampling.

3.7 Data collection instruments.

3.7.1 Structured interview..

3.7.2 Unstructured interviews.

3.7.3 Semi-structured interview..

3.7.4 Focus group interviews.

3.7.5 Data collection instrument construction.

3.7.6 Pilot study.

3.8 Data analysis.

3.9 Trustworthiness.

3.9.1 Credibility.

3.9.2 Transferability.

3.9.3 Dependability.

3.9.4 Conformability.

3.10 Limitation of the Study.

3.11 Elimination of Bias.

3.12 Ethical Considerations.

3.12.1 Ensuring No harm to Participants.

3.12.2 Ensuring Confidentiality and Anonymity.

3.12.3 Ensuring That Permission Is Obtained.

3.12.4 Ensuring Participants to have Formal Consent

3.13 Thematic Analysis.

3.13.1 Theme Identification.


Chapter Three: Research Methodology

3.1 Introduction

In order to accomplish any systematic and logical research, Research methodology is the important section as it helps the researcher to discover strategies, tools, method and problems related to research and also it guides the researcher to take care of the research issue. As well that, the intention of research strategy does not merely display through research methodology, this is usually associated in research think about and also investigate the procedure of thinking either in bearing or not bearing any vigilant techniques or strategies. It is not that research methodology only gives support to evaluate the outcome of the research examine but also it provides reference to those strategies related to the research in which the entire study has been prepared (Mackey and Gass, 2015).

3.2 Research Design

The outline comprises methods as well as approaches selected by a researcher in order to combine several components related to research in a sensible coherent manner, is known as Research Design. Moreover, the understandings about “how” to conduct the research by using a specific research methodology is delivered by research design. The researcher requires to select a proper research design for developing a well-structured research paper. In this manner, the research design plays an essential part for escalate, collect, and analyze the source of information. In addition, four critical physiognomies are there which are intricate in the research design process. The researcher applies a regular structure for gathering evidence and inquiries are settled in the event of reliability to ensure the standard of acquired results. Every researcher has a list of research questions which need to be assessed – this can be done with research design (Mitchell, and Jolley, 2012).

The validity of the research includes numerous measuring tools for defining results as per the research objectives and research hypothesis. Research design is of three types such as:

3.2.1 Exploratory Research

Proclamation of income as well as financial data is used by this research design grounded on the secondary resources. Additionally, it supports researchers for generating a valuable notion about the quantitative data. Exploratory research design proposes elasticity at a higher level. Those theories and concepts which are not practical are eliminated by this research design.

In context to this research design there are various steps to conduct the research. Subject of the research must be identified by the researcher, and then the difficulty is addressed by means of several methods to give answer for the questions. Then, the researcher should make the hypothesis. At the time it is found by the researcher that no former studies are there and the difficulty isn’t specifically resolved, a hypothesis will be made by the researcher grounded on the queries obtained while recognizing the problem. The final step is the further research. As soon as the data are obtained, researcher will continue the analyzation by means of descriptive investigation. To conduct further study on the subject in detail and discover whether the info is correct or not, qualitative method is used (Ioannidi, et al., 2014).

3.2.2 Explanatory or Causal Research

By applying this design, the relationship between the reason and consequence of the study could be examined. Moreover, this design is applied to recognize the consequence of modifications in one variable on another variable explicitly. Above and beyond, it represents the explanations behind a specific condition. With regard to this research design, researchers are able to find the solution of the problem which was not studies before in-depth. Even though some conclusive evidence is not given to the researchers by this design, it helps them to understand the problem more efficiently (Rahi, 2017).

3.2.3 Descriptive Research

By the help of an in-depth analysis, the accurate people as well as situations and also profile of events are depicted through this research design. Only those researchers who intended to explain and clarify the relationship and inner properties of a particular phenomenon this research design is utilized by them.

