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This case study is about a public health event of HIV. The three stakeholders selected for the assessment are local government, health experts, and media. Stakeholders in a public health event are those individuals or the associations that invest in public health event and are concerned with the outcomes of the estimation and the risk associated with that. Representing their interests and requirements throughout the whole procedure is the primary to a high-quality program evaluation (Brousselle et al. 2018). According to a study by Auvinen, (2017), in order to obtain an efficient and optimal outcome of event, collaborating with internal as well as external stakeholders is required. Significant steps for the unyielding work process and results recognition of the key stakeholders are essential. Government regulations, health care providers, public, patients, and suppliers serve as stakeholders in health campaigns. These stakeholders help in establishing the framework with the help of which the healthcare strategies that has to be discussed in the event has to be delivered. They collectively operationalize the strategies for preventive care, if referred to the case scenario the strategies for preventive care regarding the spread of HIV and for the services of care delivery (Elbanna et al. 2019).
The major role is played by the government regulations in healthcare services by funding and releasing different programs on account of this. Stakeholders work as a support system for the conduct of the event either it is about funding, marketing, or execution of the plan. The local government involve in program operations of the event such as management, partnership, programming staff, and funding. Public health events are one of the utmost things where government invests. However, early preventive measures that are promoted by these events that are comparatively inexpensive can help in preventing the calamitous and expensive health issues later in the course of life. The key roles that the local government plays are city planning, health in policies, and education. Contribution of local government in a public health event derives from overcoming the challenges of social determinants of health.
This includes living conditions, safe drinking water, nutrition, sanitation, social security measures, early child development, and education (Reddy, 2016). By overcoming these determinants, local government will help in promoting the health equity. For a public health event there is always some funding from the national government and bifurcating that funds into the different sections of the event also comes under the work of the local government. Local government also helps in harmonizing the whole event by prioritizing the communities and their health-related problems and for informing the local decision making. However, certain public health laboratories entail high-quality capacity for supporting the diagnostic and research activities of the local government regarding the health risks and the potential threats, but, they have not been utilized efficiently (Maguire, 2019). So, the reinforcement of the regulation of public health via rigorous efforts by the local government could be done. This is possible by updating and implementing the public health laws, conferring with the stakeholders, along with increasing the spreading of public health awareness in these events.
The health experts play a central as well as a critical role in a public health event as monitoring of access along with the quality health care for individuals came for the event. They help in providing indispensable services that can potentially help in promoting the health, preventing of the diseases, and delivering the health care services to persons, their family members, and communities that should be based on the approaches of primary health care. Health experts support the global health initiatives by mapping the regional and international health professional networks in the events. The maintenance and development of the professional competences at the event’s place is also be done by the health. Involvement of health experts in a public health event helps in spreading the knowledge and the significance of the precautious measures regarding the health issue that is being discussed in the scenario (Beidas et al. 2016).
While the media plays a plethora of roles in a public health event as by the means of media educating public regarding the health issues gets quite easy (Austhof et al. 2020). Media is responsible in reporting an accurate health status and the related science information to the public. Moreover, the most beneficial thing an even can get by collaborating with media is gaining the consideration of explicit opinion leaders. This includes politicians, corporate executives, community leaders, and governmental regulators, etc. Printing and broadcasting the news media outlets, Internet, and entertainment televisions comprise enormously leading channels that helps in promoting a health event and gaining more attendees as we can reach the maximum number of target audience could gather the information regarding the health event via media. Media also helps in fostering and participating in the informal and formal interfaces. The media plays a vital role in promoting and framing the public health event. Stakeholders in a health event play various roles with respect to the others and each of them has a different perspective on the involved care system and the event, therefore, various information is needed. The informal interfaces helps in building the professional connections and contact points while the formal interfaces helps in getting fellowships and some other cross-training for public health experts and the media as well and this could turn into the event be held at a large scale (Austhof et al. 2020).
Risk could be defined as the possibility of the occurrence of an undesirable situation, event, or condition. The potential risk for the local government could be the funding; there are chances of getting failed in organizing a public health event if appropriate funding is not gathered. While, in case of health experts the possible risks could be the attendees from the diverse community as making them understand the goal of the event and the other aspects could get difficult. However, there are also ways to overcome these risk factors (Rehaag and Ehlen,2018). On the other hand, the risks faced by media are the reporting of accurate information in order to maintain the credibility and to promote the event in such an effective way that it reaches the maximum target audience. Overcoming all these risks results in the successful outrage of the event and will help in achieving the goal by getting the optimal outcome from the event. However, the risk management could be envisaged mostly as a management effort for the proactive pre-crisis where it is organized for preventing and preparing the efforts for the crisis.
The risk management get widens into the intact continuum management of the crisis, as the crises can further generate new types of risks with their linked stakeholders. The associations must repeatedly try to recognize, manage, and communicate the possible risks to key stakeholders during various phases of the crisis management until the event is not organized. The orientation of the stakeholder demands that the associations seek and engross the risk stakeholders in the process of the risk management. The height of the participation depends on both the identified risks as well as how the stakeholders are supposed to get exaggerated by the anticipated solutions and the processes of decision-making. Health crises entail several stakeholders and thus voices. Health crises and the risks in a health event that signifies the extremely complicated dynamics of the stakeholders occupies various levels within the national as well as international system of health chain (Trump et al, 2017).
