Project Management Fundamentals

Introduction to Project Management Fundamentals

The Three Gorges Dam is a hydroelectric gravity dam built on the Yangtze tributaries in China. The construction of the dam body was completed in 2006 and it has been the world’s largest power station in terms of installed capacity since 2012.

The dam in conjunction with the other dams similarly built on the Yangtze tributary is supposed to:

  • Become the major provider of electrical power to most areas of China
  • Become instrumental in flood control within a 1000km radius from the dam site for the geographic region of the Yangtze river
  • Act as a route for large vessels that travel from sea to the city of Chongqing and all centers en-route
  • Provide water to the Yellow river region
  • Help in irrigation
  • Provide a modern way of lifestyle to citizens within a 1000 km radius of the dam by insulating them from the historical natural disasters and providing a better environment.

As the world's biggest hydropower station, and the biggest hydropower venture in China's history, the Three Gorges Dam has a most extreme force limit of 2.25 billion kilowatt-hours. It took 17 years to build and had speculation of 200 billion yuan ($30 billion). The Three Gorges Dam is a solid gravity dam, which implies it is solidified by its weight. A few profoundly heightened recreation impacts were set off at the dam to show that ordinary weapons can't harm it and that it can even oppose an assault from a low-yield atomic weapon.

Reason for Project Management Fundamentals

A monetary effect is that the neighborhood fishing industry has been influenced – As studied by Hua, D (2014) the development of the dam forestalls the 300 unique types of fish which are found in the Yangtze River from generating upstream, in this manner lessening populace estimates and diminishing the quantity of fish that can be sold by nearby anglers.

One of the fundamental social effects was that because of the development of the dam, more than 100 close by towns must be lowered, prompting the automatic movement of 1.3 million individuals. The greater part of the individuals who have must be migrated are poor and uneducated and get by from working in the horticultural segment, as there was a lot of prolific soil in the regions encompassing the Yangtze River. Because of this migration of the nearby populace, their business openings and expectations for everyday comforts have gotten more unsteady, for instance, if they are compelled to move to a town where the cost of lodging is more costly than what they are utilized to.

Natural effects have likewise been critical. The making of the dam has prompted the danger and eradication of a few plant and creature species. The Three Gorges district has been considered to have a lot of biodiversity, in any case, because of the expansion of sea vessels going through the waterway, numerous sea-going creatures have been executed because of wounds from impacts and commotion unsettling influences. There have additionally been issues with contamination. The Yangtze River is now dirtied from the delivery of coal and being situated close to modern action, in any case, poisons from towns and waste dumps that have been overflowed have added to the intensifying water nature of the stream.

Article Review: The Three Gorges Dam Project from A Systems Viewpoint (Alberts, Henry C. 2004.)

The article raises the valid alarm on various factors that includes Effects on relocation and the environment, Human factor considerations and Mental health effects, and, Losses of Archeological and Historical sites Yangtze River to ascend to 135 meters in 2003 and to175 meters in 2009, that is, to free a land zone from 632 square kilometers and to resettle an enormous number of individuals. Originally, 844,000 people were focused on resettlement. It is normal that this number could develop to 1.2 million individuals before the venture reaches a conclusion. The two ranchers and city tenants are currently living on the land that will be lowered when the dam turns out to be completely utilitarian. Dr. Mama Xiang is the individual accountable for migration in the store territory. Dr. Mama Xiang's depiction gave us some understanding of how the movement and ecological cleaning endeavors are really carried on in a constrained region. Dr. Mama Xiang identified three degrees of oversight engaged with the Relocation Plan and the Environment Cleaning Program. When the water level of the store rises, the loss of archeological locales and landmarks extend. These incorporate archeological locales dating as far back as the Paleolithic Age, fossil remains, models, sanctuaries, familial entombment gatherings, and old towns.

Article Review:The Short-Term Impact of Involuntary Migration in China’s Three Gorges: A Prospective Study (Hwang, Sean-Shong et al 2011).