There are various Descriptive Research Methods and those methods can be practised both in terms of qualitative research methods as well as quantitative research methods. In order to ensure the reliable outcome of the research, the research design should be developed cautiously. Among various method, Survey research is one of them. This technique permits the researcher to collect huge volumes of data that can be able to examine for occurrences, patterns and averages. With regard to correlation research, it is a common method. Correlation research is a type of descriptive research, and the main objective of this method is to discover the association between variables (Whalon, et al., 2015). Observations is another method of descriptive research design. By observing the phenomenon or the behaviours of the respondents, researchers are permitted to gather data by this method. Instead of depending on the honesty and accuracy of the respondents, researcher will be permitted to gather data successfully by applying this method.

3.2.4 Correlation Research

This is a sort of non-experimental research, in the context of which two variables are measured by the researchers, and statistical relations among those two variables are understood by the researchers. In addition, correlation research is of three type, such as positive correlation, negative correlation long with no correlation.

3.3 Research Philosophy

Research Philosophy is in the core of the research methodology as it helps to identify the nature of the research knowledge essential for the research problem. Moreover, research philosophy is a critical component that manages the nature, source, and advancement of the collected data (Scotland 2012). In respect of the research, there are three kind of research philosophies namely as positivism, realism and interpretivism.

3.4 Research Strategy

Research strategy is another essential art of research methodology as it assists the researcher through giving several options which are available to gather the essential data for meeting the philosophical aspects within the research (Alase, 2017). This is why several research strategies are there such as focus group, case study, survey, grounded theory, experiment and many more. 

3.4.1 The Positivist Approach

This philosophy conveys an incredibly organized data collection system by looking at enormous examples. Positivism research reasoning generally manages quantitative examination, however in a couple of conditions; positivism philosophy is utilized during the subjective investigation. Besides, engagement with the respondents is avoided by the positivist researchers and they as well keep up the suitable distance from the respondents (Mackey and Gass, 2015).

3.4.2 The Phenomenological Approach

Phenomenology is the study of experienced consciousness structures from a first-person perspective. The central structure of experience is its intentional willpower that leads to something because it is the experience of the object or about it. Experience can be observed in conditional objects that enable content or meaning (which represents the object) to be properly qualified. Phenomenology is a separate branch, but it deals with other major fields of philosophy, such as ontology, epistemology, logic, and ethics. Case study

In order to define the features and characteristics of a particular subject, case study is another method descriptive research design. As an alternative to gather data to recognize patterns crossways location or period, case studies help the researcher to collect comprehensive data to recognize the physiognomies of a subject which are narrowly described (Mackey and Gass, 2015). Action research

A wide variety of investigative, evaluative along with analytical research method, which is designed for assessing problems, is referred by the term Action research. In addition, this sort of research can as well be applied to programs or educational techniques to find the solution of any kind of problems. Grounded theory

The grounded theory is aimed to find out the problem in the designated business environment and how the team is involved in managing the problem. The purpose of the grounded theory is to test, formulate, and refine the preparation until a theory is developed. This method refers to a theory that is "developed on a data basis or indexed from a data set". Moreover, grounded theories may contradict traditional research and may even contradict scientific method. This methodology provides a rigorous or systematic process of data collection and analysis. Thus, research problems can be explored at a deeper level (Mackey and Gass, 2015). Ethnography

Ethnography is a world-class research method of social relations. A qualitative research study that predicts cultural diversity at home and abroad. Ethnography is a major method of social and cultural anthropology, but it does not generally differ from the humanities and social sciences, and draws on many field methods, including the natural sciences. Moreover, ethnography is a qualitative research method that originates in the anthropological branch but is applied in other branches. Besides, ethnography is the thorough study of culture or a facet of culture.

