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Policing and Crime Prevention

Introduction to Reduction of Residential Burglary Victimization

An individual or any person who is staying home during the period of burglary and violence and experiences threat is known as burglary, the assault caused to the people are categorized into the term known victimization. Like rape, assault related to sexually, robbery, and simply aggravated assaults, are called burglary victimization, an exception to the crime are property crime, house crime, motor vehicle theft, theft. In this paper, we have discussed the concept of burglary victimization in society concerning SARA and POP in society. POP (Problem-oriented policing) is a method of analyzing the policies used by people to develop plans and strategies that shall help in the prevention and reduction of crime in society. Under this particular model, an agency of police is expected to examine and analyze every problem of society in a very systematic manner so that people of a community can live in peace from such developing crimes. A proper search for the solutions which are effective to every circumstance and the problem of society also should calculate the effort and its impact on society (Rountree, & Land, 1996). Further, it has been discussed on the problem-oriented policing that it represents the efforts of police and also underlay the conditions at major hot spots that straight away lead to the occurrence of crime and certain problems. It demands and requires the look after by police to manage the situation according to the traditional strategies used in the past which are considered as the possible approaches for notifying crime and its related disorder (Weisburd and Eck 2004).

Using the techniques of epidemiology for testing and examining the problems and health issues of the people who are residential burglary are found to suffer in the risk of lives through such conducts of assaults and no measure is been taken in present to solve the problems of people who are suffering through this situation of victimization, no reduction remedy and solution has been brought into existence yet (Graham 1992). In regards to the SARA and POP, it has been cleared that we the people of the nation requires a proper law and conduct to resolve such issues of society and reduce pain and grievance of people who are going through the situations which also include crimes like theft, rape, motor vehicle theft, and furthermore. In addition to the matter of concern, the paper also discusses the phenomenon by determining the space-time patterns of the areas of burglary which are located in different countries and nations (Graham and Ken 2006). There is a precise format that varies from area to area and houses with the ambit of 200m of a home which is burgled and was elevated during risk on the period of a burglary at least for two difficult weeks. For different countries and their different patterns shall explain the situation in a partial way to target the difference in the density of the crime. Such findings and theories have more impact, focus, and concentration for implications the forecasting of crime and reduction of crime rapidly in society.

A general and common definition of victimization is the crime against the person, households, business, and different places or the goal and target are defined. Stoppage or any kind of prevention of the victimization on repeat has developed prominence in the stoppage of crime in the previous years also, in recent years a prevention project has been on the rise, known as Kirkholt burglary prevention. Even on the repetition on the victimization has been identified as an important and major content of crime, the project mentioned above have the spark in its recognition towards its caliber, capacity, and potential which is necessary for the policy and application, every step is taken forward and every effort made for the prevention of the residential burglary have been considered disproportionately in the countries where repeat victimization has increased its parameters and has permeated the policy of crime at the national level (Johnson, Bernasco, Bowers, Elffers, et al., 2007). The policy of the country has set the target for prevention of the crime rates and burglary initiatives which are quiet involving and distributing it in the prevention of the crime to the victims of burglary and their neighbors which are very near and immediate to the people who have suffered such situations and circumstances.

Further research has also undertaken a post of evolution in intervention and analyzing the impact on the pre and post differences. Reflection by the authority or the police has been on records which are related to the implementation of the intervention, during an online survey house who were scheduled to receive the prevention from burglary information. Relatively to the period of pre-intervention, the situation was seen repeating and significant in reduction mainly in the residential areas which were a bit far from the victim, but no consecutive or correspondence reduction was found and seen (Bogaar, Joop Van den, Wiegman and One 1991). Analysis of the records of police has clearly explained such unexpected patterns, clearing about the implementation of issues that has been resulted in the percentage of 23 resulted victims and addresses receiving such pamphlets for treatment. Even after receiving low response and rate to the survey which was done online has limited the strength of the possible end which was changing the resident and their behavior in the reduction of the opportunities and chances for burglary. Such results add a helping hand to the prior findings and also supporting police in demonstrating to use the information of victimization to work in the risks of burglary which are targeted and are timely managed to reduce such risks. It also pays attention to the importance of the data management practices which were undertaken for prevention which were again initiated to make sure the programs are intended and delivered (Brown & Harris1987).

The POP approach was first looked after by Herman Goldstein in 1979, who argued on the standard model of policing and also suggested to replace the approach which is more proactive to identify and aim the problems for any contributions in a crime or any disorder which are related to the community issues (Stokes, & Clare 2019). SARA was later on developed by Eck and Spelman in 1987 for implementing the use and framework of POP, SARA stands for Scanning, Analysis, Response, and Assessment. SARA is just one of the numbered potential methods and practice of implementation of POP.

Problem-oriented policing is an analytical tool which is widely used by the police organization throughout the world. This particular tool helps the security to minimize or eliminate the crime. Using this particular model helps the police agencies to systematically analyze the problems of a given community (Maguire, Uchida & Hassell, 2015).Problem-oriented policing can be portrayed in many different forms according to the problem in hand. It has been identified that SARA (Scanning, Analysis, Response, and Assessment) model is one of the most effective as well as an influential tool that can be used in a four-step process (Sidebottom et al. 2020). In this particular process, I would identify and prioritize the major problems that can be become a prominent threat in the long run. That is the prioritization of the potential problem that can be directly or indirectly associated with crime or disorder of jurisdiction (Burton & McGregor, 2018).

I must observe the problem from a different perspective. Also, I should identify the problem from the different members of the community so that I can identify the severity of the problem. For example, the whole community might agree that the drug house may be the root cause of the problem. however, as an investigator, I must identify which part of the drug dealer's activity can be deemed as a crime. Are the young boys of the locality are contacted by the drug dealer? Or the car theft which has increased significantly in the past couple of days. All the questions can be very important for me to identify whether I am on the right track while conveying my research or not (Tribal Oriented Policing Strategies, n.d.).

