Erikson claimed personality develops in a fixed sequence through eight stages of psychosocial development, from birth to adulthood. During each point, the individual faces a psychosocial crisis which may have a significant impact on personality growth. For Erikson, these problems are psychosocial because they contain individual (i.e., psycho) emotional benefits that clash with societal (i.e., social) needs. Proper accomplishment of each stage results, according to the theory, in the creation of vital values and a positive personality (Syed, & McLean, 2017). Basic virtues are important attributes which the ego may use in resolving subsequent crises. Failure to complete a stage can lead to decreased efforts to execute further stage and thus a more unstable attitude and loss of self. Such stages can however be completed at a later date.
Building on Erikson's theory, psychology has re-conceptualized how the different phases of life are viewed. Because Erikson no longer considers middle and late adulthood to be meaningless, they are now seen as active and critical stages of self-improvement. Erikson 's argument has firm facial credibility. Yet Erikson's is somewhat vague regarding the origins of formation (Kerpelman, & Pittman, 2018). Which kind of relationship requires people to successfully solve various psychosocial challenges and shift from one stage to the next. A fundamental method to solve crises is missing to the concept. Erikson (1964) however acknowledges that his concept is more of a descriptive explanation of human emotional and social development that does not completely explain how or why this development takes place. For example, Erikson doesn't explicitly explain how the influence of one psychosocial process influences behavior at a later point. (Syed, & McLean, 2016).
Bronfenbrenner argued that everything in their immediate atmosphere influenced a person's growth. He divided the world of the individual into five distinct levels: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem. This method aims at the child's development and the relationship framework that forms the world within it (Tudge, & Rosa, 2019). The role of factors in the infant's evolving biology, his immediate family/community environment, and the social context drives and directs his development (Perron, 2017). Alterations or conflicts can spill over into anyone layer from other layers. Bronfenbrenner considers the instability and randomness of family life as the most destructive factor for a child's development that we have allowed to build up our society (Addison, 1992). Children won't have the normal mutual contact with the appropriate adults needed for development. When the relations within the particular microsystem disintegrate, as per the ecological theory, the child does not have the opportunities to explore certain areas of his environment (Eriksson, Ghazinour, & Hammarström, 2018). Kids seek out the approvals that should be present in the child/parent (or child / another significant adult) relationships in an unreasonable way, seek validation.
Both of the theories that is Erikson s Psychological theory and Bronfenbrenner s Ecological theory deals with the developmental stages in the chid. The theories believed that a child development must build a primary relationship with someone who can help the child in influence the essential virtues and a balanced personality. The stages in Erikson theory and the distinct level of the atmosphere in the Bronfenbrenner s Ecological theory defines that the initial ages of the child's life have to be fostered by an adult who can give good values to the child. Although teachers and schools play an essential secondary role, they can not provide the depth of interaction that primary adult could provide (Bugajska, 2017). Both theories have discussed the phycological crisis a child can go in the various stages of the development.
The psychological needs will come into conflict with society's needs, and the educational system will play a crucial role and the main function is to help our culture continue to ignore the real problem. Failing to achieve a stage from the Erikson s Psychological theory successfully may result in a decreased ability to accomplish further stage and thus a more dysfunctional attitude and sense of identity. The same thing was explained in Bronfenbrenner s Ecological theory that the complex environmental "layers," affect the development of a child (Robinson, Demetre, & Litman, 2017). Any kind of changes or problems in the layers defined in the theory will spill all over other layers and will affect the child directly. The theories of Bronfenbrenner and Erikson agree that we must foster social behaviors that value work performed on behalf of a child at all levels: parents, teachers, relatives, supervisors, job managers, policymakers.
Erickson's theory mainly focuses on the personality development of an individual that is described in eight different stages of human development. The second theory is Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory that is more advanced because Urie Bronfenbrenner offered this comprehensive theory by adding different contexts to the existing theory of Erickson's theory and others like Piaget theory and Freud's theory. Bronfenbrenner explained the human development based on different factors that directly and indirectly influences their development (Perron, 2017). The major difference between the two theories is that Erickson's theory is an expansion of Freud's theory whereas Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory is the expansion of all the existing theories by adding different contexts to the same. Erickson has explained in his theory that the personality development of an individual is largely based on the relationship and the society's expectations with the individuals. Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory states that how society interprets the situation has a major role to play in individual development.
Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory explains five major systems that directly and indirectly have a role to play in the development of an individual that starts right from their childhood. Out of these five systems, the microsystem impacts the child directly and the mesosystem indirectly impacts the child (Vélez-Agosto et al., 2017). Erickson's psychosocial theory explains eight stages of human development. The major difference lies here that is Erickson's theory explains the stages of human development whereas Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory explains the factors that impact child development either directly or indirectly. Erickson's theory explains the development right from infant stage to the late adulthood stage and these stages form a foundation for the emotional and social development of an individual in their lifetime (Celik & Ergun, 2016). he has addressed the entire lifespan and supports the child's social and emotional development. Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory mainly emphasizes on the overall development of an individual based on the cultural values and beliefs that have a larger role to play in forming the institutions that ultimately impacts the individual development.
He emphasizes looking at the factors that indirectly impacts the child development that demands a response. According to him, the people who are associated with the children's lives plays a major role in shaping the development of children, and also their place of living has an impact on their development. The way of theory presentation of both Erickson and Bronfenbrenner is completely different as one focuses on the stages of development whereas others focused on the interactions of the child that impacts his/ her development.
Bugajska, B. E. (2017). The ninth stage in the cycle of life–reflections on EH Erikson's theory. Ageing & Society, 37(6), 1095-1110.
Çelik, B., & Ergün, E. (2016). An integrated approach of Erikson’s psychosocial theory and adlerian counseling. The International Journal of Human and Behavioral Science, 2(1), 20-26.
Eriksson, M., Ghazinour, M., & Hammarström, A. (2018). Different uses of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory in public mental health research: what is their value for guiding public mental health policy and practice?. Social Theory & Health, 16(4), 414-433.
Kerpelman, J. L., & Pittman, J. F. (2018). Erikson and the relational context of identity: Strengthening connections with attachment theory. Identity, 18(4), 306-314.
Perron, N. C. (2017). Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory. College student development: Applying theory to practice on the diverse campus, 197.
Perron, N. C. (2017). Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory. College Student Development: Applying Theory To Practice On The Diverse Campus, 197.
Robinson, O. C., Demetre, J. D., & Litman, J. A. (2017). Adult life stage and crisis as predictors of curiosity and authenticity: Testing inferences from Erikson’s lifespan theory. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 41(3), 426-431.
Syed, M., & McLean, K. C. (2016). Understanding identity integration: Theoretical, methodological, and applied issues. Journal of adolescence, 47, 109-118.
Syed, M., & McLean, K. C. (2017). Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development.
Tudge, J., & Rosa, E. M. (2019). Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory. The Encyclopedia of Child and Adolescent Development, 1-11.
Vélez-Agosto, N. M., Soto-Crespo, J. G., Vizcarrondo-Oppenheimer, M., Vega-Molina, S., & García Coll, C. (2017). Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological theory revision: Moving culture from the macro into the micro. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12(5), 900-910.
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