Thus, ethnographic research is often very different from other research patterns. There are several aspects of ethnography that distinguish research methods such as case studies and phenomenology. The first is that ethnography takes a long time. Accordingly, ethnography research relates to different fields of study and to a variety of personal experiences, together with study abroad and community-based or international internships (Flick, 2015). Interviews

Interviews involve a qualitative research strategy that can be defined as respondents to explore ideas about certain individual interview management perspectives, programs, or specific situations. The advantage of interview includes the prospect of collecting complete information in regards to the research question. The researchers have direct control over the flow of the process in this kind of primary data collection and, if necessary, they have the chance to explain specific aspects of the process. Then again, disadvantage include longer time requirement and problems related to ordering a proper time with group members of perspective sample for conducting interviews. When conducting interview, researchers must be open-minded and refrain from showing disagreements in any procedures when perspective stated by interviewees oppose their own concepts. Specifically, interview should be led in comfortable environment, and free of any kind of pressure for interviewees at all (Flick, 2015).

3.5 Target Population

The target population is a specific group that shares the same characteristics and is identified as the target audience for a product, research or advertisement. Being part of the world is about being an objective listener. The target population for the survey is the complete unit of data that must be used to generate the data. Thus, the target audience defines the unit that generates the survey results for the most part. The term also known as target audience refers to a group of people who have specific characteristics that can be categorized by the right to differentiate from all populations. The purpose of this strategy is to identify and evaluate preferences and behaviors for marketing a given product or service or to learn about patterns in a pattern as a pattern of behavior. This is an idea related to the market segment strategy employed by the company.

3.6 Sampling and Sampling Strategy

This is mandatory on researchers to express the target population clearly. There are no hard and fast rules to follow and researchers have to depend on reason and decision. The population is determined to see the purpose of the study. Sometimes, the whole population will be satisfactorily small and the researcher can take in the whole population in the survey. This kind of research is named census study because of the data collected from all members of the population. In general, the population is very large for researchers to try to test all members, but carefully selected small samples can be used to represent the population. The sample depicts the characteristics of the people from the original location (Larsson, 2010).

Sampling methods are classified as non-probability and probability. In the probability sample, each member of the population has recognized non-zero-probability of being elected. Moreover, probability methods are systematic sampling, stratified sampling, and random sampling. Participants are chosen from the population in some non-random way in non-probability sampling. The benefit of probability sampling is that the sample error can be calculated. An example is a degree of error that can vary from one population to another. When estimating the population, the result reports an example error or subtraction. In the probability sample, the depth of the sample differs from that of the unknown population

3.6.1 Non-Probability Sampling

In non-probability sampling, not every member of the populace has the opportunity to participate in the research. This differs from the probability sample, where each participant had non-zero-probability of being nominated to participate in the research. Moreover, requirement for non-probability sampling can be clarified in such a way that some research may not present random probability-based sampling because of cost or time consideration. In this case, members of the sample group should be selected on the basis of personal judgement or accessibility of the surveyor. Thus, the majority of non-probability sampling method includes the component of subjective judgement. This sampling method is the most effective at the exploratory research stage, like pilot surveys (Jonker and Pennink, 2010). Quota sampling

The quota sampling is the non-probability equal to stratified sampling. To give a stratified sampling, the researchers first recognize the stratum and its perception because they are signified in the population. A judgement or convenience sampling is then used to choose the required number of subjects from each level. It separates from stratified sampling in which the stratum is filled with random sampling. Purposive sampling

Purposive sampling (also recognized as subjective, selective or judgement sampling) is a sampling method where researcher depends on their own considerations when selecting members of the population involved in the study. Moreover, purposive sampling is non-probability sampling technique as well as it happens when “the components selected for sample are selected by the decision of the researcher (Dunne, 2011). Snowball sampling

Snowball sampling is especially used when choosing the characteristic of the sample. Moreover, this may be very cost-prohibitive and difficult to find respondents in these circumstances. Snowball sampling depends on references to produce additional items. While this method can intensely lower search cost, it comes at the cost of presenting bias as the method itself minimize the likelihood that population samples will represent a better cross-section (Jamshed, 2014). Convenience sampling