This article has done a definite report and talked about different angles. One of the most significant inquiries regarding the venture is how it may influence the lives of more than one million Chinese who have been compelled to move. This inquiry is significant not just because the prosperity of a phenomenal number of automatic travelers are in question, yet additionally because of its scientific worth and its strategy ramifications for future formative undertakings in China and somewhere else. As far as the effect of the undertaking on individuals who have been compelled to move, their findings indicated that regardless of the administration's blushing vows to the uprooted, huge numbers of the quantifiable effects were negative. Aside from some observable improvement in day to day environments, the majority of the markers of prosperity they remembered for this investigation pointed a negative way. Their findings relating to travelers' general appraisal of the relocation experience likewise demonstrate an unavoidable negative assessment about the procedure and that such negative estimation has developed instead of subsided after some time. At the end of the day, pre-relocation conditions have frequently been painted in shading as indicated by the achievement or disappointment of the post-movement alterations.

Article Review:Three Gorges Project: Effects of Resettlement on Nutrient Balance of The Agroecosystems in The Reservoir Area (Tan, Yan & Yao, Fajun. 2006).

The ramifications of removal and resettlement for ecological supportability in the repository district is a significant issue of focal worry to policymakers. While this natural issue is by all accounts brought about by expanded supplements (particularly N and P) contained in groundwater, the basic elements bringing about a fast increment in supplement loadings in the agroecosystems in the TGRA are entangled. This examination utilized the OECD 'Soil Surface Nitrogen Balance Model', with modifications, to assess net aggregate and the normal change in soil nitrogen and phosphorous loadings in the agroecosystems of the TGRA. The demonstrating results show a solid relationship between the quick development and spatial grouping of supplements in the agroecosystems and the procedure of 'close to resettlement' of more than 1 million individuals uprooted by the TGP. Resettling dislodged individuals in neighborhood networks is a significant supporter of the expanded aggregate sum and lopsided dissemination (or convergence) of the supplement equalization of nitrogen and phosphorous in the agroecosystems in the store region. This has been especially reflected in the expanding excess of soil surface nitrogen and phosphorous since 2000. The system for the spatial and worldly change in supplements of the agroecosystems is perplexing as rustic resettlement can influence such change from assorted angles. The principle angles incorporate diminished farmland because of supply immersion, expanded interest for farmland to resettle uprooted provincial inhabitants in the resettlement networks, and rural creation modes.

Article Review(Kuo, A 1998).

At present, the discussion about huge dams has been changed from a neighborhood procedure of surveying expenses and advantages to one in which dams, as a rule, are the focal point of worldwide worry about advancement techniques and decisions. The choice to manufacture an enormous dam is once in a while just a nearby or national one. Rivals, when all is said in done, have spoken to worldwide supposition, and restriction has now developed into a worldwide discussion about enormous dams: their effect on neighboring networks, vocations and biological systems, and whether they speak to the best speculation of open assets and assets. Presently, Three Gorge Project is the most disputable dam on the planet, since it is the task's ecological and social effect that has been the fundamental subject of discussion and in light of the fact that it is the huge size of the undertaking that has pulled in such broad universal consideration. The Three Gorges Project as well as other enormous dams are under analysis. As the time passes, migration of individuals is an especially dubious inquiry; worldwide concerns are constantly centered around the human privileges of minorities or little gatherings, which is as yet a clashing origination between the created and creating the world, paying little mind to a reality that every nation has its ideas of reasonableness and norms of compensation.

Critical Review and Evaluation of Project Management Fundamentals

It is commonly acknowledged that enormous dams have natural and social focal points and detriments, so sometimes, the weighing of advantages against misfortunes is troublesome. One of the most significant reasons is that there is no bound together equation, which can answer when placing them to be decided. Initially, on account of water misuse improvement, there is a solid moral tradeoff between created nations and creating nations. As of now, in many creating nations hydropower potential is immense, despite what might be expected, an enormous portion of the conceivably reasonable destinations have just been abused in evolved nations; another reality is that resistance to huge dams has risen incredibly because of social-natural effects, generally drove by the created world. Thusly, the moral worth or rules set forward by the created world is hard to be acknowledged absolutely by the creating scene (Muhammad and Olli, 2003). Besides, it is difficult to figure bound together rules on the planet because each region has its own formative, monetary, natural, and social needs and its way of life and worth framework.

Thirdly, the assorted variety of hydropower ventures in size and nature separates it from most other power creation advancements. (Klimpt et al., 2002; Oud, 2002) When confronting the troubles in adjusting benefits against impacts, expanded worldwide discussion, and weight, just as an open restriction, strategy producers will discover them in an abnormal quandary—if the enormous dams are removed, power requests won't be decreased. Any undertaking, regardless of whether fossil-energized or driven by wind, sun based, or hydro vitality, may demonstrate wrong on the off chance that it forces on touchy biological territories. In another word, each wellspring of vitality influences nature, society, and economy here and there; none is great. Indeed, even a sustainable power source has impacts on the earth and society, for example, commotion, visual interruption, land occupation, and so forth.