Stakeholders play a significant role in the evaluation of all the factors involved in public health event even before it is conducted. There are many public health efforts that are quite complicated and because of these public health agencies there are various layers that have been removed from the forefront implementation. Stakeholders play an important role in ensuring that the appropriate analysis questions are recognized and that results of the analysis should make a difference in terms of health outcomes in the health event. Stakeholders also support the assessment and work efficiently on the outcomes as well as the recommendations if there are any concerned in the process of that assessment. On the contrary, if the stakeholder support is not there, the assessment of the health event could get ignored, resisted, criticized, or even disrupted (Steffen, 2020).
All of the three stakeholders play a common role in increasing the credibility of the event, advocating for or authorizing the changes concerned with the event that have been recommended during the assessment. The stakeholders are also responsible for the regular accomplishment of the actions that have been the part of the public health event. Funding or authorizing the prolongation or the expansion of the event is also under the control of these stakeholders except the media as media does not take part in funding but it helps in promoting and getting the leads that can provide funds for the event. The initial network of stakeholder helps in the further analysis and decision making of public health events. This includes the perceptions, primary and secondary interests, political tactics, and impact of stakeholders (Beidas et al. 2016). Such an analysis could go beyond the scope of the event but it would be relevant and helpful for public-health decision-making.
Unambiguously addressing the concerns of the stakeholder, by the involvement of stakeholders in some of the cases helps in the process of governance of the risk. This could be possibly help in preventing the high costs from the unnecessary research, regulations, and the political damage. With the help of productive dialogue, it has been supposed to sustain the growth and expansion of the action perspectives along with increasing the reliance among the stakeholders. While on the other hand, public perceptions in the assessment of risk take quite a long time and thus, the management must be done with vigilance in order to avoid the exploitation of the process or the perception (Mitchell, Lee and Agle, 2017).
All stakeholders that have been involved in the lessening of the possible risk that may occur during the event need a mode for communicating with their stakeholders regarding the current and the possible developing risks that could occur. However, the health risk communication could be considered as a communication with the public who are attending the event could potentially have impact on the health threats along with this, it has the potential to effectively manage a wide array of health threats, such as HIV/AIDS. This involves the exchange of information regarding the possible health risks that could be caused by industrial, environmental, or agricultural processes (Willis et al, 2017).
The position of the local government as a stakeholder is primary as all the money and funds related matters are dealt by the local government in case of a public health event. The health experts are also the primary stakeholders as they are the one who are implementing the strategies to achieve the goal of the event. While, the media act as a mediator between the target audience and the organizers. Among them, the local government and the health experts as stakeholders are the actors while the media is the bystander. This is so, because the local government and the health experts are directly giving their input into the event, while the media is working as a bystander by being a mediator and promoting the event.
Austhof, E., Berisha, V., McMahan, B., Owen, G., Keith, L., Roach, M., and Brown, H.E. 2020. Participation and Engagement of Public Health Stakeholders in Climate and Health Adaptation. Atmosphere, 11, pp. 265.
Auvinen, A. M. 2017. Understanding the stakeholders as a success factor for effective occupational Health care, occupational health. Orhan Korhan: IntechOpen.
Beidas, R.S., et al. 2016. A multi-level examination of stakeholder perspectives of implementation of evidence-based practices in a large urban publicly-funded mental health system. Administration of Policy and Mental Health , 43, pp. 893–908. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10488-015-0705-2
Brousselle, A., Contandriopoulos, D., Haggerty, J., Breton, M., Rivard, M., Beaulieu, M. D., Champagne, G., and Perroux, M. 2018. Stakeholder views on solutions to improve health system performance. Healthcare Policy, Politiques de Sante, 14(1), pp. 71–85. https://doi.org/10.12927/hcpol.2018.25547
Elbanna, A., Bunker, D., Levine, L., and Sleigh, A. 2019. Emergency management in the changing world of social media: Framing the research agenda with the stakeholders through engaged scholarship. International Journal of Information Management, 47, 112-120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2019.01.011
Maguire, K. 2019. Examining the power role of Local Authorities in planning for socio-economic event impacts. Sage Journals, 34(7). https://doi.org/10.1177/0269094219889603
Trump B.D. et al. 2017 Social Resilience and Critical Infrastructure Systems. In: Linkov I., Palma-Oliveira J. (eds) Resilience and Risk. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-024-1123-2_9
Reddy, P. S. 2016. Localising the sustainable development goals (SDGs) : The role of local government in context. African Journal of Public Affairs, 9(2). http://hdl.handle.net/2263/58190
Rehaag, R., and Ehlen, S. 2018. Nutrition as a resource for networked community based health promotion for children-perspectives of parents and experts. Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz, 61(10), 1242–1251. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00103-018-2810-3
Steffen, N. 2020. The Role of Stakeholder Sentiment in Strategic Decision-Making: a Behavioral Perspective. Universite de Geneve. doi: 10.13097/archive-ouverte/unige:137284
Mitchell, R.K., Lee, J.H. and Agle, B.R. 2017. Stakeholder Prioritization Work: The Role of Stakeholder Salience in Stakeholder Research, Stakeholder Management, Emerald Publishing Limited, pp. 123-157. https://doi.org/10.1108/S2514-175920170000006
Willis, C., Girdler, S., Thompson, M., Rosenberg, M., Reid, S., and Elliott, C. 2017. Elements contributing to meaningful participation for children and youth with disabilities: a scoping review. Disability and Rehabilitation, 39(17), 1771–1784. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2016.1207716
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