The sample is easy to use in research studies where researchers are interested in finding an inexpensive approximation truth. As the name suggests, the sample is chosen for convenience. Additionally, this non-probability method is frequently used to estimate the overall result in primary research without experiencing the time or expense required to select random samples. Consecutive sampling

This sampling is consistently defined as a non-probability sampling method in which sample are selected at the comfort of researchers more, such as convenience sampling just with minimal variations. Here, the researchers at this time select a sample or a group of people and conduct research over the time, collects the results and then go to another sample. Besides, this sampling method enables researchers to work on different examples to refine their research work to gain valuable research perceptions (Jamshed, 2014).

3.7 Data Collection Instruments

Data collection tools refer to the tools or equipment used to collect data, for example computer-assisted interview systems and a paper questionnaire. It is important to determine all the tools used for case studies, interviews, checklist, sometimes observations and questionnaires or surveys. It is important to choose the appropriate instruments for data collection as research is done in various ways and for different purposes. The purpose of data collection is to obtain quality evidence that enables analysis to produce reliable and dependable answers to the questions posed.

3.7.1 Structured Interview

Structured interviews (also recognized as research-administrated survey or standardized interviews) are usually quantitative research methods that involve survey research. The purpose of this approach is to introduce a similar question by the same order in each individual interview. This ensures that the answers can be collected and compared with confidence between subgroups of the sample or between different study periods. Structured interview is the type of interview that they have identified with the specific questions of the interviewers. All candidates ask the same question in structured interviews, making it easier to compare answers and recruit suitable job candidates. The researcher can evaluate the most objective candidates and the right path, which makes structured interviews more legally possible (Humphries, 2017).

3.7.2 Unstructured Interviews

Unstructured interview is generally reliable from a research perspective as no questions are set before conducting interviews and data collection informally. Moreover, unstructured interview may be related to the higher levels of bias and it may be trying to compare the answers given by different respondents because of differences in the question structure. A structured interview or a directionless interview is an interview in which the question is not set. These directional interviews are considered structural interviews that raise questions about quality. You have asked questions about the topic you have researched or want to interview, but the interview form is not covered (Dunne, 2011).

3.7.3 Semi-Structured Interview

Semi-structured interviews consist of the component of both unstructured and structed interviews. In a semi-structured interview, the interviewer makes a set of similar questions to answer. All at once, additional questions may be asked during the interview to make clear or more expend certain issue. In addition, semi-structured interview is a meeting that has not yet joined the official list of interviews. They will ask more open-ended questions by allowing discussion directly with the interviewers than through questions and formatting answers. Interviews can frame a list of questions but touch nothing more than give direction to the conversation, or ask something. In some cases, you will prepare a list of just the general topics that the person interviewing, which is called the interview guide (Mangal and Mangal, 2013).

3.7.4 Focus Group Interviews

Focus group interview is a tool for the qualitative research in which a group of people are nominated and asked about their perception or opinions about a specific topic. An interactive environment where participants are free to talk to each other. Focus group interviews are small group interviews on specific topics. Groups typically included 6 to 8 participants in the interview for 90 to 120-minute. Moreover, group discussions are used for a variety of reasons. An important feature of group discussions is that the group's perceptions have changed, which do not represent misrepresentation, socialization, or ultimately about the statements and opinions available as a validation method because focus groups involve interaction between participants so it is important to ask the right questions (Taherdoost, 2016).

3.7.5 Data Collection Instrument Construction

The questionnaire is usually used to study research topics outside of the research material as they are suitable for data collection purposes. Questionnaire design is a multistage procedure that needs attention to a lot of information at once. Because complex question design can be asked about different topics up to varying degrees of complexity, questions can be asked in a way that is different, and the questions that are asked in the survey can have an impact on how subsequent people respond. Researchers are also often interested in measuring changes over time and should therefore focus on how their behaviors or opinions have been measured in previous research. Researchers will be able to perform focus groups or pilot tests in an initial stage of questionnaire to learn about how population think about a problem or understand question (Mohajan, 2018).

