Literature Review/Critical Appraisal
Presenting data findings
Research obstacles and limitations
Violence essentially refers to acts such as child abuse, sexual offense, manslaughter, etc. (Hamby, 2017). Violence has been a part of human experience from the beginning of time and its impact in modern times is seen in various ways and forms around the world. Much criminological research has been dedicated to attempting to determine the causes behind the crime and whether the increase of certain factors has an impact on various crime types (NSW Bureau of Crime, 2001). The term violence is a large umbrella under which comes a myriad of types of violence and violent activities. Acts such as rape and murder are among the extreme types of violence, however, others such as petty theft and robbery are still types of violence and crimes which fall under the umbrella term 'violence'. Additionally, violence is not limited to psychological harm but also includes mental and psychological harm through hurtful actions and words.
This research focuses on the increased involvement in crime and attempts to study the various causes of this. Crime is an age-old social issue that has had various reasons for different times. While crime may be motivated by multiple reasons, there are newer reasons which motivate modern-day crimes and crime caused by the youth. This research will examine the various causes behind increased rates of involvement in violence in modern times.
A research aim section of a research proposal is to determine the purpose of the research (Doody & Bailey, 2016). The aim of this research is to add to the existing literature about the causes behind the increased involvement in crime. Not only will it focus on various causes of crime but it also pays attention to the reasons for youth involvement in violence. The study aims to discover the root causes of the increasing involvement in violence in the United Kingdom.
A research question(s) is a question which the researcher set out to answer in his or her research. The research question(s) guides the researcher to follow a set path in the research. Formulating a research question is essential to the research is it is important to determine the research question before beginning with the research (Ratan et al, 2019). The research questions for this research are as follows:
Research Question 1: Why is the involvement in violence rising?
Research Question 2: What is the social impact of the rising involvement in violence?
The aim of a research objective is to clearly define the specific aim of the study and what the study aims to achieve through the research (Farrugia, 2010).
The objectives of this research are as follows:
Research objective 1: To find out the causes of increased involvement in violence in the United Kingdom.
Research Objective 2: To uncover government initiatives that address the prevailing types of violence in the United Kingdom
Research Objective 3: To bridge the literature gap by addressing the root causes of the increased interest and involvement in violence.
A research hypothesis is a statement or an assumption created by researchers when speculating upon a topic and its potential outcomes. The hypothesis of research suggests the researcher's stance on the assumed outcome from the researcher's point of view/personal analysis in general (Farrugia, 2010).
The research assumes the hypothesis that the increased involvement in crime is due to a lack of jobs and a stable income. Poverty is among the leading causes of crime. Additionally, youth who are getting involved in crime could be a result of drug or alcohol addiction and homelessness.
Violence takes multiple forms and is not simply limited to a single category. There are various types of violent acts both physical and mental in nature. However, the nature of violence has changed over the years with the changing issues and needs of society. Homicides are among the most common types of violence occurring frequently in some parts of the world (United Nations, 2020). Additionally, while homicides are a trending issue only in some parts of the world, an issue that continues to trend in various parts of the world and has grown to become a global issue is gender-based violence.
Apart from this, other types of globally recognized forms of violence include violence against children and inter-personal violence. The term 'crime' covers a wide range of offenses from the most serious types of crime such as rape and murder to the most minor ones such as petty theft. These types of crimes occur in different circumstances and at different frequencies. Hence, crime cannot be entirely measured by a single course but will have to be examined in the broader sense as the word implies.
Over the past year, crimes such as vehicle offenses, robber, etc. have been on a rise in England and Wales (Office of National Statistics, 2019). However, there has also been a decrease in some other types of crime such as shoplifting, burglary, and computer misuse. While some types of crime have decreased, others have increased. Domestic violence continues to be an issue. The United Kingdom government defines domestic violence as: “any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive, threatening behavior, violence or abuse between those aged 16 or over who are or have been, intimate partners or family members regardless of gender or sexuality. The abuse can encompass, but is not limited to: psychological, physical, sexual, financial, emotional” (Lloyd, 2018). There is a growing awareness about domestic violence within the United Kingdom and the government has taken measures to sentence those found guilty of domestic violence up to 5 years imprisonment.
When attempting to understand the rise in the involvement in crime, it is important to understand the intentionality behind the crime. Even though crime is distinguished from unintentional incidences resulting in accidents, it is worthy to point out that in the presence of intent, exercising force does not always been the intention to cause harm or damage (World Health Organization, n.d.) Much of that is made known about non-fatal violence stems from surveys, research, and special studies. Non-fatal types of violence are most likely not to be reported as compared to fatal violence due to the nature and seriousness of the inflicted violence/crime. However, violence exact both humans as well as the economy. It costs the economy billions of dollars being invested in health care, legal costs, loss of productivity by employees in companies, employees missing from work, etc. Violence implicates not only those who are directly involved in it but the society at large too.