After the actual problem has been identified, my next step would be trying to understand the root cause of the problem, in other words, the problem has to be analyzed. For this particular stage, I would be requiring lots of data, which will help to provide me with a deeper understanding of the problem at hand. The main benefit of this particular stage is that I can identify what are the factors that might be the key elements for the problem at hand (Walker &Drawve, 2018). I need to identify the root cause of the problem, but I should understand that tracing back to the root cause is not the answer, as it can complicate the complete investigation (National Institute of Justice, 2020). For example, poverty has been always associated with multiple activities that are deemed as a crime of unjust activities on the part of the accused. I should clearly understand that if the root cause is poverty, it cannot be solved on an overnight basis. Also, I have to find the answers of, who, why, what, when and how, that is, who are the main perpetrator behind the activities, why is this particular neighborhood selected for their criminal based activity, is there a fixed time when this particular problem is arising, what were the steps that were taken in the past to address the problem at hand. With all this information what is the conclusion that can be drawn out, or what type of lead I can generate to commence my operation (Tribal Oriented Policing Strategies, n.d.).

This particular process can only be initiated if the analysis is complete, this what makes the previous part important, if the analysis is wrong, it can pushy the investigation in the wrong track. The primary step that has to be conducted by me is to create a response plan, which would help me to identify the complete nature of every response. Apart from that, it also helps individuals to understand their respected responsibilities. In case I try to work in a group I need to distribute the responsibilities to my various team members. Once the whole team is on the same page about what type of response has to be conducted the implementation of this particular process takes place. I have to identify which action is best suited for this particular scenario. I identify the offender to be very dangerous, I would seek the honorable court to provide the individual with the maximum punishment also, I would make sure that there are some conditions attached while granting parole or probations (US Department of Justice, n.d.). In this particular scenario, I would majorly focus on monitoring the activities of the potential criminals, I would create a hotline for only problems associated with the issue in hand. Also, if I identify that particular material is required for the completion of the criminal activity, I would ask the seller to stop selling the product and at the same time ask for the list of all the buyers or the potential buyers for the particular product

Conclusion on Reduction of Residential Burglary Victimization

I would like to make my community more self -reliant, rather than being majorly dependent on me, I would like to teach them multiple skills that can help in the case of crisis. For example; teach the listeners about how they can help to capture a drug lord or a mafia.

I should identify whether or not there is a chronology in the way these criminals operate. Along with this, it is also important to understand what the actions that were completed during the investigation and what were the actions that still needed some improvements that could have helped me in the long run to solve the given problem (Dario, 2016). I must identify whether or not my actions were enough to resolve the problem at hand. Also, I need to understand were my response action was in par with the response plan that was created previously. Also, this particular step will help me to identify whether the resources were able to provide me the results I was aiming for. Because of all these steps, the assessment phase is said to include the process evaluation component as well as the impact evaluation component.

References for Reduction of Residential Burglary Victimization

Bogar, Joop Van den, Wiegman, and Oene, (1991). Journal of Social Behaviour and Personality. Property Crime Victimization: The Effectiveness of Police Service for Victims of Residential Burglary. 6 (6) pp: 329.

Brown, B. B., & Harris, P. B. (1987). Journal of Environmental Psychology. Residential burglary victimization: Reaction to the invasion of a primary territory. 9(2) pp: 119-132.

Burton, S., & McGregor, M. (2018). Enhancing SARA: a new approach in an increasingly complex world. Crime Science, 7(1), 4.

Dario, L. M. (2016). Crime at Convenience Stores: Assessing an In-Depth Problem-Oriented Policing Initiative (Doctoral dissertation, Arizona State University).

Graham, F., and Ken, P. (2006). Preventing repeat Residential Burglary. Springer, Dordrecht. pp: 161-176

Graham. F., (1992). Multiple Victimisation: Its Extent and Significance. International Review of Victimology. Retrieved from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/026975809200200201

Johnson, Bernasco, Bowers, Elffers, et al., (2007). Journal of Quantitative Criminology. Space-Time Patterns of Risk: A Cross-National Assessment of Residential Burglary Victimization. 23. Pp: 201-219.

Maguire, E. R., Uchida, C. D., & Hassell, K. D. (2015). Problem-oriented policing in Colorado Springs: A content analysis of 753 cases. Crime & Delinquency, 61(1), 71-95.

National Institute of Justice. (2020). Problem-Oriented Policing. Retrieved from.https://www.crimesolutions.gov/PracticeDetails.aspx?ID=32

Rountree, P. W., & Land, K. C. (1996). Burglary victimization, perceptions of a crime risk, and routine activities: A multilevel analysis across Seattle neighborhoods and census tracts. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, 33(2), 147-180.

Sidebottom, A. Et al. (2020). Successful police were problem-solving: a practice guide.

Stokes, N.& Clare, J.,(2019). Security Journal. Preventing near-repeat residential burglary through cocooning: post hoc evaluation of a targeted policy-led pilot intervention. 32, pp: 45-62 Tribal Oriented Policing Strategies. (n.d.). S. A. R. A. Model. Retrieved from. https://ncjtc-static.fvtc.edu/Resources/RS00002738.pdf

US Department of Justice. (n.d.). Changing course. Retrieved from. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/243468.pdf

Walker, J. T., &Drawve, G. R. (2018). Problem identification. In Foundations of Crime Analysis (pp. 62-74). Routledge.

Weisburd and Eck, (2004). The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. What Can Police Do to Reduce Crime, Disorder, and Fear? Retrieved from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0002716203262548

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