3.7.6 Pilot Study

The pilot study was a preliminary study aimed at examining whether the key components of the original study - usually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) - were possible. For example, it can be used to predict sample size suitable for a full-scale project and / or to magnify different aspects of the study design. RCTs often cost a lot of time and money, so researchers are very confident about what they will do when conducting studies without wasting time and resources. Pilot studies are designed to examine assumptions made by staff based on staff, supervisor and management-level organizations and small sample studies. The inclusion of all stratification is considered essential for the results of further core studies, and pilot studies are also being conducted to refine the questionnaires design, observation, and interview formats. Pilot surveys are conducted prior to the actual study to verify the feasibility and validity of selected methods and techniques in the same field, but in smaller samples (Mohajan, 2018).

3.8 Data Analysis

Data analysis is expressed as the procedure of modeling, cleaning, and transforming data to find useful information for making decisions. Moreover, the objective of data analysis is to obtain appropriate information from data and make decisions grounded on data analysis. Data analysis for quantitative research, on the other hand, is critical analysis and statistics and the interpretation of numbers and attempts to find a rationale at the end of the original discovery of events. For qualitative and quantitative studies, it is important to compare the results of the initial study with the literature review (Cecez-Kecmanovic, 2011).

In this study, the sample size of the research is 10. The researcher will use NVivo for data analysis, which is a software program used for mixed or qualitative research.

3.9 Trustworthiness

The term Trustworthiness in the Research Methodology primarily refers to the qualitative researchers in order to ensure various aspects such as: Firstly, comes the factor of the Transferability, Secondly Dependability, the third factor is the Conformability and the last factor is the aspect of the Credibility. The factor of Credibility plays a pivotal role for the determining of the Trustworthiness of the concerned Research not only that it also plays an important role in interpreting the concerned data and the information in an effective manner.

In addition to this it is also an evident fact to state that the factor of the Credibility plays an important role in checking the member process. Now coming to the aspect of the Transferability in context of the Research Method we can very well state the fact that it plays an important role for making the findings and the observations generalize in nature in addition to this it is also an evident fact to state that it also plays an important role for the purpose of interpreting the data or the information in a very effective manner and that in turn helps in conducting the research in a very streamline manner.

Other than this it is also an important fact to state in this report that there is part in the Transferability aspect of the research method and it is called Purposive Sampling and in this accuracy of the data interpretation gets maximize manifolds and that in turn is going to be quite useful for the conducting of the concerned research in an effectively. Not only that it also helps in the in-depth analysis of the characteristics features of the concerned data or the information. Now coming to the another aspect of the Trustworthiness that is the dependability and that primarily involves the rechecking of the data or the validity of the data in a more accurate manner as this generally use the process of the data audit and the in turn makes the entire process of the research work well-oiled in nature and that in turn brings the progress of the concerned research work. Now coming to last aspect of the Trustworthiness of the research work and that is Conformability and in that primarily the qualitative analysis of the data or the information is done and that in turn makes the entire process of the research work quite effective in nature, not only that it also helps in making the concerned research work quite consistent in nature internally (Norr, 2019).

3.9.1 Credibility

The factor of Credibility plays a pivotal role for the determining of the Trustworthiness of the concerned Research not only that it also plays an important role in interpreting the concerned data and the information in an effective manner. In addition to this it is also an evident fact to state that the factor of the Credibility plays an important role in checking the member process. In addition to this it is also an evident fact to state that it basically involves the use of the viable and information which in turn is going to be quite useful for the overall progress of the concerned Research Work.