Violence between partners or people involved in intimate relationships is a common type of violence that occurs in countries across the globe regardless of local cultures and societies (Ali, Dhingra & McGarry, 2016). Intimate partner violence or IVP is distinguished from domestic violence because it focuses only on the violence between two people in an intimate relationship, unlike domestic violence, it does not include violence such as abuse of a child or an elderly. Ali, Dhingra & McGarry (2016) further reveal that various types of violence can occur within an intimate relationship.
Acts of violence can be sexual, physical, and/or psychological. Psychological violence refers to the actions employed by an individual to humiliate and control the other person. Physical violence, on the other hand, is acts that cause physical or bodily harm such as scars, injuries, etc. Sexual violence is a form of physical violence but is sexual in nature. Sexual violence includes rape, unwanted sexual comments, and/or advances, etc.
Despite the fact that violence has been a problem for mankind since the beginning of time, it has to been accepted as an inevitable part of the human condition or human society. For as long as violence has existed, there has also been a system, be it a religious one, legal, communal, or legal one (World Health Organization, 2019). In modern times, crime has been reported to kill more people than armed conflicts. Additionally, the United Nations (2020) reports that in 2017, approximately half a million people alone were killed in homicides. This number far surpasses the 89 thousand killed in active armed conflicts. Also, advancements in technology have changed the dynamics and nature of violence and crime seen across the world. Changes in technology and development in the field of technology have increased the potential of online hate and psychological violence.
When it comes to domestic violence, Tittlová & Papáček (2018) writes that there is a myriad of reasons that cause thins type of violence. The reason why more people are getting involved in domestic violence can only be analyzed on a case to case basis and that general conclusion cannot be made to produce a set paradigm. However, some subcategories can be made in this regard to better understand or analyze various domestic violence cases. The division of risk factors can be based on factors which are relating to an individual, societal factors (factors which are rooted within the idea of society, etc. (Tittlová & Papáček, 2018).
Thomson (2015) reveals that according to international research, the common age group of offenders for street robbery are young people under the age of 30 and predominantly male. Additionally street violence is among the leading causes of fear in the United Kingdom because street violence has the potential of getting out of control.
Additionally, Thomason (2015) observes a pattern in the nature of street violence and states that violence of this nature occurs at particular times, in particular areas, and happens to certain types of people. Crimes such as robbery occur at the later time of the afternoon and evening hours. Furthermore, the leading cause behind robbery has been found to be poverty or alcohol/drug addiction. Individuals who either do not have an income or who wish to obtain fast cash to feed addictive behaviors tend to indulge in robbery to obtain money or possessions which could later be sold in return for money.
Although there is ample literature existing around the various types of crimes prevalent in society along with data providing numbers and figures to trace the increase or decrease of certain crime rates, there appears to be a gap in the literature studying the core reason behind various types of crimes and violence. This research aims to bridge the gap and provide reasons and causes that result in increased involvement in violence.
The research design is essentially the framework within which the research will be conducted. It includes the research method and techniques that are to be sued for the research. A good research design helps research in examining and evaluating the various variables related to the research question. There are three types of research designs which are: are exploratory, explanatory, and descriptive. Exploratory research is research which studies a problem that has not been investigated before. Explanatory research is researching an issue that has not been studied in depth before. Lastly descriptive research is research that aims to explain the characteristics of the population/thing that is being studied. This research aims to employ the explanatory research method as there is not enough existing research or literature on the issue.
There are primarily two research approaches namely: inductive approach and deductive approach. An inductive research approach generates various theories based on research. The deductive approach, on the other hand, assumes a hypothesis on existing theories and then creates a research approach around these theories. This research will follow an inductive approach where new theories will be formulated around the causes behind the rise in the involvement in crime and violence. This approach is appropriate for the research because there is a lack of research in this domain hence, by analyzing data and collecting data from various sources, the research will formulate new theories behind the leading causes of increased involvement in violence.
Data collection is an important part of research as it involves gathering relevant data for the research. There are two types of data namely primary data and secondary data. Primary data is essentially data that is obtained or gathered first hand. It is new data that does not already exist. Secondary data, on the other hand, is data collected from available literature and platforms which have made data accessible to the public. This research will use both primary data and secondary data. Secondary data will be collected from various credible sources such as peer-reviewed articles, journals, official websites, and newspapers.
The primary data will be collected via interviews. The researcher will take a sample size of 10 criminals from jail and interview their reasons for indulging in violence. The researcher will request for permission to interview ten randomly selected convicted criminals in a local jail where the interviewer will be accompanied by a psychologist who will observe the criminal's mannerisms and behavior and decipher deeper psychological issues (if any) related to potential reasons behind their involvement in crime and violence. No particular type of crime will be selected; the issue will be addressed at large and at random. Doing so will also help determine a sense of pattern and a common type of crime (if any) among offenders.