Recommendation on Project Management Fundamentals

The three Georges dam could have adopted Balanced Scorecards strategy for creating the “Strategic Management System”.

This plan would have provided a more balanced approach to looking at performance both tactical and strategical. The plan would have helped:

  • To convert Visions and strategies into actionable terms, to mitigate the risk and loss due to forced migration of peoples.
  • To link strategic priorities to the departmental, team, and individual goals. It involves more sentimental planning to avoid large protests from dissenting parties.
  • To link resource allocation to strategic priorities. Reallocation of the people who got affected due to forced evacuation, the project management team should have been planned much before the project comes in motion. Their survival issues as they lost jobs and farming prospects. The irrevocable damage to the ecological system and Heritage in the vicinity of banks of the River Yangtze.

Process of Project Integration is also one of the best available project plans which develop intellectual thinking and understanding the risks involved in project management. This helps to take the calculative initiative step to know the potholes and to mitigate the risk and loss attached in a possible better way. The process of Project Integration involves the following steps:

  • Develop Project Charter: Bylaws help a lot in the long run. it ensures the sustainability of the project at the time of ambiguity
  • Direct and manage project work: Supervision is the most important factor for any project.
  • Monitor and control project work: monitoring is a vital role to be played by experienced and skilled personnel.

The three Georges dam projects failed to implement the proper Project Integration Process which result in chaos between the people who got affected by the project and Natural habitat as many endangered species got exposed. The historical and cultural heritage lost under the previous water of the dam

Conclusion on Project Management Fundamentals

The Three Gorges dam is an inspirational project built on the longest river in Asia. It has been instrumental in the development of China like providing hydroelectricity, irrigation water, waterways for large vessels, and solutions to floods in the region. Weighing these benefits are the lacunae in the project execution like displacing a large population from the area, loss of flora and fauna of the region due to flooding, loss of livelihood of people who survived on agriculture and fishing in the region. This case should become a benchmark in the design and execution of such mega projects in the future.

References for Project Management Fundamentals

Alberts, H. et al. 2004. The Three Gorges Dam Project from a systems viewpoint. Systems Research and Behavioral Science. Vol 21, Pp 585 – 602, 10.1002/sres.604.

Hua, D. 2014. Case teaching notes for A Struggle for Power in China: The Three Gorges Dam. National center for case study teaching in science. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273059442_CASE_TEACHING_NOTES_for_A_Struggle_for_Power_in_China_The_Three_Gorges_Dam

Hsu, H, Ma, K and Ho, WC. 2019. 'Forced Migration and Political Functions of the Three Gorges Project in China: A Critical Review. Journal of Comparative Asian Development. Vol. 17, no. 2, Pp. 62-77. Available at: https://www.scopus.com/record/display.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85078929710&origin=recordpage

Hwang, Sean-Shong ,Cao, Yue and Xi, Juan. 2011. The Short-Term Impact of Involuntary Migration in China’s Three Gorges: A Prospective Study. Social Indicators Research. Vol. 101, Pp 73-92. 10.1007/s11205-010-9636-1.

Klimpt, J.E. et al. 2002. Recommendations for sustainable hydroelectric development. Energy Policy. Vol. 30, Pp. 1305-1312. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-4215(02)00092-7

KUO, A. 1998. Breaking the Wall: China and the Three Gorges Dam. Harvard International Review, 20(3). Pp 28-31. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/42764001

Tan, Yan and Yao, Fajun. 2006. Three Gorges Project: Effects of Resettlement on the Environment in the Reservoir Area and Countermeasures. Population and Environment. Vol 27. Pp 351-371. 10.1007/s11111-006-0027-0.

Muhammad M. Rahaman and Olli Varis. 2003. The ethics of water: some realities and future challenges. http://www.water.hut.fi/pdl/Publication_3.pdf.

Oud, E. 2002. The evolving context for hydropower development. Energy Policy. Vol 30. Pp 1215-1223. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-4215(02)00082-4

Xu, X. et al. 2011. Three Gorges Project: effects of resettlement on nutrient balance of the agroecosystems in the reservoir area. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management. Vol 54. Pp 517-537. 10.1080/09640568.2010.518712.

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Project Management Assignment Help

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