In addition to this it also involves the evidences that are very much required to back up the facts and the figures that arte mentioned in the concerned Research work and it is also an important aspect of the Research Methodology. In addition to this it is also an important fact to state in this report that this factor plays an important role for the effective evaluation of the concerned data or the information and also it checks the quality of the research work. Not only has that it also played an important role for evaluating the reliability of the concerned research work. Prolonged Engagement

The term Prolonged Engagement in the Research methodology primarily refers to the more time that is spend with the concerned respondent and that in turn plays a vital role for understanding the aspects of the behavior, social culture and other facets of the concerned respondents. In addition to this it is also an important fact to mention in this report that this factor helps in conducting the qualitative research analysis in a proper and an effective manner. It also plays an important fact to build a good relation among the concerned researcher and the other members. This factor also plays an important role in understanding the characteristics and the phenomenon of the elements of the research in a very vivid and detailed manner.

In addition to this it also plays an important role in determining the validity of the concerned Research Work and that in turn plays an important role for the progress of the concerned Research Work in the near future. This factor is very much responsible for understanding the social context of the concerned Research Work in a very accurate manner. Not only that it is also an important fact to be, mentioned in this report that this process also plays an important role in clearly understanding the scope of the concerned Research Work in an effective manner and that in turn helps in the overall progress of the research work. It is also an important fact that Prolonged Engagement plays an important role in understand the experience of the concerned Research Work and that makes the complete work well-oiled in nature.

It also helps in making the deciphering of each and every information in a very accurate manner. As we all know that everything in this world has the positive and the negative fact so as the Prolonged Engagement have and that is this particular process is not that much capable of using the analytical tools in a more effective manner. Not only has that it also played an important role in understanding the information and the data at the each and every micro and the macro level and that in turn plays an important role for the progress other concerned research work (Bellem, 2020). Persistent Observation

The Persistent Observation has and that is this particular process is not that much capable of using the analytical tools in a more effective manner. Not only has that it also played an important role in understanding the information and the data at the each and every micro and the macro level and that in turn plays an important role for the progress of the concerned Research Work. In addition to this it also focuses on the characteristic feature of each and every research element in a very minute manner and that helps in understanding the relevance of the concerned Research Work in an effective way or manner. In addition to this it is also an evident fact to state in this report that it helps in understanding the each and every natural settings of the concerned Research work.

In addition to this it is also an evident fact to be mentioned in this report that it helps in the effective collection of the data or the concerned information and this in turn helps in the detailed and vivid insights of the aspects that are very much associated with the Research work. Other than this it also helps in conducting the surveys in a very precise and an accurate manner. As we all know that with the aspect of positivity there is always going to have certain level of disadvantage and they are as follows:

Firstly the factor of the subjectivity that is a kind of the roadblock for the progress of the concerned Research work, secondly there is also a presence of the Hawthorne effect where the insight of the concerned researcher changes and that also results to the alteration of the researchers behavior towards the concerned research work and that in turn becomes a huge roadblock for the progress of the concerned project, it is also an evident fact to state that one of the biggest disadvantage of the Persistent Observation is the aspect of the subjectivity and that also is great roadblock for the progress of the concerned project or the Research work. In addition to this it is also an evident fact to state that there is problem in conducting of the sampling, it also has certain issues regarding the framing of the opinions over the topic of the Research work. One of the more disadvantages of the Persisted Observation is that at times there is confusion in analyzing the attitudes of the concerned work (Bellem, 2019). Triangulation

This is one of the crucial methods that are generally used in the Research work for collecting the data and the information for the same topic. In addition to this also contributes a lot for the validity and the progress of the concerned Research Work. There are several types of the Triangulation process in the Research work and they are as follows: Firstly, the Cross-Validate Triangulation Process and the Second one is the Corroborate Process of the Triangulation and they play a pivotal role for the progress of the concerned Research Work. In addition to this one of the types of Triangulation Technique that is generally put into use is the Interdisciplinary way of the Triangulation which is also quite effective in nature and in turn makes the entire process of the Research Work quite streamlined in nature.