The data that will be collected will be qualitative. There are two types of data used in research which are qualitative data and quantitative data. Qualitative data is data that is received from primary sources and used to study, observe, and determine patterns and then interpret meaning from such data. Quantitative data, on the other hand, is data that reflects numbers and figures. Quantitative data uses mathematical derivations. This research will use qualitative data to find logic, indulge in each case study, evaluate, introspect, and get involved in discourse analysis in order to observe and understand the common issues and trending patterns behind the rising involvement in crime and violence.
Presenting data findings
The manner in which data is presented is as important as the research itself. If the data is not presented succinctly and understandably, the research paper runs the risk of either being misunderstood or not being understood at all. For the data collected from the interviews, a table will be used to tabulate and present it succinctly. Additionally, to avoid making the report lengthy and thus creating interestedness in the reader, the things will not focus on minute details but rather focus on presenting key findings through careful data analysis using the method mentioned in the data analysis section of this research proposal.
Research obstacles and limitations
Research obstacles and limitations are factors which may come in the way of the research in conducting the research successfully. This section of the research provides the researcher with the opportunity to write about the major problems of the research study (Olufowote, 2017). Research obstacles for this research including jailers not wanting to be interviewed and jailers not giving accurate information. This can hamper the research as false data could be gathered in such a case, no data at all in cases where jailers simply do not wish to be interviewed. Hence, they will be assured that their names are to be kept anonymous and that the research will also be indirectly helping them as it will expose common issues faced by people. This data can also be used by the government when attempting to address issues related to violence and crime.
Another limitation of this research is that it is limited to the United Kingdom and Wales. It will not take on a worldly analysis of the types of crime and their causes but rather focus on a particular geographic region which is the U.K. It, however, it is not limited in to studying any specific type of violence but rather aims to study the prevailing types of violence within the society and their leading causes. This research is also not limited to any gender, age group, or any racial group. It rather aims to address the issue of violence with a single limitation being its geographical region of study.
This research study aims to develop an understanding and investigate the reasons behind the rise in the involvement in violence in the United Kingdom. There is a wide range of quantitative literature on the rise and fall of violent crimes; however, there is a gap in literature covering the causes of violence in the United Kingdom. Additionally, the type of violence covered by most of the existing literature focuses mainly on domestic violence. There is a plethora of literature addressing the issues of domestic violence. However, there are other forms of violence occurring in the United Kingdom too such as robbery and theft.
The objectives of this research study are to discover the leading reasons behind the various types of violence prevention in the United Kingdom. This will be done through qualitative research and via interviews and literature reviews of journal articles, newspapers, websites, and other peer-reviewed articles. By doing this, the research will answer the research questions and fulfill the research objectives.
Ali, P., Dhingra, K. & McGarry, J. (2016) A literature review of intimate partner violence and its classifications. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 31. 16-25.
Doody, O. & Bailey, M. (2016). Setting a research question, aim and objective. Nurse Researcher, 23(4), 19-23.
Farrugia, P. (2010). Research questions, hypotheses and objectives. Canadian Journal of Surgery, 153(4), 278-281.
Hamby, S. (2017). On defining violence, and why it matters. Psychology of Violence, 7(2), 167-180.
Lloyd, M. (2018). Domestic violence and education: examining the impact of domestic violence on young children, children, and young people and the potential role of schools. Front Psychol, 9. Doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02094
NSW Bureau of Crime. (2001). What causes crime? Retrieved from https://www.bocsar.nsw.gov.au/Documents/CJB/cjb54.pdf
Office for National Statistics. (2019). Crime in England and Wales: year ending September 2018.
Olufowote, J. (2017). Limitations of research. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Communication Research Method, University of Oklahoma: SAGE Publications Inc. Ratan, S., Anand, T. & Ratan, J. (2019). Formulating a research question. Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons, 24(1), 15.
Thomson, L. (2015). Street robbery. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275973828_Street_Robbery
Tittlová, M. & Papáček, P. (2018). Factors contributing to domestic violence. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Knowledge, 2(6), 117-124.
United Nations. (2020). A new era of conflict and violence. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/en/un75/new-era-conflict-and-violence
World Health Organization. (n.d.). Violence – a global public health problem. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/chap1.pdf
Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Criminology Assignment Help
5 Stars to their Experts for my Assignment Assistance.
There experts have good understanding and knowledge of university guidelines. So, its better if you take their Assistance rather than doing the assignments on your own.
What you will benefit from their service -
I saved my Time (which I utilized for my exam studies) & Money, and my grades were HD (better than my last assignments done by me)
What you will lose using this service -
Unfortunately, i had only 36 hours to complete my assignment when I realized that it's better to focus on exams and pass this to some experts, and then I came across this website.
Kudos Guys!Jacob "
Proofreading and Editing$9.00Per Page
Consultation with Expert$35.00Per Hour
Live Session 1-on-1$40.00Per 30 min.
Doing your Assignment with our resources is simple, take Expert assistance to ensure HD Grades. Here you Go....