In addition to this it involves the aspects such as the analysis of the time, space and the persons, then it also involves the multiple to conduct an in-depth research work and that is termed as the investigator Triangulation process. This is such a method that primarily plays a pivotal role for the effective analysis of the phenomenon and that in turn is going to make the concerned research quite progressed in nature.

It is also used for both the Qualitative and the Quantitative analysis of the data or the information in the concerned Research work, other than this it is also an important fact to be mentioned in this report that it also helps in determining the credibility of the concerned qualitative data that in further case is going to be used in the concerned Research work. Other than this it is also an important fact that this is generally used as the alternate process of the reliability and the validity factor of the concerned Research work and that in turn is going to contribute a lot for the progress of the concerned project or the Research work (Tal, 2019). Negative Case Analysis

The term Negative Case Analysis is also known as the Deviant Case Analysis and it involves the searching and analyzing those data or information which is quiet contradictory in the Research Work. Members Checking

The term Member Checking can be well defined as the feedback or the respondent aspect of the Qualitative Research analysis and it also helps in improving the accuracy, credibility and the other allied aspects. Referential Adequacy

This concept generally deals with the aspects of that information which are archived but are not well analyzed. In addition to this it is one of the ways of validating the information. The concerned researcher then conducts the research on the other data and frames the preliminary findings.

3.9.2 Transferability

It can be well defined as the degree at which the outputs that are obtained from the Qualitative Research can be well generalized and can be well transferred to the other settings or the context.

3.9.3 Dependability

It mainly refers to the reliability of the concerned findings that are going to be used in the concerned Research Work and also the degree at which the process of the research work can be well documented in nature.

3.9.4 Conformability

It is basically the extent up to which the research findings are going to be accepted or agreed by the other members and that in turn is going to contribute the progress of the concerned Research Work (Shaby, 2020).

3.10 Limitation of the Study

It basically involves those characteristic aspects of those research elements which might have an impact on the interpretation of the concerned data or the information.

3.11 Elimination of Bias

It basically takes place when the error gets introduced in the process of the sampling or in the process of the testing and that in turn is going to hamper the overall progress of the concerned Research Work. There are three types of biases and they are as: Information Bias then comes the Selection Bias and the last is the co-founding Bias (Shaby, 2019).

3.12 Ethical Considerations

These are some of the ways that makes the conduct of the concerned Research work quiet ethical in nature and they are as follows: Consents which are informed, then comes the aspect of the Beneficence which is not going to harm, Respect for the anonymous and the last aspect is the aspect of maintain the privacy in the conduct of the Research work (Hilsen, 2019 ).

3.12.1 Ensuring No harm to Participants

The ethical aspects that are taken into consideration during the conduct of the Research Work make it sure that no harm occurs in the participants of the concerned Research Work (Buck, 2020).

3.12.2 Ensuring Confidentiality and Anonymity

The factors that ensure the Confidentiality and the Anonymity are as follows: Consent which is informed then comes the avoidance of the harm in an effective manner and also maintains the anonymity and the confidentiality of the concerned Research work (Grossmann, 2020).

3.12.3 Ensuring That Permission Is Obtained

It is one of the important aspects of the concerned Research Work where the permission is taken in order to access the data or the information (Grossmann, 2019).

3.12.4 Ensuring Participants to have Formal Consent

It is one of the important aspects of the concerned Research Work where the permission is taken in order to access the data or the information. Effective manner and also maintains the anonymity and the confidentiality of the concerned Research work (Bellem, 2019).

3.13 Thematic Analysis

It is one of the most common techniques of the research-based analysis and that helps in the Qualitative Research Analysis. It also helps in the effective way of Data Analysis (Jarosch, 2019).

3.13.1 Theme Identification

It is one of the important aspects of the Research Methodology and it primarily involves the aspects such as: Features, perceptions and the characteristics of the elements that are going to be used in the research (Firmin, 2019).


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